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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827077/high-potential-defense-mechanisms-of-neocortex-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-asphyxia-induced-cardiac-arrest
#1
Gerburg Keilhoff, Torben Esser, Maximilian Titze, Uwe Ebmeyer, Lorenz Schild
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of disability and mortality and thus an important risk for human health. Circulatory failure has dramatic consequences for the brain as one of the most oxygen-consuming organs. Hippocampus, striatum and neocortex rate among the most vulnerable brain regions. The neocortex is less sensitive to hypoxia/reperfusion in comparison with the hippocampal CA1 region. That implicates the existence of efficient defense mechanisms in the neocortex against hypoxia/reperfusion injury, which we analyzed in a well-established CA rat model...
August 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815720/pharmacological-evidence-of-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-pathway-in-anti-pruritic-effects-of-sumatriptan-in-chloroquine-induced-scratching-in-mice
#2
Nazgol-Sadat Haddadi, Sattar Ostadhadi, Saeed Shakiba, Khashayar Afshari, Nastaran Rahimi, Arash Foroutan, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Chloroquine (CQ) induces histamine-independent itch in human and mice. We recently reported the role of intradermal nitric oxide (NO)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in CQ-evoked scratching in mice. Chloroquine stimulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity to over-producing NO in the skin. Sumatriptan, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1b/1d receptors (5-HTR1b/1d) agonist, is involved in pain and used to treat migraine and cluster headaches. According to previous studies, sumatriptan inhibits NOS activity...
August 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808196/antioxidant-mediated-response-of-scoparia-dulcis-in-noise-induced-redox-imbalance-and-immunohistochemical-changes-in-rat-brain
#3
Wankupar Wankhar, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Ravindran Rajan, Rathinasamy Sheeladevi
Noise has been regarded as an environmental/occupational stressor that causes damages to both auditory and non-auditory organs. Prolonged exposure to these mediators of stress has often resulted in detrimental effect, where oxidative/nitrosative stress plays a major role. Hence, it would be appropriate to examine the possible role of free radicals in brain discrete regions and the "antioxidants" mediated response of S. dulcis. Animals were subjected to noise stress for 15 days (100 dB/4 hours/day) and estimation of endogenous free radical and antioxidant activity were carried out on brain discrete regions (the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800639/mitochondrial-impairment-and-melatonin-protection-in-parkinsonian-mice-do-not-depend-of-inducible-or-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases
#4
Ana López, Francisco Ortiz, Carolina Doerrier, Carmen Venegas, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Paula Aranda, María E Díaz-Casado, Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Eliana Barriocanal-Casado, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
MPTP-mouse model constitutes a well-known model of neuroinflammation and mitochondrial failure occurring in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although it has been extensively reported that nitric oxide (NO●) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PD, the relative roles of nitric oxide synthase isoforms iNOS and nNOS in the nigrostriatal pathway remains, however, unclear. Here, the participation of iNOS/nNOS isoforms in the mitochondrial dysfunction was analyzed in iNOS and nNOS deficient mice. Our results showed that MPTP increased iNOS activity in substantia nigra and striatum, whereas it sharply reduced complex I activity and mitochondrial bioenergetics in all strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782252/cyclic-amp-dependent-post-translational-modification-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-neuroprotects-penile-erection-in-rats
#5
Serkan Karakus, Biljana Musicki, Justin D La Favor, Arthur L Burnett
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate nNOS phosphorylation, nNOS uncoupling, and oxidative stress in the penis and major pelvic ganglia (MPG), before and after the administration of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) agonist colforsin in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) which mimics nerve injury following prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into BCNI and sham groups. Each group included 2 subgroups: vehicle and colforsin (0...
August 7, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776992/hydrophilic-potent-and-selective-7-substituted-2-aminoquinolines-as-improved-human-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitors
#6
Anthony V Pensa, Maris A Cinelli, Huiying Li, Georges Chreifi, Paramita Mukherjee, Linda J Roman, Pavel Martásek, Thomas L Poulos, Richard B Silverman
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a target for development of antineurodegenerative agents. Most nNOS inhibitors mimic l-arginine and have poor bioavailability. 2-Aminoquinolines showed promise as bioavailable nNOS inhibitors but suffered from low human nNOS inhibition, low selectivity versus human eNOS, and significant binding to other CNS targets. We aimed to improve human nNOS potency and selectivity and reduce off-target binding by (a) truncating the original scaffold or (b) introducing a hydrophilic group to interrupt the lipophilic, promiscuous pharmacophore and promote interaction with human nNOS-specific His342...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776755/maternal-administration-of-melatonin-exerts-short-and-long-term-neuroprotective-effects-on-the-offspring-from-lipopolysaccharide-treated-mice
#7
Ana Paula Domínguez Rubio, Fernando Correa, Julieta Aisemberg, Damián Dorfman, María Victoria Bariani, Ruth Rosenstein, María Zorrilla Zubilete, Ana María Franchi
Preterm birth is a major contributor to early and delayed physical and cognitive impairment. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that maternal infections are a significant and preventable cause of preterm birth. Recently, melatonin has been suggested to exert neuroprotective effects in several models of brain injury. Here we sought to investigate whether the administration of melatonin is able to prevent LPS-induced fetal brain damage in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm labor. For this purpose, 15-days pregnant BALB/c mice received intraperitoneally two doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle, the first one at 10:00 h (0...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774159/comparison-of-changes-in-the-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-positive-neuronal-cells-with-aging-between-the-ascending-and-descending-colon-of-f344-rats
#8
Sun Min Lee, Nayoung Kim, Hyun Jin Jo, Ji Hyun Park, Ryoung Hee Nam, Hye Seung Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Moon Young Lee, Yong Sung Kim, Dong Ho Lee
Background/Aims: Neuronal degeneration and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mechanisms of age-related constipation. This study aims to compare the distribution of ICCs and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to age-related changes between the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) in 6-, 31-, and 74-week old and 2-year old male Fischer-344 rats. Methods: The amount of fecal pellet and the bead expulsion times were measured...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771575/zl006-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-psd-95-nnos-interaction-does-not-induce-antidepressant-like-effects-in-two-genetically-predisposed-rat-models-of-depression-and-control-animals
#9
Sandra Tillmann, Vitor Silva Pereira, Nico Liebenberg, Anne Karina Christensen, Gregers Wegener
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and nitric oxide inhibitors have shown promising efficacy in depression but commonly induce adverse events. To circumvent these, a more indirect disruption of the nitric oxide synthase/postsynaptic density protein 95 kDa complex at the NMDA-R has been proposed. This disruption can be achieved using small molecule inhibitors such as ZL006, which has attracted attention as ischemic stroke therapy in rodents and has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763467/effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-on-penile-structure-alteration-in-rats-with-hyperprolactinemia
#10
Zhong-Lin Wang, Ling-Yu Yang, Hong-Huan Chen, Hsiao-Hsin Lin, Yi-Ting Tsai, William J Huang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody (Ab) on alteration of penile structure in the hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) rat model. HyperPRL was induced in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by allografting anterior pituitary (AP) glands under the renal capsule (+AP rats). Rats implanted with cerebral cortex (CX) were used as sham control (+CX rats). At 6 weeks post implantation, rats received either a single intra-testicular dose of TNF-α Ab (12.5 μg/kg) or testosterone replacement (2 doses of testosterone enanthate [TE], 3 mg/kg), and they were sacrificed 1 week later...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755521/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-dysbiosis-impairs-neuromuscular-function-in-juvenile-mice
#11
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Viviana Filpa, Silvia Cerantola, Genny Orso, Michela Bistoletti, Nicola Paccagnella, Sara De Martin, Monica Montopoli, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Francesca Crema, Iole-Maria Di Gangi, Francesca Galuppini, Isabella Lante, Sara Bogialli, Massimo Rugge, Patrizia Debetto, Cristina Giaroni, Maria Cecilia Giron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Early life perturbations of gut microbiota can potentially impact neurodevelopment leading to functional bowel disorders later in life. We examined the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis impairs ENS structural and functional integrity leading to gut dysmotility in juvenile mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To induce gut dysbiosis broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered by gavage to juvenile male C57Bl/6 mice for 14 days...
July 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754372/endogenous-nitric-oxide-inhibits-spinal-nmda-receptor-activity-and-pain-hypersensitivity-induced-by-nerve-injury
#12
Shao-Rui Chen, Xiao-Gao Jin, Hui-Lin Pan
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord level remains uncertain. Increased activity of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contributes to development of chronic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we determined how endogenous NO affects NMDA receptor activity of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons in control and spinal nerve-ligated rats. Bath application of the NO precursor l-arginine or the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) significantly inhibited NMDA receptor currents of spinal dorsal horn neurons in both sham control and nerve-injured rats...
July 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746839/depletion-of-5-hydroxy-triptamine-5-ht-affects-the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-in-mice
#13
Vanessa Marques da Silva Leal, Vivian Taciany Bonassoli, Lígia Mendes Soares, Humberto Milani, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the genesis of depression as well as in antidepressant drug effects. Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) exert antidepressant-like effect in several animal models, but also interfere with the locomotor activity. The involvement of different isoforms of NOS in the antidepressant-like effects is not clearly established. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acute or repeated administration of selective inhibitors of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and induced NOS (iNOS), 7 nitroindazole (7NI) and 1400W, respectively, in mice subjected to open field (OF) and forced swim test (FST)...
July 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#14
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
July 25, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740229/connexin-hemichannel-blockade-improves-survival-of-striatal-gaba-ergic-neurons-after-global-cerebral-ischaemia-in-term-equivalent-fetal-sheep
#15
Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Christopher A Lear, Laura Bennet, Colin R Green, Alistair J Gunn
Basal ganglia injury at term remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. In this study we tested the hypotheses that blockade of astrocytic connexin hemichannels with a mimetic peptide would improve survival of striatal phenotypic neurons after global cerebral ischaemia in term-equivalent fetal sheep, and that neuronal survival would be associated with electrophysiological recovery. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) were randomly assigned to receive a short or long (1 or 25 h) intracerebroventricular infusion of a mimetic peptide or vehicle, starting 90 minutes after 30 minutes of cerebral ischaemia...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#16
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734674/retinal-exposure-to-high-glucose-condition-modifies-the-gabaergic-system-regulation-by-nitric-oxide
#17
R Carpi-Santos, R S Maggesissi, M P von Seehausen, K C Calaza
Diabetic retinopathy is a severe retinal complication that diabetic patients are susceptible to present. Although this disease is currently characterized as a microvascular disease, there is growing evidence that neural changes occur and maybe precede vascular impairments. Using chicken retina, an avascular tissue with no direct contact with blood vessels and neural retina, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute exposure to high glucose concentration in the retinal GABAergic system, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this modulation...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726801/accumbens-mechanisms-for-cued-sucrose-seeking
#18
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Michael D Scofield, Victoria Chareunsouk, Cara Monforton, Peter W Kalivas
Many studies support a perspective that addictive drugs usurp brain circuits used by natural rewards, especially for the dopamine-dependent reinforcing qualities of both drugs and natural rewards. Reinstated drug seeking in animal models of relapse relies on glutamate spillover from cortical terminals synapsing in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) to stimulate metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) interneurons. Contrasting the release of dopamine that is shared by sucrose and drugs of abuse, reinstated sucrose seeking does not induce glutamate spillover...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725180/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-is-present-in-dendritic-spines-of-neurons-in-primary-cultures
#19
Ariel Caviedes, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Carlos Lafourcade, Soledad Sandoval, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Thilo Kaehne, Angela Massmann, Jorge P Figueroa, Francisco Nualart, Ursula Wyneken
Nitric oxide exerts important regulatory functions in various brain processes. Its synthesis in neurons has been most commonly ascribed to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform. However, the endothelial isoform (eNOS), which is significantly associated with caveolae in different cell types, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is enriched in the dendrites of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Using high resolution microscopy and co-distribution analysis of eNOS with synaptic and raft proteins, we now show for the first time in primary cortical and hippocampal neuronal cultures, virtually devoid of endothelial cells, that eNOS is present in neurons and is localized in dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720379/inhibition-of-12-15-lox-ameliorates-cognitive-and-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-mouse-model-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress
#20
Richa Choudhary, Udayabanu Malairaman, Anju Katyal
12/15 Lipoxygenase has recently been described as potent propagator of oxidative stress and is closely associated with cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism/s behind 12/15 LOX involvement in cognitive deficits remain obscure. The current study has been designed to investigate the underlying role of 12/15LOX and effect of 12/15 LOX inhibition on hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment and cholinergic deficits. Male Balb/c mice subjected to simulated hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation condition for 3days showed marked working memory impairment concomitant with hippocampal neuronal damage and malondialdehyde production which were significantly attenuated by baicalein, a specific inhibitor of 12/15LOX...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience
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