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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674953/salm-lrfn-family-synaptic-adhesion-molecules
#1
REVIEW
Eunkyung Lie, Yan Li, Ryunhee Kim, Eunjoon Kim
Synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALMs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules involved in regulating neuronal and synapse development that have also been implicated in diverse brain dysfunctions, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). SALMs, also known as leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and fibronectin III domain-containing (LRFN) proteins, were originally identified as a group of novel adhesion-like molecules that contain LRRs in the extracellular region as well as a PDZ domain-binding tail that couples to PSD-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#2
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667170/cone-synapses-in-mammalian-retinal-rod-bipolar-cells
#3
Ji-Jie Pang, Zhuo Yang, Roy A Jacoby, Samuel M Wu
Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666640/investigating-the-interactive-effects-of-sex-steroid-hormones-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-during-adolescence-on-hippocampal-nmda-receptor-expression
#4
Cushla R McCarthny, Xin Du, YeeWen Candace Wu, Rachel A Hill
Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/- ) on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/- mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17 β -estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. Dorsal (DHP) and ventral hippocampus (VHP) were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660932/neuroprotective-effects-of-ferruginol-jatrophone-and-junicedric-acid-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-injury-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Juan M Zolezzi, Carolina B Lindsay, Felipe G Serrano, Roxana C Ureta, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been recognized as early neurotoxic intermediates with a key role in the synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Additionally, the presence of Aβ oligomers is associated with imbalanced intracellular calcium levels and apoptosis in neurons. In this context, we evaluated the effects of three diterpenes (ferruginol, jatrophone, and junicedric acid) that are found in medicinal plants and have several forms of biological activity...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621152/taurine-administration-recovers-motor-and-learning-deficits-in-an-angelman-syndrome-mouse-model
#6
Sara Guzzetti, Luciano Calzari, Lucia Buccarello, Valentina Cesari, Ivan Toschi, Stefania Cattaldo, Alessandro Mauro, Francesca Pregnolato, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Silvia Russo
Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1:10-20,000 children. Patients show moderate to severe intellectual disability, ataxia and absence of speech. Studies on both post-mortem AS human brains and mouse models revealed dysfunctions in the extra synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors implicated in the pathogenesis. Taurine is a free intracellular sulfur-containing amino acid, abundant in brain, considered an inhibiting neurotransmitter with neuroprotective properties...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620843/biofunctionalized-3d-nanopillar-arrays-fostering-cell-guidance-and-promoting-synapse-stability-and-neuronal-activity-in-networks
#7
Hayder Amin, Michele Dipalo, Francesco De Angelis, Luca Berdondini
A controlled geometry of in vitro neuronal networks allows investigation of the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuron-to-neuron and neuron-extracellular matrix interactions, which are essential to biomedical research. Herein, we report a selective guidance of primary hippocampal neurons by using arrays of three-dimensional vertical nanopillars (NPs) functionalized with a specific adhesion-promoting molecule-poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO). We show that 90% of neuronal cells are guided exclusively on the combinatorial PDLO/NP substrate...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618004/the-antidepressant-tianeptine-reverts-synaptic-ampa-receptor-defects-caused-by-deficiency-of-cdkl5
#8
Marco Tramarin, Laura Rusconi, Lara Pizzamiglio, Isabella Barbiero, Diana Peroni, Linda Scaramuzza, Tim Guilliams, David Cavalla, Flavia Antonucci, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen
Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause a complex neurological disorder, characterised by infantile seizures, impairment of cognitive and motor skills, and autistic features. Loss of Cdkl5 in mice affects dendritic spine maturation and dynamics but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still far from fully understood. Here we show that Cdkl5 deficiency in primary hippocampal neurons leads to deranged expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-iso-xazole propionic acid receptors (AMPA-R)...
March 30, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617377/inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-3-kinase-a-overexpressed-in-mouse-forebrain-modulates-synaptic-transmission-and-mglur-ltd-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#9
Byungil Choi, Hyun Woo Lee, Seojung Mo, Jin Yong Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Eunhwa Hong, Yeon Kyung Lee, June-Seek Choi, Chong-Hyun Kim, Hyun Kim
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) regulates the level of the inositol polyphosphates, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and inositol tetrakisphosphate to modulate cellular signaling and intracellular calcium homeostasis in the central nervous system. IP3K-A binds to F-actin in an activity-dependent manner and accumulates in dendritic spines, where it is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. IP3K-A knockout mice exhibit deficits in some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus synapses of the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605662/the-mtor-cell-signaling-pathway-is-crucial-to-the-long-term-protective-effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning-against-stroke
#10
Peng Wang, Rong Xie, Michelle Cheng, Robert Sapolsky, Xunming Ji, Heng Zhao
Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against stroke, but few have studied the pathophysiological mechanisms of its long-term protective effects. Here, we investigated whether the mTOR pathway is involved in the long-term protective effects of IPostC. Stroke was induced in rats by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) combined with 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion, and IPostC was induced after the CCA release. Injury size and behavioral tests were measured up to 3 weeks post stroke...
March 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600650/-efficient-discovery-and-capturing-of-nnos-psd-95-uncouplers-from-trifolium-pratense
#11
Hong-Liang He, Lin-Li Pan, Xiao-Li Gu, Jiao-Jiao Huang, Cheng-Hong Sun, Yu-Lin Tang, Li-Na Chen
Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers(MMIPs) were prepared with ZL006 as template, acrylamide(AA) as the functional monomer, and acetonitrile as pore-forming agent; then Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) were used to characterize their forms and structures. Simultaneously, the MMIPs prepared previously were used as sorbents for dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction(DSPE) to capture and identify potential nNOS-PSD-95 uncouplers from extracts of Trifolium pratense and the the activities of the screened compounds were evaluated by the neuroprotective effect and co-immunoprecipitation test...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595074/alleviation-of-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-allomyrina-dichotoma-larvae-extract
#12
Jongwan Kim, Md Nazmul Haque, Tae-Won Goo, Il Soo Moon
In the brain, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in synaptic dysfunction and eventually leads to neurodegeneration. Allomyrina dichotoma larvae are a Chinese ethnomedicine and are widely used in East Asia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of ethanol extract of A. dichotoma larvae (ADE) to improve synaptic structure and function by activating unfolded protein response (UPR) under ER stress in animal and neuron culture models. ER stress was induced in obese mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) or by treating dissociated cultures of rat embryonic (E19) hippocampal neurons with tunicamycin (TM)...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592780/downregulation-of-neuroligin1-ameliorates-postoperative-pain-through-inhibiting-neuroligin1-postsynaptic-density-95-mediated-synaptic-targeting-of-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate-receptor-glua1-subunits-in-rat-dorsal-horns
#13
Ruijuan Guo, Huili Li, Xueyang Li, Zhaojing Xue, Yuqing Sun, Danxu Ma, Yun Guan, Junfa Li, Ming Tian, Yun Wang
Neuroligin1 is an important synaptic cell adhesion molecule that modulates the function of synapses through protein-protein interactions. Yet, it remains unclear whether the regulation of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord by neruoligin1 contributes to the development of postoperative pain. In a rat model of postoperative pain induced by plantar incision, we conducted Western blot study to examine changes in the expression of postsynaptic membrane of neuroligin1, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor GluA1 and GluA2 subunits in the spinal cord dorsal horn after injury...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577884/regional-specific-effects-of-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-on-synaptic-nmdar-psd-95-complex-in-male-wistar-rats
#14
Marina Zaric, Dunja Drakulic, Ivana Gusevac Stojanovic, Natasa Mitrovic, Ivana Grkovic, Jelena Martinovic
Excessive glutamate efflux and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) over-activation represent well-known hallmarks of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, still, expression of proteins involved in this aspect of I/R pathophysiology show inconsistent data. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been proposed as potent NMDAR modulator, but its influence on I/R-induced changes up to date remains questionable. Therefore, I/R-governed alteration of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), synaptic NMDAR subunit composition, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and neuronal morphology alone or following DHEA treatment were examined...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#15
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571966/effects-of-the-antipsychotics-haloperidol-clozapine-and-aripiprazole-on-the-dendritic-spine
#16
Manabu Takaki, Masafumi Kodama, Yutaka Mizuki, Hiroki Kawai, Bunta Yoshimura, Makiko Kishimoto, Shinji Sakamoto, Yuko Okahisa, Norihito Yamada
Three types of antipsychotics, typical (e.g. haloperidol), atypical (e.g. clozapine), and dopamine partial agonist (e.g. aripiprazole), are administered for treatment of schizophrenia. These antipsychotics have different efficacy and side-effect profiles. We investigated whether aripiprazole, clozapine, and haloperidol differentially regulate the dendritic spine through the AKT-GSK-3 beta cascade. Dissociated cortical neurons from Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared and cultured for 28 days. Aripiprazole, clozapine, or haloperidol was administered to the rat cortical neurons...
March 20, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560440/chronic-voluntary-oral-methamphetamine-induces-deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-protein-kinase-mzeta-with-enhanced-astrogliosis-and-cyclooxygenase-2-levels
#17
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557723/in-silico-identification-and-design-of-potent-peptide-inhibitors-against-pdz-3-domain-of-post-synaptic-density-protein-psd-95
#18
Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
Unique intrinsic properties of peptides like low toxicity, high biological activity and specificity make them attractive therapeutic agents. PDZ binding peptide inhibitors have been demonstrated for curing of Alzheimer, Parkinson, Dementia and other central nervous system ailments. In this article, we report the successful use of an integrated computational protocol to analyze the structural basis of how peptides bind to the shallow groove of the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) from the Post Synaptic Density (PSD-95) protein...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550707/a-surface-magnetic-imprinted-polymers-as-artificial-receptors-for-selective-and-efficient-capturing-of-new-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-post-synaptic-density-protein-95-uncouplers
#19
Dandan Yao, Lei Zhang, Jiaojiao Huang, Chenghong Sun, Yu Zhang, Xiaoli Gu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Fei Li, Lina Chen, Chun-Su Yuan
In this work, surface magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (SMMIPs) were synthesized and used as artificial receptors in the dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for capturing potential neuronal nitric oxide synthase-post synaptic density protein-95 (nNOS-PSD-95) uncouplers, which is known as neuroprotection against stroke. Factors that affected selective separation and adsorption of the artificial receptors, such as the amount of template, the types of functional monomer and porogen solvents, and the molar ratio of template/functional monomer/cross-linker were optimized...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547062/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-protects-the-postsynaptic-density-in-the-ischemic-brain
#20
Valerie Jeanneret, Juan P Ospina, Ariel Diaz, Luis G Manrique, Paola Merino, Laura Gutierrez, Enrique Torre, Fang Wu, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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