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Brian McKenna, Jane Oakes, Niki Fourniotis, Nigel Toomey, Trentham Furness
A recovery-oriented model of care has become the major focus of mental health service delivery in the state of Victoria, Australia. However, there is a total absence of knowledge of recovery-oriented mental health practice in community care units (CCUs). Therefore, the aims of this exploratory study were to: (a) describe what aspects of the current model of care fit within the domains of recovery; and (b) describe the pragmatic processes that staff use to mold their care within the domains of recovery. Twenty-one key stakeholders provided informed voluntary consent to participate in one-to-one interviews...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Esmé G Trevelyan, Warren A Turner, Lynn Summerfield-Mann, Nicola Robinson
BACKGROUND: Post amputation, the complication of phantom limb pain (PLP) is prevalent and difficult to manage. This study aimed to determine whether it was feasible and acceptable to undertake a definitive multicentred randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating lower limb amputees with PLP. METHODS: A mixed-methods embedded design, including a randomised controlled trial and semistructured interviews, was undertaken. A total of 15 participants with PLP were randomly assigned to receive either eight pragmatic Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture treatments and usual care or usual care alone over 4 weeks...
October 25, 2016: Trials
Andrew F Auld, Tefera Agizew, Sherri Pals, Alyssa Finlay, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Rosanna Boyd, Heather Alexander, Anikie Mathoma, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Gwebe-Nyirenda, James Shepherd, Tedd V Ellerbrock, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". METHODS: The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Grant Gibson, Ciara Kierans
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents as an illness which predominantly affects older men. However older men's lived experiences of PD, including how they are influenced by age and gender relations has seen little empirical study. Drawing on Watson's male body schema, this paper explores how men engage with masculinities and ageing in order to make sense and meaning from PD. Data is presented from 30 narrative and semi structured interviews with 15 men of various ages who were living with PD. Findings suggest that PD threatens a visceral embodiment located in the body's basic movements and intimate functions; a pragmatic embodiment expressed through men's everyday occupations and an experiential embodiment concerned with emotions and sensations felt within and through the body...
October 26, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Ana María Porcel-Gálvez, Betina Hörner Schlindwein-Meirelles, Eugenia Gil-García, José Miguel Morales-Asencio, María Dolores Guerra-Martín
OBJECTIVE: To know the opinions and satisfaction of nurses with the use of INICIARE, an instrument developed for assessment of nursing care needs in hospitalized patients. INICIARE is based on Virginia Henderson's conceptual model, and built up with indicators of Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) taxonomy. METHOD: Exploratory qualitative study, using focus group technique for data collection. The sessions were recorded until saturation of information. A content analysis of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels of transcripts was performed...
October 22, 2016: Enfermería Clínica
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jo Hunter-Adams, Landon Myer, Hanna-Andrea Rother
BACKGROUND: Infant feeding recommendations are of health importance, yet the extent to which migrant communities in low- and middle-income countries know or implement these recommendations is poorly understood. This study explores the perspectives of infant feeding amongst cross-border migrants in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Between February and October 2013, semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 23) were conducted face-to-face with Congolese, Somali and Zimbabwean mothers living in Cape Town...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Tasuku Hashimoto, Akihiro Shiina, Tadashi Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasunori Oda, Tomihisa Niitsu, Masatomo Ishikawa, Masumi Tachibana, Katsumasa Muneoka, Satoshi Matsuki, Michiko Nakazato, Masaomi Iyo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether selecting mirtazapine as the first choice for current depressive episode instead of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reduces benzodiazepine use in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We concurrently examined the relationship between clinical responses and serum mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor, proBDNF. METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomized trial in routine psychiatric practice settings...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
E Auvinet, F Multon, V Manning, J Meunier, J P Cobb
Gait asymmetry information is a key point in disease screening and follow-up. Constant Relative Phase (CRP) has been used to quantify within-stride asymmetry index, which requires noise-free and accurate motion capture, which is difficult to obtain in clinical settings. This study explores a new index, the Longitudinal Asymmetry Index (ILong) which is derived using data from a low-cost depth camera (Kinect). ILong is based on depth images averaged over several gait cycles, rather than derived joint positions or angles...
August 24, 2016: Gait & Posture
F Bath-Hextall, S Nalubega, C Evans
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. This is an update of a previous review published in 2010 that identified only two studies and found that the needs and experiences of individuals with skin cancer were under-researched. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a qualitative systematic review of the needs and experiences of people with a diagnosis of skin cancer. METHODS: As an update of a previous review, the following databases were searched from 2010 to 30/11/15: CINAHL PsycINFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
Nancy M Heddle, Richard J Cook, Donald M Arnold, Yang Liu, Rebecca Barty, Mark A Crowther, P J Devereaux, Jack Hirsh, Theodore E Warkentin, Kathryn E Webert, David Roxby, Magdalena Sobieraj-Teague, Andrea Kurz, Daniel I Sessler, Priscilla Figueroa, Martin Ellis, John W Eikelboom
Background Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients. Methods In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio...
October 24, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Anna Wexler
Several recent articles have called for the regulation of consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices, which provide low levels of electrical current to the brain. However, most of the discussion to-date has focused on ethical or normative considerations; there has been a notable absence of scholarship regarding the actual legal framework in the United States. This article aims to fill that gap by providing a pragmatic analysis of the consumer tDCS market and relevant laws and regulations...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
P S Ward, S G Brady, B L Fisher, T R Schultz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Insectes Sociaux
Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Sharon Kingston, Yihong Zhao, John S DiMeglio, Amarilis Céspedes, Maureen George
PURPOSE: Adolescents are low users of medical care. Psychological factors and perceived reasons to not seek routine medical care may increase risk of nonuse by adolescents with undiagnosed asthma. This study tests if psychological factors were associated with seeing a medical provider for asthma-like symptoms; identifies adolescents' perceived reasons for not obtaining care; explores if psychological factors are associated with these perceptions; and explores if asthma severity moderates the relationships with psychological factors...
November 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Akin Ojagbemi, Robin Emsley, Oye Gureje
OBJECTIVES: The time required in completing the 26 items of neurological examinations in the standard Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) may limit its utility in pragmatic clinical situations. We propose the Short Neurological Evaluation Scale (S-NES) for use in busy clinical settings, and in research. METHODS: Using confirmatory factor analyses, we identified 12 items of neurological examination showing significant overlap with previously reported theoretical and empirical categories of neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Donna M Urquhart, Anita E Wluka, Malcolm R Sim, Maurits van Tulder, Andrew Forbes, Stephen J Gibson, Carolyn Arnold, Chris Fong, Shane N Anthony, Flavia M Cicuttini
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a major clinical and public health problem, with limited evidence-based treatments. Low-dose antidepressants are commonly used to treat pain in chronic low back pain. However, their efficacy is unproven. The aim of this pragmatic, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial is to determine whether low-dose amitriptyline (an antidepressant) is more effective than placebo in reducing pain in individuals with chronic low back pain. METHODS/DESIGN: One hundred and fifty individuals with chronic low back pain will be recruited through hospital and private medical and allied health clinics, advertising in local media and posting of flyers in community locations...
October 22, 2016: Trials
Chantal Arditi, Bernard Burnand, Isabelle Peytremann-Bridevaux
BACKGROUND: To reduce the burden of asthma, chronic disease management (CDM) programmes have been widely implemented and evaluated. Reviews including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that CDM programmes for asthma are effective. Other study designs are however often used for pragmatic reasons, but excluded from these reviews because of their design. We aimed to examine what complementary information could be retrieved from the addition of non-randomised studies to the studies included in a published Cochrane review on asthma CDM programmes, for healthcare stakeholders involved in the development, implementation, conduct or long-term sustainability of such programmes...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Vicky Stergiopoulos, Agnes Gozdzik, Vachan Misir, Anna Skosireva, Aseefa Sarang, Jo Connelly, Adam Whisler, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF) among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. METHODS: This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
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