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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442357/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-promotes-neuroplasticity-and-motor-recovery-in-stroke-rats
#1
Yefei Sun, Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiaopeng Mu, Yifan Liang, YuJia Luo, Huiling Qu, Chuansheng Zhao
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Racemic l-3-n-butylphthalide (dl-NBP), is able to achieve a functional recovery in animal models of cerebral ischemia, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of dl-NBP on axonal growth, neurogenesis and behavioral performances in rats with cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia in rats was produced by intracerebral injection of endothelin-1. Starting from postoperative day 7, the experimental rats were administered 70mg/kg dl-NBP by oral gavage for two weeks...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438613/stress-altered-synaptic-plasticity-and-damp-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-pfc-axis-elucidating-the-significance-of-igf-1-igf-1r-camkii%C3%AE-expression-in-neural-changes-associated-with-a-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#2
Olalekan M Ogundele, Philip J Ebenezer, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involve changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412141/toll-like-receptor-4-activation-can-be-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-following-mild-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-depending-on-timing-of-activation
#3
Frances Corrigan, Alina Arulsamy, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Joshua L Holmes, Robert Vink
A history of repeated concussion has been linked to the later development of neurodegeneration, which is associated with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the development of behavioral deficits. However, the role that exogenous factors, such as immune activation, may play in the development of neurodegeneration following repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has not yet been explored. To investigate, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered three mTBIs 5 days apart using the diffuse impact-acceleration model to generate ∼100G...
April 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411102/zl006-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-against-ischemia-induced-oxidative-stress-through-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-sirt3-pathway
#4
Shu-Guang Liu, Yun-Mei Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Xi-Jing He, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Yu-Min Zhang
Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determined. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of ZL006, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction, in an in vitro SCI model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured spinal cord neurons...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398234/down-regulated-drebrin-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Yan Liu, Yanfeng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396199/hypoxia-response-element-regulated-mmp-9-promotes-neurological-recovery-via-glial-scar-degradation-and-angiogenesis-in-delayed-stroke
#6
Hongxia Cai, Yuanyuan Ma, Lu Jiang, Zhihao Mu, Zhen Jiang, Xiaoyan Chen, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays a beneficial role in the delayed phase of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). However, the mechanism is obscure. Here, we constructed hypoxia response element (HRE)-regulated MMP-9 to explore its effect on glial scars and neurogenesis in delayed ischemic stroke. Adult male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice underwent MCAO and received a stereotactic injection of lentivirus carrying HRE-MMP-9 or normal saline (NS)/lentivirus-GFP 7 days after ischemia. We found that HRE-MMP-9 improved neurological outcomes, reduced ischemia-induced brain atrophy, and degraded glial scars (p < 0...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392295/oleocanthal-ameliorates-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-toxicity-on-astrocytes-and-neuronal-cells-in-vitro-studies
#7
Yazan S Batarseh, Loqman A Mohamed, Sweilem B Al Rihani, Youssef M Mousa, Abu Bakar Siddique, Khalid A El Sayed, Amal Kaddoumi
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) has several health promoting effects. Evidence have shown that EVOO attenuates the pathology of amyloid-β (Aβ) and improves cognitive function in experimental animal models, suggesting it's potential to protect and reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Available studies have linked this beneficial effect to oleocanthal, one of the active components in EVOO. The effect of oleocanthal against AD pathology has been linked to its ability to attenuate Aβ and tau aggregation in vitro, and enhance Aβ clearance from the brains of wild-type and AD transgenic mice in vivo...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391945/particulate-matter-pm2-5-exposure-season-dependently-induces-neuronal-apoptosis-and-synaptic-injuries
#8
Minjun Chen, Ben Li, Nan Sang
Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) not only increases the incidence of cardiopulmonary illnesses but also relates to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Considering that PM2.5 is highly heterogeneous with regional disparity and seasonal variation, we investigated whether PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries in a season-dependent manner. The results indicated that PM2.5 altered the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (mainly bax and bcl-2), activated caspase-3 and caused neuronal apoptosis...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381988/increased-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-of-dentate-granule-neurons-in-mice-lacking-psd-95-interacting-adhesion-molecule-neph2-kirrel3-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#9
Junyeop D Roh, Su-Yeon Choi, Yi Sul Cho, Tae-Yong Choi, Jong-Sil Park, Tyler Cutforth, Woosuk Chung, Hanwool Park, Dongsoo Lee, Myeong-Heui Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Seojung Mo, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Hyun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Se-Young Choi, Yong Chul Bae, Kang Shen, Eunjoon Kim, Kihoon Han
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374847/effect-of-agomelatine-on-memory-deficits-and-hippocampal-gene-expression-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#10
Vincent Martin, Najib Allaïli, Marine Euvrard, Tevrasamy Marday, Armance Riffaud, Bernard Franc, Elisabeth Mocaër, Cecilia Gabriel, Philippe Fossati, Stéphane Lehericy, Laurence Lanfumey
Chronic stress is known to induce not only anxiety and depressive-like phenotypes in mice but also cognitive impairments, for which the action of classical antidepressant compounds remains unsatisfactory. In this context, we investigated the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) on anxiety-, social- and cognitive-related behaviors, as well as hippocampal Bdnf, synaptic plasticity markers (PSD-95, Synaptophysin, Spinophilin, Synapsin I and MAP-2), and epigenetic modifying enzymes (MYST2, HDAC2, HDAC6, MLL3, KDM5B, DNMT3B, GADD45B) gene expression in C57BL/6J mice...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366471/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-restored-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-after-primary-blast
#11
Edward W Vogel, Fatima N Morales, David F Meaney, Cameron R Bass, Barclay Morrison
Due to recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) presents a health concern for military and civilian personnel alike. Although secondary blast (penetrating injury) and tertiary blast (inertia-driven brain deformation) are known to be injurious, the effects of primary blast caused by the supersonic shock wave interacting with the skull and brain remain debated. Our group previously reported that in vitro primary blast exposure reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory, in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) and that primary blast affects key proteins governing LTP...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362857/a-novel-synaptic-junction-preparation-for-the-identification-and-characterization-of-cleft-proteins
#12
Amelia Burch, Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Ayse Dosemeci
Identification of synaptic cleft components has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preparation enriched in synaptic junctions devoid of adjoining peripheral membranes. Prior strategies for the isolation of synaptic junctions, relying on detergents for the removal of peripheral membranes, resulted in substantial loss of membranes lining the cleft. Here, a novel, detergent-free method is described for the preparation of a synaptic junction (SJ) fraction, using phospholipase A2. Limited digestion of synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) fraction with phospholipase A2 followed by centrifugation over a sucrose cushion results in selective removal of membranes peripheral to the cleft while junctional membranes remain relatively intact as observed by electron microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346830/synergetic-neuroprotective-effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-aspirin-in-sh-y5y-by-inhibiting-mir-21-and-activating-rxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#13
Yongwang Fu, Jin Zhen, Zuneng Lu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder that lacks effective therapeutic methods. In this research, expressions of PPARα, RXRα, and miR-21 were evaluated in PD patients and normal controls. To investigate the effects of miR-21, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin (ASA) on PD, as well as the relationships between them, SH-Y5Y cells were treated with DHA, ASA, or both for 24 h. The assay showed that levels of miR-21 were increased and levels of PPARα were decreased in PD patients compared with normal controls...
March 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343296/ibuprofen-protects-from-cypermethrin-induced-changes-in-the-striatal-dendritic-length-and-spine-density
#14
Pratibha Tripathi, Ashish Singh, Lakshmi Bala, Devendra Kumar Patel, Mahendra Pratap Singh
Microgliosis and inflammation are major wrongdoers in cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism along with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein aggregation. Dopamine depletion could alter dendritic morphology, length and spine number in the striatum. Present study investigated the effect of ibuprofen on the dendritic morphology, length and spine density in cypermethrin PD model. Male pups were treated intraperitoneally with cypermethrin during postnatal days followed by adulthood to induce Parkinsonism using standard procedure along with controls...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336441/chronic-stress-induced-dendritic-reorganization-and-abundance-of-synaptosomal-pka-dependent-cp-ampa-receptor-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#15
Eun-Surk Yi, Seikwan Oh, Jang-Kyu Lee, Yea-Hyun Leem
Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for disorders including depression. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate that interconnects with stress-modulated neural networks to generate emotion- and mood-related behaviors. The current study shows that 3 h per day of restraint stress for 14 days caused mice to exhibit long-term depressive behaviors, manifested by disrupted sociality and despair levels, which were rescued by fluoxetine. These behavioral changes corresponded with morphological and molecular changes in BLA neurons, including chronic stress-elicited increases in arborization, dendritic length, and spine density of BLA principal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323008/sub-chronic-variable-stress-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-glutamatergic-synapses-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Anna Brancato, Dana Bregman, H Francisica Ahn, Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Menard, Carla Cannizzaro, Scott J Russo, Georgia E Hodes
Men and women manifest different symptoms of depression and under current diagnostic criteria, depression is twice as prevalent in woman. However, little is known of the mechanisms contributing to these important sex differences. Sub-chronic variable stress (SCVS), a rodent model of depression, induces depression-like behaviors in female mice only, modeling clinical evidence of higher susceptibility to mood disorders in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that altered neuroplasticity of excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key pathophysiological feature of susceptibility to social stress in males...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314159/aging-alters-the-molecular-dynamics-of-synapses-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-pattern-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Elif Tugce Karoglu, Dilara Ozge Halim, Bahriye Erkaya, Ferda Altaytas, Ayca Arslan-Ergul, Ozlen Konu, Michelle M Adams
The zebrafish has become a popular model for studying normal brain aging due to its large fecundity, conserved genome, and available genetic tools; but little data exists about neurobiological age-related alterations. The current study tested the hypothesis of an association between brain aging and synaptic protein loss across males and females. Western blot analysis of synaptophysin (SYP), a presynaptic vesicle protein, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and gephyrin (GEP), excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptor-clustering proteins, respectively, was performed in young, middle-aged, and old male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284823/activation-of-the-nmda-receptor-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-pathway-within-the-ventral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-mediates-the-negative-affective-component-of-pain
#18
Satoshi Deyama, Yaya Sugano, Sakura Mori, Taiju Amano, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Masabumi Minami
Pain consists of sensory and affective components. Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, those underlying its affective component are only beginning to be elucidated. Previously, we showed the pivotal role of the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) in the negative affective component of pain. Here, we examined the role of glutamate-nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the affective component of pain in rats using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) test...
March 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283559/a-rare-variant-identified-within-the-glun2b-c-terminus-in-a-patient-with-autism-affects-nmda-receptor-surface-expression-and-spine-density
#19
Shuxi Liu, Liang Zhou, Hongjie Yuan, Marta Vieira, Antonio Sanz-Clemente, John D Badger, Wei Lu, Stephen F Traynelis, Katherine W Roche
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that are crucial for neuronal development and higher cognitive processes. NMDAR dysfunction is involved in a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases; however, the mechanistic link between the human pathology and NMDAR dysfunction is poorly understood. Rare missense variants within NMDAR subunits have been identified in numerous patients with mental or neurological disorders. We specifically focused on the GluN2B NMDAR subunit, which is highly expressed in the hippocampus and cortex throughout development...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269788/anesthesia-surgery-induces-cognitive-impairment-in-female-alzheimer-s-disease-transgenic-mice
#20
Ce Zhang, Yiying Zhang, Yuan Shen, Guoqing Zhao, Zhongcong Xie, Yuanlin Dong
Anesthesia and/or surgery may promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) by accelerating its neuropathogenesis. Other studies showed different findings. However, the potential sex difference among these studies has not been well considered, and it is unknown whether male or female AD patients are more vulnerable to develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether anesthesia and surgery can have different effects in male and female AD transgenic (Tg) mice, and in female AD Tg plus Cyclophilin D knockout (CypD KO) mice...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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