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Volume kinetics

Jussara F Carneiro, José M Aquino, Adilson J Silva, Juliana C Barreiro, Quezia B Cass, Romeu C Rocha-Filho
The role of the supporting electrolyte - SE (Na2 SO4 ; NaCl; Na2 CO3 ; NaNO3 ; Na3 PO4 - 0.1 M ionic strength) in the galvanostatic (10 mA cm-2 ) electrochemical degradation of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENRO; 100 mg L-1 ) using a filter-press flow cell with a boron-doped diamond anode was investigated (flow rate, solution volume, and temperature were kept fixed at 420 L h-1 , 1.0 L, and 25 °C, respectively). The electrochemical degradation performance with the different SEs was assessed by following up [ENRO], total organic carbon concentration (TOC), oxidation intermediates (detected by LC and LC-QqTOF), and antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli as the electrolyses progressed...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Xi Yang, Honghong Yi, Xiaolong Tang, Shunzheng Zhao, Zhongyu Yang, Yueqiang Ma, Tiecheng Feng, Xiaoxu Cui
This work was undertaken to investigate the behaviors and kinetics of toluene adsorption and desorption on activated carbons with varying pore structure. Five kinds of activated carbon from different raw materials were selected. Adsorption isotherms and breakthrough curves for toluene were measured. Langmuir and Freundlich equations were fitted to the equilibrium data, and the Freundlich equation was more suitable for simulating toluene adsorption. The process consisted of monolayer, multilayer and partial active site adsorption types...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Tobey J Betthauser, Karly A Cody, Matthew D Zammit, Dhanabalan Murali, Alexander K Converse, Todd E Barnhart, Charles K Stone, Howard A Rowley, Sterling C Johnson, Bradley T Christian
Tau positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has potential for elucidating changes in the deposition of neuropathological tau aggregates that are occurring during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work investigates in vivo kinetics, quantification strategies and imaging characteristics of a novel tau PET radioligand [18 F]MK-6240 in humans. Methods: Fifty-one individuals ranging from cognitively normal young controls to persons with dementia underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and [11 C]PiB and [18 F]MK-6240 PET imaging...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Antoine Iannessi, Pierre-Yves Marcy, Olivier Clatz, Anne-Sophie Bertrand, Maki Sugimoto
The digitalization of modern imaging has led radiologists to become very familiar with computers and their user interfaces (UI). New options for display and command offer expanded possibilities, but the mouse and keyboard remain the most commonly utilized, for usability reasons. In this work, we review and discuss different UI and their possible application in radiology. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging displays in the context of interventional radiology, and discuss interest in touchscreens, kinetic sensors, eye detection, and augmented or virtual reality...
May 16, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Donald M Mock, Demet Nalbant, Svetlana V Kyosseva, Robert L Schmidt, Guohua An, Nell I Matthews, Alexander P J Vlaar, Robin van Bruggen, Dirk de Korte, Ronald G Strauss, José A Cancelas, Robert S Franco, Peter Veng-Pedersen, John A Widness
The current reference method in the United States for measuring in vivo population red blood cell (RBC) kinetics utilizes chromium-51 (51 Cr) RBC labeling for determining RBC volume, 24-hour posttransfusion RBC recovery, and long-term RBC survival. Here we provide evidence supporting adoption of a method for kinetics that uses the biotin-labeled RBCs (BioRBCs) as a superior, versatile method for both regulatory and investigational purposes. RBC kinetic analysis using BioRBCs has important methodologic, analytical, and safety advantages over 51 Cr-labeled RBCs...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
Thivyah Munisparan, Evyan Chia Yan Yang, Ragul Paramasivam, Nuraina Anisa Dahlan, Janarthanan Pushpamalar
Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanowires were synthesised using a hydrothermal method with different volumes of ethylene glycol (EG) and annealing temperatures. It shows that sodium titanate nanowires synthesised using 5 and 10 ml EG, which annealed at 400°C produced TiO2 nanowires that correspond to a photochemically active phase, which is anatase. The influences of annealing temperatures (400-600°C) on the morphological arrangement of TiO2 nanowires were evident in the field emission scanning electron microscopy...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
A Brinkmann, A C Röhr, A Köberer, T Fuchs, W A Krüger, C König, D Richter, M A Weigand, O R Frey
Sepsis-induced changes in pharmacokinetic parameters are a well-known problem in intensive care medicine. Dosing of antibiotics in this setting is therefore challenging. Alterations to the substance-specific kinetics of anti-infective substances have an effect on the distribution and excretion processes in the body. Increased clearance and an increased distribution volume (Vd ) and particularly compromized organ function with reduced antibiotic elimination are often encountered in patients with sepsis. Renal replacement treatment, which is frequently used in intensive care medicine, represents a substantial intervention in this system...
May 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Meizhen Tang, Zhengtao Li, Yuewei Yang, Junfeng Chen, Jie Jiang
Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used globally in wastewater treatment for years. CWs represent an efficient ecological system which is both energy-saving and low in investment for construction and operational cost. In addition, CWs also have the advantage of being easy to operate and maintain. However, the operation of CWs at northern latitudes (both mid and high) is sometimes quite demanding, due to the inhibitory effect of low temperatures that often occur in winter. To evaluate the wastewater treatment performance of a culture of mixed Psychrotrophic bacteria strains in an integrated vertical-flow CW, the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen [Formula: see text], nitrate nitrogen [Formula: see text] and total phosphorus (TP) were quantified at different bacterial dosages to determine the best bacterial dosage and establish kinetic degradation models of the mixed strains...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Wenhui Mi, Alessandro Genova, Michele Pavanello
Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts [ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δTs [ρ]δρ(r), yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Wentong Zhao, Xiaoqing Lu, Manickam Selvaraj, Wei Wei, Zhifeng Jiang, Nabi Ullah, Jie Liu, Jimin Xie
Low-cost electrocatalysts play an important role in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Particularly, transition metal phosphides (TMPs) are widely applied in the development of HER electrocatalysts. To improve the poor electrochemical reaction kinetics of HER, we introduce a facile way to synthesize carbon core-shell materials containing cobalt phosphide nanoparticles embedded in different graphene aerogels (GAs) (CoP@C-NPs/GA-x (x = 5, 10 and 20)) using seaweed biomass as precursors. The synthesized CoP@C-NPs/GA-5 exhibits efficient catalytic activity with small overpotentials of 120 and 225 mV at current densities of 10 mA cm-2, along with the low Tafel slopes of 57 and 66 mV dec-1, for HER in acidic and alkaline electrolytes, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Atsadawuth Siangsai, Katipot Inkong, Santi Kulprathipanja, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Pramoch Rangsunvigit
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) markedly improved tetrahydrofuran (THF) - assisted methane hydrate formation. Firstly, methane hydrate formation with different THF amount, 1, 3, and 5.56 mol%, was studied. SDS with 1, 4, and 8 mM was then investigated for its roles on the methane hydrate formation with and without THF. The experiments were conducted in a quiescent condition in a fixed volume crystallizer at 8 MPa and 4°C. The results showed that almost all studied THF and SDS concentrations enhanced the methane hydrate formation kinetics and methane consumption compared to that without the promoters, except 1 mol% THF...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Manash Pratim Borthakur, Gautam Biswas, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
A computational fluid dynamic investigation has been carried out to study the dynamics of a moving compound droplet inside a tube. The motions associated with such a droplet is uncovered by solving the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in which the spatiotemporal evolution of a pair of twin-deformable interfaces has been tracked employing the volume-of-fluid approach. The deformations at the interfaces and their subsequent dynamics are found to be stimulated by the subtle interplay between the capillary and viscous forces...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Jianrui Niu, Xiuxiu Jia, Yaqing Zhao, Yanfang Liu, Weizhang Zhong, Zengli Zhai, Zaixing Li
The CeO2 @ZSM-5 was prepared by the dipping method. We used ZSM-5 and CeO2 as the carrier and load components, respectively. The aim was to reduce the low concentration of Cr(VI) in simulated wastewater (the concentration of Cr(VI) ranged from 0.2 to 1 mg/L). The characteristics of ZSM-5 and CeO2 @ZSM-5 samples were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Edmondo M Benetti, Chengjun Kang, Joydeb Mandal, Mohammad Divandari, Nicholas D Spencer
The mechanism of surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP) of methacrylates in confined volumes is systematically investigated by finely tuning the distance between a grafting surface and an inert plane by means of nanosized patterns and micrometer thick foils. The polymers were synthesized from monolayers of photocleavable initiators, which allow the analysis of detached brushes by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Compared to brushes synthesized under "open" polymerization mixtures, nearly a 4-fold increase in brush molar mass was recorded when SI-ATRP was performed within highly confined reaction volumes...
August 8, 2017: Macromolecules
Jee Young Kim, Shintaro Morisada, Hidetaka Kawakita, Keisuke Ohto
Various p-tert-octylcalix[4]arene derivatives as hydrophobic extractants have been prepared to investigate Ag(I) extraction efficiency in a batch-wise process in nitric acid media. The influence of the functional groups of the hydrophobic extractants on the interfacial behavior and Ag(I) extraction efficiency in nitric acid media has been investigated using the drop-volume method. Fitting of the interfacial tension isotherms to the Gibbs and Szyszkowski equations has provided parameters characterizing the interfacial activity of the extractants, in particular the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the interface, the interface excess on saturation (Г∞ ) and the average area per the adsorbed extractant molecule (Amin )...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Valentina Topić Vučenović, Zvezdana Rajkovača, Dijana Jelić, Dragi Stanimirović, Goran Vuleta, Branislava Miljković, Katarina Vučićević
PURPOSE: Radioiodine (131 I) therapy is the common treatment option for benign thyroid diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize 131 I biokinetics in patients with benign thyroid disease and to investigate and quantify the influence of patients' demographic and clinical characteristics on intra-thyroidal 131 I kinetics by developing a population model. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed effects approach...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Javier Moreno-Andrés, Noëmi Ambauen, Olav Vadstein, Cynthia Hallé, Asunción Acevedo-Merino, Enrique Nebot, Thomas Meyn
Seawater treatment is increasingly required due to industrial activities that use substantial volumes of seawater in their processes. The shipping industry and the associated management of a ship's ballast water are currently considered a global challenge for the seas. Related to that, the suitability of an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process (EAOP) with Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes has been assessed on a laboratory scale for the disinfection of seawater. This technology can produce both reactive oxygen species and chlorine species (especially in seawater) that are responsible for inactivation...
May 3, 2018: Water Research
László Valkai, Attila K Horváth
It is clearly demonstrated that the arsenous acid-periodate reaction displays crazy-clock behavior when a statistically meaningful number of kinetic runs are performed under "exactly the same" conditions. Both extensive experimental and numerical simulation results gave convincing evidence that the stochastic feature of the title reaction originates from the imperfection of the mixing process, and neither local random fluctuation nor initial inhomogeneity alone is capable of explaining adequately the observed phenomena...
May 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sylvain Auvity, Fabien Caillé, Solène Marie, Catriona Wimberley, Martin Bauer, Oliver Langer, Irène Buvat, Sébastien Goutal, Nicolas Tournier
Rationale : PET imaging using radiolabeled high-affinity substrates of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) has convincingly revealed the role of this major efflux transporter in limiting the influx of its substrates from blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many drugs, such as metoclopramide, are weak ABCB1 substrates and distribute into the brain even when ABCB1 is fully functional. In this study, we used kinetic modeling and validated simplified methods to highlight and quantify the impact of ABCB1 on the BBB influx and efflux of 11 C-metoclopramide, as a model weak ABCB1 substrate, in non-human primates...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Won-Gwang Lim, Yeongdong Mun, Ara Cho, Changshin Jo, Seonggyu Lee, Jeong Woo Han, Jinwoo Lee
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as potential high-energy storage devices due to their outstanding energy density. However, the low electrical conductivity of sulfur, dissolution of the active material, and sluggish reaction kinetics cause poor cycle stability and rate performance. A variety of approaches have been attempted to resolve the above issues and achieve enhanced electrochemical performance. However, inexpensive multifunctional host materials which can accommodate large quantities of sulfur and exhibit high electrode density are not widely available, which hinders the commercialization of Li-S batteries...
May 10, 2018: ACS Nano
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