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Alessandro Marra
Pancoast or superior pulmonary sulcus tumour is a subset of lung carcinoma that invades the structures of the thoracic inlet - first ribs, distal roots of the brachial plexus, stellate ganglion, vertebrae, and subclavian vessels. The first symptom is usually shoulder pain; consequently, most patients are initially treated for osteoarthritis. Late diagnosis is common. Success of therapy depends on an accurate staging: standard imaging with CT scan of the chest, PET-CT scan, brain MRI are needed to rule out distant metastases, endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (EBUS-TBNA) or mediastinoscopy are mandatory for reliable nodal staging...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Philip Huang, Mary Elizabeth Lundgren, Rajeev Garapati
Complete talar extrusion is rare and usually associated with a high-energy mechanism of injury causing complete dissociation of the talus from the surrounding bony and soft-tissue structures with enough force to expel the talus out of the body. Treatment can be complicated by infection, osteonecrosis, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and leg length discrepancy, which may require multiple subsequent surgeries for improved outcome and quality of life. Reimplantation of the native talus affords maintenance of joint height and favorable outcomes have been reported...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Bryan M Saltzman, Jonathan C Riboh
CONTEXT: Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
Rahul Khare, Branislav Jaramaz, Brian Hamlin, Kenneth L Urish
Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) is a minimally-invasive surgical procedure for treating isolated compartmental knee osteoarthritis. Accurate implant placement is crucial for a successful UKA procedure. Previous work has shown the improvement in UKA by using robotic systems. Here, we present the implant alignment accuracy of a hand-held robotic UKA system compared with a conventional manual UKA system for 12 cadaver specimens. Two surgeons carried out equal number of medial UKAs with robotic UKA on one knee and the manual UKA on the other knee...
December 2018: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
S M Hussain, Y Wang, J E Shaw, A E Wluka, S Graves, M Gambhir, F M Cicuttini
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between obesity and knee and hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis across a range of physical performance. METHOD: The body mass index and physical performance (on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey) of 9135 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study participants were measured in 1999-2000. The incidence of knee and hip arthroplasty during 2002-2011 was determined by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry...
June 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
N Yoshimura, S Muraki, H Oka, T Iidaka, R Kodama, C Horii, H Kawaguchi, K Nakamura, T Akune, S Tanaka
In this 4-year follow-up study including 1083 subjects (≥ 60 years), the prevalence of frailty was estimated to be 5.6%; osteoporosis was found to be significantly associated with frailty. Moreover, the presence of both osteoporosis and sarcopenia increased the risk of frailty compared to the presence of osteoporosis or sarcopenia alone. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the contribution of sarcopenia and osteoporosis to the occurrence of frailty using 4-year follow-up information of a population-based cohort study...
June 21, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Tomasz Cudejko, Martin van der Esch, Jim Schrijvers, Rosie Richards, Josien C van den Noort, Tim Wrigley, Marike van der Leeden, Leo D Roorda, Willem Lems, Jaap Harlaar, Joost Dekker
Objectives: Wearing a soft knee brace has been shown to reduce self-reported knee instability in persons with knee OA. There is a need to assess whether a soft knee brace has a beneficial effect on objectively assessed dynamic knee instability as well. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect of a soft knee brace on objectively assessed dynamic knee instability and to assess the difference in effect between a non-tight and a tight soft knee brace in persons with knee OA. Methods: Thirty-eight persons with knee OA and self-reported knee instability participated in a laboratory study...
June 20, 2018: Rheumatology
Binit Vaidya, Manisha Bhochhibhoya, Shweta Nakarmi
Examination of urate crystal in synovial fluid (SF) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gout, but is not universally available. SF uric acid (UA) level may be measured by the uricase method with an automated analyzer. The present study aimed to evaluate the utility of SF to serum UA ratio (SSR) for diagnosis of gout. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Nepal. Patients presenting with acute (<1 day) joint pain and/or swelling were included. Aspiration was performed in all patients and fluid was subjected to testing for urate level, pH and cell counts and microscopy...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
Renaldi Prasetia, Bancha Chernchujit
Posterior root medial meniscus (PRMM) tears have shown to be biomechanically equivalent to complete meniscectomy. Drawbacks from PRMM tears repair are unsatisfactory healing rates. In this case report, we outlined a PRMM reconstruction with gracilis graft healing outcome in chronic PRMM tear case, based on clinical and MRI evaluation. A 60-year-old man reported a chief complaint of increasing pain on the right knee joint in the last 1 year after a deep-flexion injury. On MRI investigation, we confirmed the chronic PRMM tear as Osteoarthritis Kellgren-Lawrence grade II...
June 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Emanuela Ricciotti, Cecilia Castro, Soon Yew Tang, William T E Briggs, James A West, Dania Malik, Seth D Rhoades, Hu Meng, Xuanwen Li, Nicholas F Lahens, Jeffrey A Sparks, Elizabeth W Karlson, Aalim M Weljie, Julian L Griffin, Garret A FitzGerald
Background -Large scale, placebo controlled trials established that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) confer a cardiovascular hazard: this has been attributed to depression of cardioprotective products of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, especially prostacyclin (PGI2 ). An alternative mechanism by which NSAIDs might constrain cardioprotection is by enhancing the formation of methylarginines in the kidney that would limit the action of nitric oxide (NO) throughout the vasculature. Methods -Targeted and untargeted metabolomics were employed to investigate the effect of COX-2 deletion or inhibition in mice and in osteoarthritis (OA) patients exposed to NSAIDs on the L-arginine/NO pathway...
June 21, 2018: Circulation
Liang-Yu Chen, Martin Lotz, Robert A Terkeltaub, Ru Liu-Bryan
Certain dysregulated chondrocyte metabolic adaptive responses such as decreased activity of the master regulator of energy metabolism AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), promote osteoarthritis (OA). Metabolism intersects with epigenetic and transcriptional responses. Hence, we studied chondrocyte ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which generates acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial-derived citrate, and modulates acetylation of histones and transcription factors.            We assessed ACLY in normal and OA human knee chondrocytes and cartilages by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and quantified acetyl-CoA fluorometrically...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tomoyuki Kamenaga, Takafumi Hiranaka, Yuichi Hida, Takaaki Fujishiro, Koji Okamoto
BACKGROUND: Malposition of the tibial components is a well-known complication of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. In this study, we aimed to ascertain the relationship between the tibial component position and clinical outcomes of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. We focused on the tibial component height and obliquity in the coronal plane. METHODS: Patients with anteromedial osteoarthritis who underwent Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (n = 45) were included, and their Oxford knee score was assessed prior to and 1 and 2 years following surgery...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Jon Cooper Wall, Hillary Powers Wall, Bradley O Osemwengie, Brendan J MacKay
Obese patients have increased rates of upper extremity injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, and upper extremity osteoarthritis. Preoperative considerations include cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Intraoperative and anesthetic considerations include specialized equipment, patient positioning, and the physiology of obese patients. Postoperative considerations should include increased risk of cardiovascular complications as well as surgical site infections and malunion. Surgery of the hand and upper extremity may be less prone to the postoperative complications seen in other regions of the body...
July 2018: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Jessica M Hooper, Ajit J Deshmukh, Ran Schwarzkopf
Although bariatric surgery is a proven means of weight loss and treatment of obesity-related comorbidities in morbidly obese patients, it is not yet clear how it affects outcomes after total joint arthroplasty in this high-risk patient population. This article explores the effects of obesity and bariatric surgery on osteoarthritis and total joint arthroplasty, and also discusses the financial and ethical implications of use of bariatric surgery for risk reduction before total joint arthroplasty.
July 2018: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Xuedong Sun, Zheng Su
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to compare the clinical outcomes of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revised to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) versus primary TKA. METHODS: Relevant trials were identified via a search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed from inception to 17 June 2017. A meta-analysis was performed to compare postoperative outcomes between revised UKA and primary TKA with respect to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, Knee Society Score (KSS), mean polyethylene thickness, hospital stay, revision rate, range of motion (ROM), and complications...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Catherine Legrand, Usman Ahmed, Attia Anwar, Kashif Rajpoot, Sabah Pasha, Cécile Lambert, Rose K Davidson, Ian M Clark, Paul J Thornalley, Yves Henrotin, Naila Rabbani
BACKGROUND: Changes of serum concentrations of glycated, oxidized, and nitrated amino acids and hydroxyproline and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody status combined by machine learning techniques in algorithms have recently been found to provide improved diagnosis and typing of early-stage arthritis of the knee, including osteoarthritis (OA), in patients. The association of glycated, oxidized, and nitrated amino acids released from the joint with development and progression of knee OA is unknown...
June 22, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Fumihisa Nakamura, Ichiro Tsukamoto, Shinji Inoue, Kazuhiko Hashimoto, Masao Akagi
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) appears to have a mechanosensing function in a number of cell types. The purpose of this study was to examine whether AT1R expressed in articular chondrocytes is involved in osteoarthritis (OA) progression in vivo and whether cyclic compressive loading activates the AT1R and stimulates hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes in vitro . The relationships between the modified Mankin score for cartilage degeneration and the expression of AT1R and type X collagen (Col X) were studied in mouse knees with OA induced using the destabilization-of-medial-meniscus model...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Yue Yang, Yang Wang, Yawei Kong, Xiaoning Zhang, He Zhang, Yi Gang, Lunhao Bai
Background: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity of carnosine (CAR) has been investigated in autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of oral CAR supplements to ameliorate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats and its mechanism. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (CG, n = 10) and the T2DM group ( n = 60). A rat model of T2DM was established using a high fat diet and streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, i...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Elizabeth Wellsandt, Matthew J Failla, Michael J Axe, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: Current practice patterns for the management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury favor surgical reconstruction. However, long-term outcomes may not differ between patients completing operative and nonoperative treatment of ACL injury. Differences in outcomes between operative and nonoperative treatment of patients in the United States is largely unknown, as are outcomes in long-term strength and performance measures. PURPOSE: To determine if differences exist in 5-year functional and radiographic outcomes between patients completing operative and nonoperative treatment of ACL injury when both groups complete a progressive criterion-based rehabilitation protocol...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Fay Sibley, Francesca Thompson, Andrea Carter, Michael Hurley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
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