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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231305/effects-of-vasoactive-drugs-on-crystalloid-fluid-kinetics-in-septic-sheep
#1
Yuhong Li, Zheng Xiaozhu, Ru Guomei, Ding Qiannan, Robert G Hahn
PURPOSE: Crystalloid fluid and vasoactive drugs are used in the early treatment of sepsis. The purpose of the present study was to examine how these drugs alter plasma volume expansion, peripheral edema, and urinary excretion. METHODS: Twenty-five anesthetized sheep were made septic by cecal puncture and a short infusion of lipopolysaccharide. After 50 min, a slow infusion of isotonic saline was initiated: the saline either contained no drug, norepinephrine (1 μg/kg/min), phenylephrine (3 μg/kg/min), dopamine (50 μg/kg/min), or esmolol (50 μg/kg/min)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229437/pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-11-c-flumazenil-kinetics-in-the-rat-brain
#2
Isadora Lopes Alves, David Vállez García, Andrea Parente, Janine Doorduin, Rudi Dierckx, Ana Maria Marques da Silva, Michel Koole, Antoon Willemsen, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND: Preferred models for the pharmacokinetic analysis of [(11)C]flumazenil human studies have been previously established. However, direct translation of these models and settings to animal studies might be sub-optimal. Therefore, this study evaluates pharmacokinetic models for the quantification of [(11)C]flumazenil binding in the rat brain. Dynamic (60 min) [(11)C]flumazenil brain PET scans were performed in two groups of male Wistar rats (tracer dose (TD), n = 10 and pre-saturated (PS), n = 2)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227618/non-invasive-cardiac-output-monitoring-in-pharmacology-a-plethysmographie-solution-in-rats
#3
Timothe Flenet, Julie Fontecave-Jallon, Stephane Tanguy, Francois Boucher, Pierre Baconnier, Pierre-Yves Gumery, Timothe Flenet, Julie Fontecave-Jallon, Stephane Tanguy, Francois Boucher, Pierre Baconnier, Pierre-Yves Gumery, Pierre-Yves Gumery, Pierre Baconnier, Stephane Tanguy, Julie Fontecave-Jallon, Francois Boucher, Timothe Flenet
Cardiovascular monitoring is of great importance in pharmacology but there is a lack of convenient non-invasive alternatives. Hence, we aim to evaluate the relevance of inductive plethysmography (IP) in preclinical cardiac studies. An IP system was specifically designed for rat. Its evaluation carried out using a mechanical test bench has shown appropriate instrumental performances for cardiac monitoring in rats. Measurements were also performed during a volume overload hemodynamic challenge in vivo in rats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226249/micro-milling-of-spent-granular-activated-carbon-for-its-possible-reuse-as-an-adsorbent-remaining-capacity-and-characteristics
#4
Long Pan, Yuichi Takagi, Yoshihiko Matsui, Taku Matsushita, Nobutaka Shirasaki
We milled granular activated carbons (GACs) that had been used for 0-9 years in water treatment plants and produced carbon particles with different sizes and ages: powdered activated carbons (PAC, median diameter 12-42 μm), superfine PAC (SPAC, 0.9-3.5 μm), and submicron-sized SPAC (SSPAC, 220-290 nm). The fact that SPAC produced from 1-year-old GAC and SSPAC from 2-year-old GAC removed 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) from water with an efficiency similar to that of virgin PAC after a carbon contact time of 30 min suggests that spent GAC could be reused for water treatment after being milled...
February 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226220/water-oxidation-mechanisms-of-metal-oxide-catalysts-by-vibrational-spectroscopy-of-transient-intermediates
#5
Miao Zhang, Heinz Frei
Water oxidation is an essential reaction of an artificial photosystem for solar fuel generation because it provides electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide or protons to a fuel. Earth-abundant metal oxides are among the most attractive catalytic materials for this reaction because of their robustness and scalability, but their efficiency poses a challenge. Knowledge of catalytic surface intermediates gained by vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions plays a key role in uncovering kinetic bottlenecks and provides a basis for catalyst design improvements...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225600/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-ultrasonic-activation-of-persulfate-an-in-situ-epr-spin-trapping-study
#6
Zongsu Wei, Frederick A Villamena, Linda K Weavers
Ultrasound (US) was shown to activate persulfate (PS) providing an alternative activation method to base or heat as an in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) method. The kinetics and mechanism of ultrasonic activation of PS were examined in aqueous solution using an in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and radical trapping with probe compounds. Using the spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and sulfate radical anion (SO4•‒) were measured from ultrasonic activation of persulfate (US-PS)...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220836/nucleobindin-1-binds-to-multiple-types-of-pre-fibrillar-amyloid-and-inhibits-fibrillization
#7
Alessandra Bonito-Oliva, Shahar Barbash, Thomas P Sakmar, W Vallen Graham
During amyloid fibril formation, amyloidogenic polypeptides misfold and self assemble into soluble pre-fibrillar aggregates, i.e., protofibrils, which elongate and mature into insoluble fibrillar aggregates. An emerging class of chaperones, chaperone-like amyloid binding proteins (CLABPs), has been shown to interfere with aggregation of particular misfolded amyloid peptides or proteins. We have discovered that the calcium-binding protein nuclebindin-1 (NUCB1) is a novel CLABP. We show that NUCB1 inhibits aggregation of islet-amyloid polypeptide associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, transthyretin V30M mutant associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and Aβ42 associated with Alzheimer's disease by stabilizing their respective protofibril intermediates...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214584/removal-of-cd-ii-and-hg-ii-from-effluents-by-ionic-solid-impregnated-chitosan
#8
Anita Shekhawat, Shashikant Kahu, D Saravanan, Ravin Jugade
Ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide impregnated chitosan (EHDAIC) was prepared to remove cadmium and mercury from synthetic effluent. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and TGA-DTA. Adsorption studies were carried out under different conditions of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of EHDAIC is a function of the solution pH and the optimum pH for these metal ions was found to be 3.0. The equilibrium data has been described using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208490/geometrical-model-for-martensitic-phase-transitions-understanding-criticality-and-weak-universality-during-microstructure-growth
#9
Genís Torrents, Xavier Illa, Eduard Vives, Antoni Planes
A simple model for the growth of elongated domains (needle-like) during a martensitic phase transition is presented. The model is purely geometric and the only interactions are due to the sequentiality of the kinetic problem and to the excluded volume, since domains cannot retransform back to the original phase. Despite this very simple interaction, numerical simulations show that the final observed microstructure can be described as being a consequence of dipolar-like interactions. The model is analytically solved in 2D for the case in which two symmetry related domains can grow in the horizontal and vertical directions...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208313/diffusion-of-a-rouse-chain-in-porous-media-a-mode-coupling-theory-study
#10
Huai Ding, Huijun Jiang, Nanrong Zhao, Zhonghuai Hou
We use a kinetic mode-coupling theory (MCT) combining with generalized Langevin equation (GLE) to study the diffusion and conformational dynamics of a bead-spring Rouse chain (RC) dissolved in porous media. The media contains fluid particles and immobile matrix ones wherein the latter leads to the lack of translational invariance. The friction kernel ζ(t) used in the GLE can be obtained directly by adopting a simple density-functional approach in which the density correlators calculated by MCT equations of porous media serve as inputs...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202180/chemical-structure-influence-on-napl-mixture-nonideality-evolution-rate-limited-dissolution-and-contaminant-mass-flux
#11
Mark C Padgett, Geoffrey R Tick, Kenneth C Carroll, William R Burke
The influence of chemical structure on NAPL mixture nonideality evolution, rate-limited dissolution, and contaminant mass flux was examined. The variability of measured and UNIFAC modeled NAPL activity coefficients as a function of mole fraction was compared for two NAPL mixtures containing structurally-different contaminants of concern including toluene (TOL) or trichloroethene (TCE) within a hexadecane (HEXDEC) matrix. The results showed that dissolution from the NAPL mixtures transitioned from ideality for mole fractions >0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199083/shape-memory-hydrogels-evolution-of-structural-principles-to-enable-shape-switching-of-hydrophilic-polymer-networks
#12
Candy Löwenberg, Maria Balk, Christian Wischke, Marc Behl, Andreas Lendlein
The ability of hydrophilic chain segments in polymer networks to strongly interact with water allows the volumetric expansion of the material and formation of a hydrogel. When polymer chain segments undergo reversible hydration depending on environmental conditions, smart hydrogels can be realized, which are able to shrink/swell and thus alter their volume on demand. In contrast, implementing the capacity of hydrogels to switch their shape rather than volume demands more sophisticated chemical approaches and structural concepts...
February 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197943/hydrothermal-synthesized-magnetically-separable-mesostructured-h2ti3o7-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanocomposite-for-organic-dye-removal-via-adsorption-and-its-regeneration-reuse-through-synergistic-non-radiation-driven-h2o2-activation
#13
Harsha Narayani, Manu Jose, K Sriram, Satyajit Shukla
Hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanotubes/nanosheets (HTN) are emerging class of adsorbent material which possess unique property of activating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to generate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical ions (O2(.-)) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH), effective in the decomposition of surface-adsorbed dye. However, HTN are non-magnetic which create hurdle in their effective separation from the treated aqueous solution. To overcome this issue, magnetic nanocomposites (HTNF) composed of HTN and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been processed by subjecting the core-shell magnetic photocatalyst consisting of γ-Fe2O3/silica (SiO2)/titania (TiO2), having varying amounts of TiO2 in the shell to the hydrothermal conditions...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196492/long-term-microfluidic-tracking-of-coccoid-cyanobacterial-cells-reveals-robust-control-of-division-timing
#14
Feiqiao Brian Yu, Lisa Willis, Rosanna Man Wah Chau, Alessandro Zambon, Mark Horowitz, Devaki Bhaya, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Stephen R Quake
BACKGROUND: Cyanobacteria are important agents in global carbon and nitrogen cycling and hold great promise for biotechnological applications. Model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. and Synechococcus sp. have advanced our understanding of photosynthetic capacity and circadian behavior, mostly using population-level measurements in which the behavior of individuals cannot be monitored. Synechocystis sp. cells are small and divide slowly, requiring long-term experiments to track single cells...
February 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195901/prognostic-molecular-and-imaging-biomarkers-in-primary-glioblastoma
#15
Edit Bosnyák, Sharon K Michelhaugh, Neil V Klinger, David O Kamson, Geoffrey R Barger, Sandeep Mittal, Csaba Juhász
PURPOSE: Several molecular glioma markers (including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 [IDH1] mutation, amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], and methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase [MGMT] promoter) have been associated with glioblastoma survival. In this study, we examined the association between tumoral amino acid uptake, molecular markers, and overall survival in patients with IDH1 wild-type (primary) glioblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed IDH1 wild-type glioblastomas underwent presurgical MRI and PET scanning with alpha[C-11]-L-methyl-tryptophan (AMT)...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192968/confocal-raman-microscopy-investigation-of-molecular-transport-into-individual-chromatographic-silica-particles
#16
David A Bryce, Jay P Kitt, Joel M Harris
Porous silica is used as a support in a variety of separation processes including chromatographic separation and solid-phase extraction. The resolution and efficiency of these applications is significantly impacted by the kinetics of partitioning and molecular transport into the interior of the porous particles. Molecular transport in porous silica has been explored previously by measuring chromatographic elution profiles, but such measurements are limited to relatively low retention conditions, where within-particle molecular transport must be inferred from elution profiles of solutes emerging from a packed column...
January 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190931/pendant-drop-method-coupled-to-ultraviolet-visible-spectroscopy-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-interfacial-phenomena
#17
Marco A R Andrade, Bruno Favarin, Rafael Derradi, Mayte Bolean, Ana Maria S Simão, José Luis Millán, Pietro Ciancaglini, Ana P Ramos
UV-vis spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate surface phenomena. Surface tension measurements coupled to spectroscopic techniques can help to elucidate how the interface organization influences the electronic properties of molecules. However, appreciable sample volumes are usually necessary to achieve strong signals during conduction of experiments. This study reports on the simultaneous acquisition of surface tension data and UV-vis spectra by axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) coupled to diffuse reflectance (DRUV) spectrophotometry using a pendant microliter-drop that requires small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations...
September 5, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185475/4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging-role-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease
#18
Claire M Lawley, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Fraser M Callaghan, David S Winlaw, Gemma A Figtree, Stuart M Grieve
Imaging-based evaluation of cardiac structure and function remains paramount in the diagnosis and monitoring of congenital heart disease in childhood. Accurate measurements of intra- and extracardiac hemodynamics are required to inform decision making, allowing planned timing of interventions prior to deterioration of cardiac function. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging is a nonionizing noninvasive technology that allows accurate and reproducible delineation of blood flow at any anatomical location within the imaging volume of interest, and also permits derivation of physiological parameters such as kinetic energy and wall shear stress...
January 1, 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184976/decreased-diastolic-ventricular-kinetic-energy-in-young-patients-with-fontan-circulation-demonstrated-by-four-dimensional-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Pia Sjöberg, Einar Heiberg, Pär Wingren, Jens Ramgren Johansson, Torsten Malm, Håkan Arheden, Petru Liuba, Marcus Carlsson
Four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables quantification of kinetic energy (KE) in intraventricular blood flow. This provides a novel way to understand the cardiovascular physiology of the Fontan circulation. In this study, we aimed to quantify the KE in functional single ventricles. 4D flow MRI was acquired in eleven patients with Fontan circulation (median age 12 years, range 3-29) and eight healthy volunteers (median age 26 years, range 23-36). Follow-up MRI after surgical or percutaneous intervention was performed in 3 patients...
February 10, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181480/a-comparison-between-track-structure-condensed-history-monte-carlo-simulations-and-mird-cellular-s-values
#20
M A Tajik-Mansoury, H Rajabi, H Mozdarani
The S-value is a standard measure in cellular dosimetry. S-values are calculated by applying analytical methods or by Monte Carlo simulation. In Monte Carlo simulation, particles are either tracked individually event-by-event or close events are condensed and processed collectively in different steps. Both of these methods have been employed for estimation of cellular S-values, but there is no consistency between the published results. In the present paper, we used the Geant4-DNA track-structure physics model as the reference to estimate the cellular S-values...
March 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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