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Paulo Emilio Botura Ferreira, Evandro José Beraldi, Stephanie Carvalho Borges, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Nilza Cristina Buttow
Damages to the enteric nervous system caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently attributed to oxidative and nitrosative stress. We aimed to investigate the effect of Resveratrol (RSV) (10 mg/kg) on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the intestinal wall and morphoquantitative aspects of the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in diabetic rats. Twenty-four rats were distributed into four groups (n = 6/group): control (C group), control treated with RSV (CR group), diabetic (D group), and diabetic treated with RSV (DR group) for 120 days...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Swenja Kröller-Schön, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Matthias Oelze, Katie Frenis, Sanela Kalinovic, Axel Heimann, Frank P Schmidt, Antonio Pinto, Miroslava Kvandova, Ksenija Vujacic-Mirski, Konstantina Filippou, Markus Dudek, Markus Bosmann, Matthias Klein, Tobias Bopp, Omar Hahad, Philipp S Wild, Katrin Frauenknecht, Axel Methner, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Hanke Mollnau, Thomas Münzel
Aims: Aircraft noise causes endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Transportation noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and stroke. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Herein, we investigated effects of phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase (Nox2) knockout and different noise protocols (around-the-clock, sleep/awake phase noise) on vascular and cerebral complications in mice. Methods and results: C57BL/6j and Nox2-/- (gp91phox-/-) mice were exposed to aircraft noise (maximum sound level of 85 dB(A), average sound pressure level of 72 dB(A)) around-the-clock or during sleep/awake phases for 1, 2, and 4 days...
June 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Levent Ozcan, Emre Can Polat, Efe Onen, Alper Otunctemur, Emin Ozbek, Adnan Somay, Nurver Ozbay
PURPOSE: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are common medical problems, particularlyamong older women. In this study, we aim to explore the relationship between the neurotransmitter nNOS in the vaginal epithelium, and the occurrence of SUI and changes of nNOS levels according to menopausal status.Matherials and Methods: Fourty women were enrolled. The patients were divided into four groups according to menstruaiton status and SUI. The vagina specimens were taken during transobturator tape application...
June 14, 2018: Urology Journal
Andrea Paolini, Saleh Omairi, Robert Mitchell, Danielle Vaughan, Antonios Matsakas, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri, Thomas Ricketts, David C Rubinsztein, Ketan Patel
Autophagy has been implicated as a major factor in the development of a number of diseases of skeletal muscle. However, its role in skeletal muscle homeostasis is still evolving. We examined skeletal muscle architecture in a mouse model, Atg16L1, where autophagy is attenuated but importantly still present. We show that muscle fibres from Atg16L1 mice were smaller than wild-type counterparts, proving a role for this process in the growth of these cells. We show that mild attenuation of autophagy results in accelerated muscle loss during the initial phase of acute starvation...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gyeong Bok Jung, Sung Wook Kang, Gi-Ja Lee, Dohyun Kim
Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the most common neurodegenerative conditions characterized by cerebral infarction, death of the brain tissue, and loss of brain function. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is the tissue damage caused when blood supply begins to the tissue after a period of ischemia or poor oxygen supply. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the biochemical changes in the brain hippocampal area, CA1, resulting from ischemia reperfusion and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor treatment in rats using Raman spectroscopy...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Serkan Karakus, Biljana Musicki, Arthur L Burnett
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the molecular basis of penile erection at the human level and distinguish mechanisms underlying vasculogenic and post-radical prostatectomy (post-RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Erectile tissue was obtained from men without histories of ED who underwent penile surgery for Peyronie's disease (control, n=5) and with ED who underwent penile prosthesis implantation (n=17). ED was categorized into vasculogenic (n=8) and post-RP (n=9) subtypes...
June 11, 2018: BJU International
J Zhang, Y Han, Y Wang, X Cheng, C-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: The collateral circulation development is considered as a compensatory inherent mechanism to restore damaged blood perfusion after ischemia. We aimed to detect the collateral flow and the mean blood-flow velocities (mBFVs) level in the basilar trunk during or after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in the mice brain and explore the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition on the collateral flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice and the nNOS knockout (KO) mice were randomly divided into a sham-operated group (control) and the hypoxia-ischemia (HI) groups that were treated with the phosphate buffered solution (PBS) control or 7-nitroindazole (7-NI)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fotis Perlikos, Maria Lagiou, Apostolos Papalois, Tatiana Rizou, Christos Kroupis, Ioannis K Toumpoulis
INTRODUCTION: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury after thoracoabdominal aortic occlusion represents a major complication, which increases morbidity and mortality. In the present study we hypothesized that lazaroid U-74389G intravenous administration protects from lung ischemia-reperfusion injury through lipid peroxidation inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 pigs were randomized in three groups. Group I (n=8) underwent sham operation, group II (n=8) underwent thoracoabdominal aortic occlusion for 45min and received placebo and group III (n=8) received 3 doses of lazaroid (3 mg/kg) 60 and 30min before thoracoabdominal aortic occlusion and at 30min during thoracoabdominal aortic occlusion (duration 45min)...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Jelena Krunić, Nikola Stojanović, Ljiljana Đukić, Jelena Roganović, Branka Popović, Ivana Simić, Dragica Stojić
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate local effect of gaseous ozone on bacteria in deep carious lesions after incomplete caries removal, using chlorhexidine as control, and to investigate its effect on pulp vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibacterial effect was evaluated in 48 teeth with diagnosed deep carious lesion. After incomplete caries removal, teeth were randomly allocated into two groups regarding the cavity disinfectant used: ozone (open system) or 2% chlorhexidine...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Li-Juan Zhu, Huan-Yu Ni, Rong Chen, Lei Chang, Hu-Jiang Shi, Dan Qiu, Zhan Zhang, Dan-Lian Wu, Zhao-Chun Jiang, Hong-Liang Xin, Qi-Gang Zhou, Dong-Ya Zhu
Anxiety disorders are associated with a high social burden worldwide. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has significant implications for psychiatric diseases, including anxiety and depressive disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of NF-κB in stress-induced anxiety behaviors are poorly understood. In this study, we show that chronic mild stress (CMS) and glucocorticoids dramatically increased the expression of NF-κB subunits p50 and p65, phosphorylation and acetylation of p65, and the level of nuclear p65 in vivo and in vitro, implicating activation of NF-κB signaling in chronic stress-induced pathological processes...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Davi C Lagatta, Luciana B Kuntze, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Leonardo B M Resstel
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) facilitates the cardiac baroreflex response through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation and nitric oxide (NO) formation by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) triggering. Glutamatergic transmission is modulated by the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 ) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 ) receptors, which may inhibit or stimulate glutamate release in the brain, respectively. Interestingly, vMPFC CB1 receptors decrease cardiac baroreflex responses, while TRPV1 channels facilitate them...
May 29, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Emily Allen, John H Coote, Blair D Grubb, Trevor Fc Batten, Dainius H Pauza, G André Ng, Kieran E Brack
BACKGROUND: The intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS) is a rich network of cardiac nerves that converge to form distinct ganglia and extend across the heart and is capable of influencing cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: To provide a picture of the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator profile of the rabbit ICNS and determine the action of spatially divergent ganglia on cardiac electrophysiology. METHODS: Nicotinic or electrical stimulation was applied at discrete sites of the intrinsic cardiac nerve plexus in the Langendorff perfused rabbit heart...
May 22, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kanji Yoshimoto, Shuichi Ueda
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the distribution patterns and functions of nNOS in slowly progressive DA neurodegeneration. Here we describe the spatiotemporal change in nNOS expression over the course of neurodegeneration and the effect of short- or long-term treatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), in zitter (zi/zi) rats. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), nNOS expression was significantly increased with progression of neurodegeneration...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Rongde Wu
Transplanting enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach for replacing enteric neurons in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). However, posttransplantation cell survival and differentiation limit efficacy. We aimed to investigate whether transplantation of ENSCs engineered with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve survival and differentiation of the engrafted cells and promote functional recovery of the aganglionic colon. ENSCs were isolated from the intestine of neonatal mice and genetically modified to express IGF-1...
May 24, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Marvin E Adams, Guy L Odom, Min Jeong Kim, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Stanley C Froehner
Mutation of the gene encoding dystrophin leads to Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD). Currently, dystrophin is thought to function primarily as a structural protein, connecting the muscle cell actin cytoskeleton to the extra-cellular matrix. In addition to this structural role, dystrophin also plays an important role as a scaffold that organizes an array of signaling proteins including sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, kinases, and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Many of these signaling proteins are linked to dystrophin via syntrophin, an adapter protein that is known to bind directly to two sites in the carboxyl terminal region of dystrophin...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Pegah Saberi, Naeemeh Ghasemkhani, Nahid Fakhraei, Rezvan Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
PURPOSE: Licofelone, a dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of licofelone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression in a mouse model and also a possible role for nitric oxide (NO). METHODS: To elucidate the role of NO on this effect of licofelone (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), L-NAME, a non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AG), a specific inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor; 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) a preferential neuronal NOS inhibitor (nNOS) and; L-arginine (L-Arg), as a NO donor, were used...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kuniyasu Muraoka, Shuichi Morizane, Keisuke Hieda, Masashi Honda, Takehiro Sejima, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe, Atsushi Takenaka
BACKGROUND: Although the pelvic autonomic plexus branches are considered to be a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little is known regarding the composite fibers of the pelvic plexus branches. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical features of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in the pelvic autonomic plexus branches. METHODS: Using 10 donated elderly male cadavers, the detailed topohistology of nerve fibers at and around the bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, and rectum was examined...
May 22, 2018: BMC Urology
Rong Tan, Lijun Cao
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-α in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities. Accumulating evidence also supports an important role of cannabinoids in modulating neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Hongjie Yi, Guoyang Huang, Kun Zhang, Shulin Liu, Weigang Xu
During diving, central nervous system oxygen toxicity may cause drowning or barotrauma, which has dramatically limited the working benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in underwater operations and clinical applications. The aim of this study is to understand the effects and the underlying mechanism of heat shock protein 70 on central nervous system oxygen toxicity and its mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given geranylgeranylacetone (800 mg/kg) orally to induce hippocampal expression of heat shock protein 70 and then treated with hyperbaric oxygen...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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