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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929208/dna-barcoding-for-the-identification-of-phyllanthus-taxa-used-medicinally-in-brazil
#1
Peter W Inglis, Lorena R Mata, Marcos José da Silva, Roberto F Vieira, Rosa de B N Alves, Dijalma B Silva, Vânia C R Azevedo
Plants of the genus Phyllanthus, principally Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus niruri , and Phyllanthus tenellus, are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat kidney stones as well as other ailments, where the latter two species are listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as quebra-pedra ( stone-breaker ). However, only P. niruri has been shown to be effective in a clinical setting. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 - 5.8S rRNA-ITS2), internal transcribed spacer 2, and chloroplasts rbc L, mat K, psb A- trn H, trn L, and trn L- trn F were screened for their potential as DNA barcodes for the identification of 48 Phyllanthus taxa in Brazilian medicinal plant germplasm banks and in "living pharmacies"...
June 21, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929205/in-vivo-antimalarial-and-antitrypanosomal-activity-of-strychnogucine-b-a-bisindole-alkaloid-from-strychnos-icaja
#2
Claire Beaufay, Allison Ledoux, Olivia Jansen, Annélise Bordignon, Senzhi Zhao, Christiana N Teijaro, Rodrigo B Andrade, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Michel Frédérich
Strychnogucine B is a bisindole alkaloid previously isolated from Strychnos icaja that possesses promising in vitro antiplasmodial properties. This compound was synthesized in four steps from (-)-strychnine. As no acute toxicity was observed at the highest tested cumulative dose of 60 mg/kg, its in vivo antimalarial activity was determined intraperitoneally at 30 mg/kg/d in a Plasmodium berghei murine model. In the Peters's 4-d suppressive test, this alkaloid suppressed the parasitaemia by almost 36% on day 5 and 60% on day 7 compared to vehicle-treated mice...
June 21, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929204/sport-participation-and-metabolic-risk-during-adolescent-years-a-structured-equation-model
#3
AndréOliveira Werneck, Danilo Rodrigues Pereira da Silva, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, EnioRicardoVaz Ronque, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino
Sports practice during childhood can influence health indicators in later ages through direct and indirect pathways. Thus, this study aimed to test direct and indirect pathways to the association between sports practice in childhood and metabolic risk in adolescence, adopting physical activity, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness at adolescence as potential mediators. This cross-sectional study with retrospective information was conducted with 991 adolescents (579 girls, 412 boys) aged 10 to 16 y. Sports activity was self-reported in childhood (retrospective data) and physical activity evaluated in adolescence through questionnaires...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929203/a-history-of-concussion-does-not-lead-to-an-increase-in-ocular-near-point-of-convergence
#4
Paul van Donkelaar, Jill Dierijck, Alexander Wright, Jonathan Smirl
Ocular near point of convergence (NPC) has been shown to be sensitive to the effects of concussion and subconcussive impacts. To determine if NPC is also sensitive to a previous history of concussion, male contact-sport athletes either with (n=26) or without (n=16) a history of at least one previous concussion had their NPC assessed. The results showed that participants with a history of concussion displayed NPC values (9.4±1.6 cm) indistinguishable from those with no history of concussion (8.4±2.1 cm, t-test, p=0...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929187/one-year-results-for-patients-with-unilateral-hearing-loss-and-accompanying-severe-tinnitus-and-hyperacusis-treated-with-a-cochlear-implant
#5
Angel Ramos Macías, Juan Carlos Falcón-González, Manuel Manrique Rodríguez, Constantino Morera Pérez, Luis García-Ibáñez, Carlos Cenjor Español, Chrystelle Coudert-Koall, Matthijs Killian
OBJECTIVE: To show that patients with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), with one ear fulfilling cochlear implant (CI) indication criteria, and an additional severe tinnitus handicap can be treated effectively with a CI. METHOD: A prospective multi-centre study was conducted in five Spanish centres. Sixteen adult patients with UHL and a mean Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score of at least 58 were implanted. The study design included repeated within-subject measures of quality of life (Health Utility Index Mark 3 [HUI3]), tinnitus (THI, Visual Analogue Scale [VAS] on tinnitus loudness), hearing (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale- [SSQ]), and hyperacusis (Test de Hipersensibilidad al Sonido [THS]) up to 12 months after the initial CI fitting...
June 21, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929178/the-occurrence-transmission-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-fish-processing-plant
#6
Krzysztof Skowron, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Świeca, Zbigniew Paluszak, Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska, Ewa Wałecka-Zacharska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and fish processing plant and to determine their transmission, virulence and antibiotic resistance. L. monocytogenes was isolated according to the ISO 11290-1. The identification of L. monocytogenes was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. Genetic similarity of L. monocytogenes strains was determined with the Pulsed-Filed Gene Electrophoresis (PFGE) method. The multiplex PCR was used for identification of L. monocytogenes serogroups and detection of selected virulence genes (actA, fbpA, hlyA, iap, inlA, inlB, mpl, plcA, plcB, prfA)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929137/mechanism-of-the-effect-of-ph-and-biochar-on-the-phytotoxicity-of-the-weak-acid-herbicides-imazethapyr-and-2-4-d-in-soil-to-rice-oryza-sativa-and-estimation-by-chemical-methods
#7
Kailin Liu, Ying He, Shiji Xu, Lifeng Hu, Kun Luo, Xiangying Liu, Min Liu, Xiaomao Zhou, Lianyang Bai
The existing form of an ionizable organic compound can simultaneously affect its soil adsorption and plant bioactivity. In this experiment, the adsorption and bioactivity of two weak acid herbicides (WAHs), imazethapyr and 2,4-D, were studied to explore the predominant mechanism by which the soil pH and the addition of biochar can influence the phytotoxicity of WAHs in soil. Then, the WAH concentration extracted by hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (CHF-LPME ), the in situ pore water concentration (CIPW ) and the added concentration (CAC ) were employed to estimate the phytotoxicity...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929134/genomic-damage-induced-by-the-widely-used-fungicide-chlorothalonil-in-peripheral-human-lymphocytes
#8
Alfredo Santovito, Claudio Gendusa, Francesca Ferraro, Irene Musso, Maria Costanzo, Stefano Ruberto, Piero Cervella
Chlorothalonil is an important broad spectrum fungicide widely used in agriculture, silviculture, and urban settings. As a result of its massive use, chlorothalonil was found in all environmental matrices, with consequent risks to the health of terrestrial and aquatic organisms, as well as for humans. We analyzed the effects of chlorothalonil on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNi) assays. Lymphocytes were exposed to five concentrations of chlorothalonil: 0.600 µg/mL, 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929131/high-potential-accumulation-and-tolerance-in-the-submerged-hydrophyte-hydrilla-verticillata-l-f-royle-for-nickel-contaminated-water
#9
Yang Song, Ling-Lei Zhang, Jia Li, Xiao-Jia He, Min Chen, Yun Deng
Water contamination by nickel (Ni) has become an increasing concern in recent decades. Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle has been recognized as a promising accumulator of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in phytoremediation, but its Ni-accumulation characteristics and its mechanisms of tolerance to Ni remain largely unknown. This research investigated the biochemical responses of leaves and stems of H. verticillata to various concentrations of Ni (5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 μM) over periods of 7, 14, or 21 days...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929126/-how-do-you-know-those-particles-are-from-cigarettes-an-algorithm-to-help-differentiate-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-from-background-sources-of-household-fine-particulate-matter
#10
Ruaraidh Dobson, Sean Semple
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) at home is a target for public health interventions, such as air quality feedback interventions using low-cost particle monitors. However, these monitors also detect fine particles generated from non-SHS sources. The Dylos DC1700 reports particle counts in the coarse and fine size ranges. As tobacco smoke produces far more fine particles than coarse ones, and tobacco is generally the greatest source of particulate pollution in a smoking home, the ratio of coarse to fine particles may provide a useful method to identify the presence of SHS in homes...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929113/predicting-suicidal-behaviour-after-first-episode-of-non-affective-psychosis-the-role-of-neurocognitive-functioning
#11
M Canal-Rivero, J D López-Moríñigo, E Setién-Suero, M Ruiz-Veguilla, J L Ayuso-Mateos, R Ayesa-Arriola, B Crespo-Facorro
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been recognised as one of the major causes of premature death in psychosis. However, predicting suicidal behaviour (SB) is still challenging in the clinical setting and the association of neurocognition with SB in psychosis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of neurocognitive performance as predictor of SB. Also, we sought to explore differences in the evolution of clinical and neurocognitive functioning between participants with/without history of suicide attempts (SA) over follow-up period...
June 18, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929089/impact-of-a-novel-environment-on-alcohol-induced-locomotor-activity-in-wistar-rats
#12
Fabiola Hernández-Vázquez, Cosette Reyes-Guzmán, Milagros Méndez
Clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between novelty-seeking behavior and the susceptibility to consume drugs of abuse. Although several animal studies have demonstrated this correlation with psychostimulants or morphine, studies with alcohol have shown conflicting results. The aim of this work was to investigate alcohol-induced motor effects in Wistar rats with different responses to novelty. Animals were classified as Low- (LR) or High-Responders (HR) to novelty, depending on their horizontal activity in an automated open field...
February 17, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929086/positive-and-negative-social-support-and-hpa-axis-hyperactivity-evidence-from-glucocorticoids-in-human-hair
#13
Eleonora Iob, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
INTRODUCTION: While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health...
June 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929083/sliding-wear-and-friction-characteristics-of-polymer-nanocomposite-paek-pdms-with-nano-hydroxyapatite-and-nano-carbon-fibres-as-fillers
#14
Suman B Iyer, Anshuman Dube, N M Dube, Pratik Roy, R R N Sailaja
The development of a suitable polymeric bioactive composite with hydroxyapatite as a filler is one of the very actively pursued areas in bioapplications. This report concerns development of such a novel polymeric biocomposite viz. poly (aryl ether) ketone-poly (dimethylsiloxane) with a small percentage of nano carbon fibres and varying percentages of nanohydroxyapatite particulates as fillers. The earlier characterization of this material involving mechanical, thermal and bio-compatibility studies showed optimum improved behaviour at about 7% nanohydroxyapatite loading as reported elsewhere...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929081/decellularized-peripheral-nerve-supports-schwann-cell-transplants-and-axon-growth-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Robert C Cornelison, Michaela W Mertz, Rebecca A Wachs, Christine E Schmidt, Mary Bartlett Bunge
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been comprehensively studied as a strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. SCs are neuroprotective and promote axon regeneration and myelination. Nonetheless, substantial SC death occurs post-implantation, which limits therapeutic efficacy. The use of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived matrices, such as Matrigel, supports transplanted SC survival and axon growth, resulting in improved motor function. Because appropriate matrices are needed for clinical translation, we test here the use of an acellular injectable peripheral nerve (iPN) matrix...
May 28, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929077/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-some-pyrazolo-3-4-d-pyrimidine-derivatives-bearing-thiazolidinone-moiety-as-anti-inflammatory-agents
#16
Gina N Tageldin, Salwa M Fahmy, Hayam M Ashour, Mounir A Khalil, Rasha A Nassra, Ibrahim M Labouta
Two new series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine bearing thiazolidinone moiety were designed and synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory assay. Compounds that showed promising COX-2 selectivity were further subjected to in vivo anti-inflammatory screening applying formalin induced paw edema (acute model) and cotton-pellet induced granuloma (chronic model) assays using celecoxib and diclofenac sodium as reference drugs. The histopathological and ulcerogenic potential were also determined...
June 5, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929070/effects-of-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-application-on-dentin-mmp-2-stability-of-bond-strength-and-failure-mode-of-total-etch-and-self-etch-adhesive-systems
#17
Vivianne Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes França, Cecilia Pedroso Turssi, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do Amaral, Lucas Novaes Teixeira, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Roberta Tarkany Basting
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the long-term effect of dentin pretreatment with 0.05 or 0.1% caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on (1) bond strength of resin composite to dentin by a three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose/ ASB) or a two-step self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond/ CSE), (2) their fracture mode, (3) the micromorphological features of the hybrid layer formed; and (4) the level of MMP-2 in dentin (after application, using a correlative immunoexpression/quantification approach)...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929063/prevalence-bioserotyping-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-detected-in-pigs-at-slaughter-in-sardinia
#18
Federica Fois, Francesca Piras, Mia Torpdahl, Roberta Mazza, Daniela Ladu, Simonetta G Consolati, Carlo Spanu, Christian Scarano, Enrico P L De Santis
The aims of the present study were to determine Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in finishing pigs and piglets at slaughter and to characterize the isolates in terms of bioserotype, virulence profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic diversity. During the years 2013-2014, nine pig slaughterhouses placed in Sardinia (Italy) were visited twice, in order to collect animal samples and scalding water. Overall, 609 samples respectively of tonsils (126), colon content (161), mesenteric lymph nodes (161) and carcass surfaces (161) were collected from 126 finishing pigs and 35 piglets...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929061/hypervigilance-during-anxiety-and-selective-attention-during-fear-using-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-ssveps-to-disentangle-attention-mechanisms-during-predictable-and-unpredictable-threat
#19
Anna K Kastner-Dorn, Marta Andreatta, Paul Pauli, Matthias J Wieser
Anxiety is induced by unpredictable threat, and presumably characterized by enhanced vigilance. In contrast, fear is elicited by imminent threat, and leads to phasic responses with selective attention. In order to investigate attention mechanisms and defensive responding during fear and anxiety, we employed an adaptation of the NPU-threat test and measured cortical (steady-state visual evoked potentials, ssVEPs), physiological (heart rate, HR), and subjective responses (ratings) to predictable (fear-related) and unpredictable (anxiety-related) threat in 42 healthy participants...
May 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929060/perfusion-pressure-of-a-new-cannulating-fenestrated-pedicle-screw-during-cement-augmentation
#20
Zhirong Wang, Wen Zhang, Hao Xu, Aiqing Lu, Huilin Yang, Zong-Ping Luo
BACKGROUND: Cannulating fenestrated pedicle screws are effective for fixating osteoporotic vertebrae. However, a major limitation is the excessive pressure required to inject a sufficient amount of cement into the vertebral body through the narrow hole of a pedicle screw. We have recently proposed a new cannulating fenestrated pedicle screw with a large hole diameter and a matched inner pin for screw-strength maintenance. Our purpose was to determine whether the new screw can significantly reduce bone-cement perfusion pressure during cement augmentation, METHODS: Two different methods were used to examine perfusion pressure...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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