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Vitor Castania, Ana Carolina Issy, João Walter Silveira, Frederico Rogério Ferreira, Simoneide S Titze-de-Almeida, Fernando F B Resende, Nádia Rubia Ferreira, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida, Helton L A Defino, Elaine Del Bel
Intervertebral disk degeneration is a progressive and debilitating disease with multifactorial causes. Nitric oxide (NO) might contribute to the cell death pathway. We evaluated the presence of the constitutive form of the neuronal NOS (nNOS) in both health and degenerated intervertebral disk through qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the potential role of nNOS modulation in the tail needle puncture model of intervertebral disk degeneration. Male Wistar rats were submitted to percutaneous disk puncture with a 21-gauge needle of coccygeal vertebras...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Francisco Molina, María Luisa Del Moral, María Ángeles Peinado, Alma Rus
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play a key role in the hypoxic injury to the brain. We have previously reported that hypoxia/reoxygenation downregulated NO synthases (NOS) in the adult striatum. Until now, no data were available concerning the influence of aging in conjunction with hypoxia/reoxygenation on the NO system in the striatum. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of the NO pathway in the hypoxic aged striatum. METHODS: Wistar rats 24-25 months old were submitted to hypobaric hypoxia (20 min)/reoxygenation (0 h, 24 h, 5 days)...
October 20, 2016: Gerontology
Somasundaram Ramasamy, Mohammad Mahfuzul Haque, Mahinda Gangoda, Dennis J Stuehr
The NO synthases (NOS) catalyze a two-step oxidation of L-Arginine (Arg) to generate NO. In the first step, O2 activation involves one electron being provided to the heme by an enzyme-bound 6R-tetrahydro-L-biopterin cofactor (H4 B), which then forms a H4 B radical that must be reduced back to H4 B in order for NOS to continue catalysis. Although an NADPH-derived electron is used to reduce the H4 B radical, how this occurs is unknown. We hypothesized that the NOS flavoprotein domain might reduce the H4 B radical by utilizing the NOS heme porphyrin as a conduit to deliver the electron...
October 19, 2016: FEBS Journal
Tijen Kaya Temiz, Omer Demir, Fatma Simsek, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Selen Bahceci, Barıs Karadas, Aslı Celik, Gokhan Koyluoglu
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Chao Liang, Kaiyue Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoint ST 37 (Shangjuxu) has been used to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms and improve gastrointestinal motility. However, the mechanisms by which EA affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) have scarcely been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether EA could improve ENS function. METHODS: A constipation model was established by gastric instillation of ice-cold saline daily for 14 days. The constipated mice were divided into two groups: the model group, which was not treated, and the EA group, which received EA at ST 37 at a frequency of 2-15 HZ and an amplitude of 1 mA for 15 min a day for 3 days...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Muruvvet Topaloglu, Erdem Tuzun, Huseyin Gulec, Elif Sinem Bireller, Bedia Cakmakoglu, Cem Ismail Kucukali
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disease characterized by recurrent and intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviours that negatively affect the quality-of-life of the patients. Recent studies have implicated the participation of neuronal nitric oxide in OCD pathogenesis as a neurotransmitter modulator. AIMS: To identify whether variations in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) genes may render individuals susceptible to OCD development...
October 14, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Masato Yamauchi, Masahito Yamamoto, Kei Kitamura, Masaaki Kasahara, Satoru Matsunaga, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
The vestibular and geniculate ganglia of the ear in experimental animals carry both of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive sympathetic neurons and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive parasympathetic neurons. With an aid of immunohistochemistry, we examined these ganglia as well as the horizontal part of the facial nerve using specimens from 10 formalin-fixed elderly cadavers. The submandibular ganglion from the same cadavers was used for the positive control for both markers. Although there was a nonspecific reaction in nuclei for the present antibody of nNOS, these ganglia were unlikely to contain either nNOS- or TH-positive neurons...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
N-H Nguyen, N Bogliotti, R Chennoufi, E Henry, P Tauc, E Salas, L J Roman, A Slama-Schwok, E Deprez, J Xie
A new series of photoactivable NADPH mimics bearing one or two O-carboxymethyl groups on the adenosine moiety have been readily synthesized using click chemistry. These compounds display interesting one- or two-photon absorption properties. Their fluorescence emission wavelength and quantum yields (Φ) are dependent on the solvent polarity, with a red-shift in a more polar environment (λmax,em = 460-467 nm, Φ > 0.53 in DMSO, and λmax,em = 475-491 nm, Φ < 0.17 in Tris). These compounds show good binding affinity towards the constitutive nNOS and eNOS, confirming for the first time that the carboxymethyl group can be used as a surrogate of phosphate...
October 12, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sarah L Wynia-Smith, Brian C Smith
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule impacting many biological pathways. NO is produced in mammals by three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS), and inducible (iNOS). nNOS and eNOS produce low concentrations of NO for paracrine signaling; NO produced and released from one cell diffuses to a neighboring cell where it binds and activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). iNOS produces high concentrations of NO using NO toxicity to amplify the innate immune response...
October 5, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Елена В Хмиль, Лилия И Ляшенко, Наталия В Янко, Дмитрий А Хмиль, Людмила Ф Каськова
INTRODUCTION: one of the peroxidation stress mechanisms is inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. AIM: to access the influence of isoform NO synthase (NOS) on alteration mechanisms of oxidative stress at periodontal tissues of 50 mature rats in a simulated periodontitis (SP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: a SP at rats was induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet. Тreated SP rat groups were intragastrically administered with selective neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole, selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine, and nitric oxide synthase substrate L-arginine...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
C Wang, J Wang, D Jia, L Li, B Jia, S Fan, J Song, X Hu, Y Wang, D Wang
Paecilomyces hepiali (PH), a well-known medicinal fungus, has various pharmacological efficacies. In our study, the antinociceptive effects of PH and underlying mechanisms were evaluated using various mouse models. An acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activities of PH. The levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamus and monoamine neurotransmitters in the serum and hypothalamus of experimental mice were examined...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Silvana Lopes-Azevedo, Cristiane Busnardo, Fernando Morgan Aguiar Corrêa
Previously, we reported that microinjection of l-proline (l-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of l-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of l-Pro (3-100 nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer d-Proline (d-Pro) or Mannitol...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
Dimitrinka Y Atanasova, Nikolay D Dimitrov, Nikolai E Lazarov
The carotid body (CB) is a major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor organ that evokes compensatory reflex responses so as to maintain gas homeostasis. It is dually innervated by sensory fibers from petrosal ganglion (PG) neurons, and autonomic fibers from postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and parasympathetic vasomotor fibers of intrinsic ganglion cells in the CB. The presence of nitric oxide (NO), a putative gaseous neurotransmitter substance in a number of neuronal and non-neuronal structures, was examined in the CB, PG and SCG of the rat using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing...
September 28, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Qin Liu, Zhixiong Gao, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Wu, Dongpei Li, Hongwen He, Fang Huang, Wenguo Fan
Nitric oxide (NO) possibly plays an important role in the events resulting in hyperalgesia. NO synthase (NOS) is a key enzyme in the production of NO. Changes in NOS expression in primary sensory neurons may be involved in the persistent sensory abnormalities that can be induced by inflammation. To assess the possible roles of NOS in trigeminal sensory system, we studied changes in the expression of NOS isoforms in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) following chronic inflammation after pulp exposure (PX) in rats...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Imre Farkas, Csaba Vastagh, Erzsébet Farkas, Flóra Bálint, Katalin Skrapits, Erik Hrabovszky, Csaba Fekete, Zsolt Liposits
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a metabolic signal molecule, regulates reproduction, although, the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, yet. Therefore, responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to the GLP-1 analog Exendin-4 and elucidation of molecular pathways acting downstream to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) have been challenged. Loose patch-clamp recordings revealed that Exendin-4 (100 nM-5 μM) elevated firing rate in hypothalamic GnRH-GFP neurons of male mice via activation of GLP-1R...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Stephanie Carvalho Borges, Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Evandro José Beraldi, Larissa Carla Lauer Schneider, Nilza Cristina Buttow
AIMS: The present study evaluated the effects of resveratrol in the myenteric plexus after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury caused by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 45min, followed by 7days of reperfusion. MAIN METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control (C group), untreated sham surgery control (SC group), sham surgery control treated with resveratrol before surgery (STA group), sham surgery control treated with resveratrol before and after surgery (STAD group), ischemic control (IRC group), ischemic treated before I/R (IRTA group), and ischemic treated before and after I/R (IRTAD group)...
September 23, 2016: Life Sciences
Marie-Francoise Doursout, Yangyan Liang, Mya C Schiess, Angelica Padilla, Brian J Poindexter, Diane L M Hickson-Bick, Roger J Bick
BACKGROUND: Specific factors in Parkinson's disease have become targets as to their protective and degenerative effects. We have demonstrated that cytokines and PD-CSF detrimentally affect microglia and astrocyte growth. While glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been recognized as a possible neuron-rescue agent, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative processes. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that glial cell activation, cytokine production, and NOS induction, play an intimate role in the loss of dopaminergic signaling, via mechanisms that are a result of inflammation and inflammatory stimuli...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
Anna Gądek-Michalska, Joanna Tadeusz, Paulina Rachwalska, Jan Bugajski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP) and hypothalamus (HT) during chronic crowding (CS) (psychosocial) and restraint (RS) (physico-psychological) stress. Adaptational changes of these stress mediators to a subsequent acute RS, in two models of chronic stress were investigated. METHODS: Rats were crowded (24 in one cage) or restrained in metal tubes for 10min twice a day for 3, 7, and 14 consecutive days and decapitated...
September 3, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
P Loren, C Cheuquemán, E Sánchez, J Risopatrón, M E Arias, R Felmer, R Sánchez
Short-term exposure of gametes to different types of stress might induce stress tolerance in mammalian embryos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term exposure of bovine mature cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) on subsequent in vitro embryo development, embryo quality and relative gene expression. Matured COCs were incubated with SIN-1 (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM SIN-1) for 1 hr before in vitro fertilization and zygotes were cultured until Day 7. The cleavage rate at 72 hr did not show any differences among groups...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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