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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549292/globally-supported-radial-basis-function-based-collocation-method-for-evolution-of-level-set-in-mass-segmentation-using-mammograms
#1
Kanchan Lata Kashyap, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Pritee Khanna
Computer-aided detection systems play an important role for the detection of breast abnormalities using mammograms. Global segmentation of mass in mammograms is a complex process due to low contrast mammogram images, irregular shape of mass, speculated margins, and the presence of intensity variations of pixels. This work presents a new approach for mass detection in mammograms, which is based on the variational level set function. Mesh-free based radial basis function (RBF) collocation approach is employed for the evolution of level set function for segmentation of breast as well as suspicious mass region...
May 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548972/assessment-of-adult-malnutrition-and-prognosis-with-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-phase-angle-and-impedance-ratio
#2
Henry C Lukaski, Ursula G Kyle, Jens Kondrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548903/microenvironment-of-a-tumor-organoid-system-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy-related-hallmarks
#3
Yang Wang, Kazuki Takeishi, Zhao Li, Eduardo Cervantes-Alvarez, Alexandra Collin de l'Hortet, Jorge Guzman-Lepe, Xiao Cui, Jiye Zhu
Organ-like microenviroment and 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture conformations have been suggested as promising approaches to mimic in a micro-scale a whole organ cellular functions and interactions present in vivo. We have used this approach to examine biologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we demonstrate that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can generate organoid-like spheroids that enhanced numerous features of human HCC observed in vivo...
May 26, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548897/evening-light-exposure-to-computer-screens-disrupts-human-sleep-biological-rhythms-and-attention-abilities
#4
A Green, M Cohen-Zion, A Haim, Y Dagan
The use of electronic devices with light-emitting screens has increased exponentially in the last decade. As a result, humans are almost continuously exposed to unintentional artificial light. We explored the independent and combined effects of two aspects of screen illumination, light wavelength, and intensity, on sleep, its biological regulation, and related functional outcomes. The 2 × 2 repeated-measure design included two independent variables: screen light intensity (low ([LI] versus high [HI]) and wavelength (short [SWL] versus long [LWL])...
May 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548675/inducible-bcl-2-gene-rna-interference-mediated-by-aptamer-integrated-hdv-ribozyme-switch
#5
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jine Wang, Hui Cheng, Na Sun, Min Liu, Zhengyan Wu, Renjun Pei
The regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) could be a powerful method for the study of temporal and dose dependent effects of gene expression. In this study, we designed the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer as the sensor domain and the pri-miRNA of endogenous gene Bcl-2 as the effector domain to engineer an RNAi-regulatory device in MCF-7 cells. The system allowed us to control gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in a dose dependent fashion...
May 26, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547816/three-component-aminoalkylations-yielding-dihydronaphthoxazine-based-sirtuin-inhibitors-scaffold-modification-and-exploration-of-space-for-polar-side-chains
#6
Steffen Vojacek, Katja Beese, Zayan Alhalabi, Sören Swyter, Anja Bodtke, Carola Schulzke, Manfred Jung, Wolfgang Sippl, Andreas Link
Nonpolar derivatives of heterocyclic aromatic screening hits like the non-selective sirtuin inhibitor splitomicin tend to be poorly soluble in biological fluids. Unlike sp(3) -rich natural products, flat aromatic compounds are prone to stacking and often difficult to optimize into leads with activity in cellular systems. The aim of this work was to identify anchor points for the introduction of sp(3) -rich fragments with polar functional groups into the newly discovered active (IC50  = 5 μM) but nonpolar scaffold 1,2-dihydro-3H-naphth[1,2-e][1,3]oxazine-3-thione by a molecular modeling approach...
May 26, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547797/vitamin-d-receptor-agonists-regulate-ocular-developmental-angiogenesis-and-modulate-expression-of-dre-mir-21-and-vegf
#7
Stephanie L Merrigan, Breandán N Kennedy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathological growth of ocular vasculature networks can underpin visual impairment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Our aim was to uncover novel pharmacological regulators of ocular angiogenesis by phenotype-based screening in zebrafish. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A bioactive chemical library of 465 drugs was screened to identify small molecule inhibitors of ocular hyaloid vasculature (HV) angiogenesis in zebrafish larvae...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547270/comparison-of-single-versus-multicenter-outcomes-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-repair-using-a-mesh-capturing-device
#8
Edward Morcos, Daniel Altman, Daniel Hunde, Christian Falconer
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare the results of pelvic organ prolapse repair using a capturing device-guided transvaginal mesh in a single- vs multicenter setting. METHODS: One hundred and twelve women operated by two surgeons at one center (2-year follow-up) were compared with 207 women operated on by 26 surgeons at 24 centers (1-year follow-up). Patients were screened at baseline for apical (uterine or vaginal vault) prolapse stage II with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse ≥ stage 2 according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system...
May 25, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546555/peptide-specific-engagement-of-the-activating-nk-cell-receptor-kir2ds1
#9
Anaïs Chapel, Wilfredo F Garcia-Beltran, Angelique Hölzemer, Maja Ziegler, Sebastian Lunemann, Gloria Martrus, Marcus Altfeld
The activating NK cell receptor KIR2DS1 has been shown to be involved in many disorders including autoimmune diseases, malignancies and pregnancy outcomes. However, the precise ligands and functions of this receptor remain unclear. We aimed to gain a better understanding of the factors involved in the binding of KIR2DS1 and its inhibitory counterpart KIR2DL1 to HLA class I molecules, and the consequences for KIR2DS1+ NK-cell function. A systematic screen that assessed binding to 97 HLA-I proteins confirmed that KIR2DS1-binding was narrowly restricted to HLA-C group 2 complexes, while KIR2DL1 showed a broader binding specificity...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546435/a-simple-pipeline-for-mapping-point-mutations
#10
Guy Wachsman, Jennifer L Modliszewski, Manuel Valdes, Philip N Benfey
A forward genetic screen is one of the best methods for revealing the function of genes. In plants, this technique is highly efficient as it is relatively easy to grow and screen hundreds or thousands of individuals. The cost-efficiency and ease of data production afforded by next-generation sequencing has created new opportunities for rapid mapping of induced mutations. Current mapping tools are often not user-friendly, complicated, or require extensive preparation steps. To simplify the process of mapping new mutations, we developed a pipeline that takes next generation sequencing fastq files as input, calls on several well-established and freely available genome-analysis tools, and outputs the most likely causal DNA changes...
May 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546429/structural-studies-unravel-the-active-conformation-of-apo-ror%C3%AE-t-nuclear-receptor-and-a-common-inverse-agonism-of-two-diverse-classes-of-ror%C3%AE-t-inhibitors
#11
Xiang Li, Marie Anderson, Delphine Collin, Ingo Muegge, John Wan, Debra Brennan, Stanley Kugler, Donna Terenzio, Charles Kennedy, Siqi Lin, Mark E Labadia, Brian Cook, Robert Hughes, Neil A Farrow
The nuclear receptor retinoid acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) is a master regulator of the Th17/IL-17 pathway that plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. RORγt has recently emerged as a highly promising target for treatment of a number of autoimmune diseases. Through high-throughput screening we previously identified several classes of inverse agonists for RORγt. Here, we report the crystal structures for the ligand binding domain of RORγt in both apo and ligand-bound states. We show that apo RORγt adopts an active conformation capable of recruiting coactivator peptides and present a detailed analysis of the structural determinants that stabilize helix 12 (H12) of RORγt in the active state in the absence of a ligand...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546384/systematic-analysis-of-the-dna-damage-response-network-in-telomere-defective-budding-yeast
#12
Eva-Maria Holstein, Greg Ngo, Conor Lawless, Peter Banks, Matthew Greetham, Darren Wilkinson, David Lydall
Functional telomeres are critically important to eukaryotic genetic stability. Scores of proteins and pathways are known to affect telomere function. Here, we report a series of related genome-wide genetic interaction screens performed on budding yeast cells with acute or chronic telomere defects. Genetic interactions were examined in cells defective in Cdc13 and Stn1, affecting two components of CST, a single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding complex that binds telomeric DNA. For comparison, genetic interactions were also examined in cells with defects in Rfa3, affecting the major ssDNA binding protein, RPA, which has overlapping functions with CST at telomeres...
May 25, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546250/the-management-and-imaging-of-vestibular-schwannomas
#13
REVIEW
E P Lin, B T Crane
Vestibular schwannomas are the most common cerebellopontine angle tumor. During the past century, the management goals of vestibular schwannomas have shifted from total resection to functional preservation. Current treatment options include surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and observation. Imaging has become a crucial part of the initial screening, evaluation, and follow-up assessment of vestibular schwannomas. Recognizing and understanding the management objectives, various treatment modalities, expected posttreatment findings, and complications allows the radiologist to play an essential role in a multidisciplinary team by providing key findings relevant to treatment planning and outcome assessment...
May 25, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546047/an-impedance-based-approach-using-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-significantly-improves-in-vitro-prediction-of-in-vivo-cardiotox-liabilities
#14
Bryan Koci, Gregory Luerman, Anika Duenbostell, Ralf Kettenhofen, Heribert Bohlen, Luke Coyle, Brian Knight, Warren Ku, Walter Volberg, Joseph R Woska, Martha P Brown
Current in vitro approaches to cardiac safety testing typically focus on mechanistic ion channel testing to predict in vivo proarrhythmic potential. Outside of the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative, structural and functional cardiotoxicity related to chronic dosing effects are of great concern as these effects can impact compound attrition. Development and implementation of an in vitro cardiotoxicity screening platform that effectively identifies these liabilities early in the discovery process should reduce costly attrition and decrease preclinical development time...
May 22, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545978/benralizumab-for-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-persistent-asthma-bise-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#15
Gary T Ferguson, J Mark FitzGerald, Eugene R Bleecker, Michel Laviolette, David Bernstein, Craig LaForce, Lyndon Mansfield, Peter Barker, Yanping Wu, Maria Jison, Mitchell Goldman
BACKGROUND: Benralizumab is a humanised, anti-interleukin 5 receptor α monoclonal antibody that directly and rapidly depletes eosinophils, reduces asthma exacerbations, and improves lung function for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. The objective of this trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of benralizumab for patients with mild to moderate, persistent asthma. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years, weighing at least 40 kg, and with a postbronchodilator reversibility in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of at least 12% at screening, from 52 clinical research centres in six countries...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545817/pre-screening-of-crude-peptides-in-a-serological-bead-based-suspension-array
#16
Tinka Jelsma, Fimme J van der Wal, Helmi Fijten, Nicolas Dailly, Evert van Dijk, Willie L Loeffen
Most serological assays detect antibody responses in biological samples through affinity of serum antibodies for antigens provided in the assay. Certain antigens, however, may be difficult to produce and/or may contain unwanted epitopes. In these cases, a practical alternative may be the use of peptides as representatives for specific epitopes. Peptides can be obtained after purification in large quantities for a modest price, but screening of a large set of peptides during development may be relatively expensive...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545797/the-local-reliability-of-the-15-item-version-of-the-geriatric-depression-scale-an-item-response-theory-irt-study
#17
Francesca Chiesi, Caterina Primi, Martina Pigliautile, Sara Ercolani, Manuela Conestabile Della Staffa, Annalisa Longo, Virginia Boccardi, Patrizia Mecocci
The 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a self-report screening instrument widely used. The current study aimed at providing evidence of the measurement precision of the GDS-15 applying Item Response Theory (IRT). The relative contribution of each item and the reliability of the whole scale in measuring the trait level around the cutoffs were investigated employing data collected from a sample consisting of 1344 old people (M=76.44years, SD=5.13; 58.7% women) involved in a large gerontological research project...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545786/the-associations-between-insomnia-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-rehabilitation-units-at-1month-after-stroke
#18
Won-Hyoung Kim, Han-Young Jung, Ha-Yoon Choi, Chan-Hyuk Park, Eun-Suk Kim, Sook-Joung Lee, Sung-Hwa Ko, Soo-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Lim Joa
OBJECTIVE: The principal objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between insomnia and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the early stage of stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: The subjects were 214 first-time stroke patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit at one of three Korean hospitals. Within 7days after stroke, functions were evaluated using; the Berg Balance Scale, the Modified Barthel Index, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Frontal Assessment Battery, Screening Tests for Aphasia and Neurologic-Communication Disorders, and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545396/transcriptomic-resources-for-the-medicinal-legume-mucuna-pruriens-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-annotation-identification-and-validation-of-est-ssr-markers
#19
N Sathyanarayana, Ranjith Kumar Pittala, Pankaj Kumar Tripathi, Ratan Chopra, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Vikas Belamkar, Pardeep Kumar Bhardwaj, Jeff J Doyle, Ashley N Egan
BACKGROUND: The medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. has attracted attention worldwide as a source of the anti-Parkinson's drug L-Dopa. It is also a popular green manure cover crop that offers many agronomic benefits including high protein content, nitrogen fixation and soil nutrients. The plant currently lacks genomic resources and there is limited knowledge on gene expression, metabolic pathways, and genetics of secondary metabolite production. Here, we present transcriptomic resources for M...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545268/-efficacy-and-impact-on-quality-of-life-of-different-drug-treatments-after-partial-resection-of-rectovaginal-endometriosis
#20
T Li, X X Xu, Y Dai, J J Zhang, J H Lang, J H Leng
Objective: To evaluate different postoperative medications as maintenance treatment for rectovaginal endometriosis (RVE) patients after conservative surgery. Methods: RVE patients who underwent transvaginal partial excision from January 2007 to September 2016 with regular outpatient follow-up were retrospectively screened. Those followed by a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) insertion or oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE) 3 mg/30 μg administration were enrolled...
May 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
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