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Zacharias G Laoutidis, Georgia E Lekka, Kanellos T Kioulos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the existing literature on clinical trials with glutamatergic agents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect size. DATA SOURCES: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, using the following search terms: (glutamate OR glutaminergic OR glutamatergic OR NMDA OR AMPA OR kainate) AND (obsessive-compulsive disorder OR obsessive OR compulsive OR OCD)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Carlijn C M Welten, Maarten W J Koeter, Tamar D Wohlfarth, Jitschak G Storosum, Wim van den Brink, Christine C Gispen-de Wied, Hubert G M Leufkens, Damiaan A J P Denys
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether early nonresponse to antipsychotic treatment of acute mania predicts treatment failure and, if so, to establish the best definition or criterion of an early nonresponse. DATA SOURCES: Short-term efficacy studies assessing antipsychotics that were submitted to the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board during an 11-year period as part of the marketing authorization application for the indication of acute manic episode of bipolar disorder...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
J H M Driessen, F de Vries, H van Onzenoort, N C Harvey, C Neef, J van den Bergh, P Vestergaard, R M A Henry
The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of incretins on fracture risk in the real world situation by meta-analysis of the available population-based cohort data. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles investigating use of incretin agents, and fracture risk up to December 2015. Adjusted results were extracted and results were pooled by use of generic inverse variance methods, assuming a random-effects model. Neither current dipeptidyl peptidase 4 - inhibitors use, nor current glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists use was associated with a decreased risk of fracture: pooled relative risk [pooled RR (95% CI): 1...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Shuo Zhang, Xuelei Ma, Chenjing Zhu, Li Liu, Guoping Wang, Xia Yuan
Targeting immune cells or factors are effective for patients with solid tumors. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to have immunosuppressive functions, and the levels of MDSCs in patients with solid tumor are assumed to have prognostic values. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the relationship between MDSCs and the prognosis of patients with solid tumors. We searched articles in PUBMED and EMBASE comprehensively, updated to March 2016. Eight studies with 442 patients were included in the meta-analysis...
2016: PloS One
Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Srinath Satyanarayana, Madhukar Pai, Beena E Thomas, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Soumya Swaminathan, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: India has 23% of the global burden of active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 27% of the world's "missing" patients, which includes those who may not have received effective TB care and could potentially spread TB to others. The "cascade of care" is a useful model for visualizing deficiencies in case detection and retention in care, in order to prioritize interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The care cascade constructed in this paper focuses on the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which treats about half of India's TB patients...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jan M Sargeant, Annette M O'Connor
Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Valentina Gallo, F Nicole Dijk, John W Holloway, Susan M Ring, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje S Postma, David P Strachan, Raquel Granell, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herman T den Dekker, Liesbeth Duijts, A John Henderson, Seif O Shaheen
BACKGROUND: Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. METHODS: We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Erik Iwarsson, Bo Jacobsson, Jessica Dagerhamn, Thomas Davidson, Eduardo Bernabé, Marianne Heibert Arnlind
INTRODUCTION: To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for detection of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 (T21, T18 and T13) in a general pregnant population as well as to update the data on high-risk pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Methodological quality was rated using QUADAS and scientific evidence using GRADE. Summary measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated using a bivariate random-effects model...
October 25, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Heather K Neilson, Megan S Farris, Chelsea R Stone, Marcus M Vaska, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity increases postmenopausal and possibly premenopausal breast cancer risk, although different biologic mechanisms are proposed. Our primary objective was to estimate breast cancer risk associated with high versus low levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity, separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature published to July 2015. Included reports were cohort or case-control studies relating moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent ≥3...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Arne Liebau, Olivia Pogorzelski, Alec N Salt, Stefan K Plontke
OBJECTIVE: Controlled and uncontrolled studies with primary intratympanic or combined intratympanic and systemic application of glucocorticosteroids for idiopathic sudden hearing loss were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis in an attempt to establish optimal local drug delivery protocols. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 25 studies with 28 treatment groups between January 2000 and June 2014 were selected that adequately described drug delivery protocols. Cochlear drug levels were calculated by a validated computer model of drug dispersion in the inner ear fluids based on the concentration and volume of glucocorticoids applied, the time the drug remained in the middle ear, and the specific timing of injections...
October 21, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Han Wang, Huiqin Gao, Tianyu Jiao, Zhongli Luo
Postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) are common symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) shows a promising effect on PIGD. However, the quantitative effects of PPN DBS for PD, especially for PIGD, and the efficacy of PPN DBS combined with levodopa are controversial and ambiguous to clinical practice. We carried out a meta-analysis of original researches on PPN to PIGD/PD from the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: Neuroreport
Billy Sin, Kimberly Koop, Michelle Liu, Jun-Yen Yeh, Pardeep Thandi
BACKGROUND: The efficacy, safety, opioid-sparing effects, and cost-benefit analyses of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen (APAP) in treating renal colic remain controversial. STUDY QUESTION: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, opioid-sparing effects, and cost-benefits of IV APAP in patients who present with renal colic in the emergency department (ED). DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched PubMed (January 1970 to April 2016). STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trials which evaluated IV APAP for renal colic in the ED were eligible...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Damiano Rizzoni
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy and safety of lercanidipine/enalapril fixed-dose combination in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. METHODS: Four observational studies on patients with sitting diastolic blood pressure (SDBP) between 95 and 109 mmHg, treated with lercanidipine/enalapril fixed-dose combination, were analyzed. The Random-Effect Model was used to limit heterogeneity across the studies. Weights were applied to determine the influence of each study on the combined results...
October 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Liam F Fitzgerald, Anita D Christie, Jane A Kent
Despite intensive efforts to understand the extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity changes in older humans, the answer to this important question remains unclear. To determine what the preponderance of evidence from in vivo studies suggests, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of age on muscle oxidative capacity as measured noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary aim was to examine potential moderators contributing to differences in results across studies, including muscle group, physical activity status, and sex...
July 18, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
L M Bijkersma-Pot, P Cuijpers, A T F Beekman, R A Schoevers
There is increasing attention to the costs and efficacy of health care and in particular to psychiatry. To weigh the costs and benefits appropriately, it is important to be able to compare effects.<br/> AIM: To describe the efficacy of psychiatric treatment compared to treatment in general medicine.<br/> METHOD: Narrative review.<br/> RESULTS: The average effect size of psychiatric treatment was 0.49 and that of general medicine treatment 0.45. The effect size of psychotherapy varied from 0...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Chen-Yi Ye, An Liu, Ming-Yuan Xu, Nwofor Samuel Nonso, Rong-Xin He
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence as to whether the femoral head should be preserved or replaced in elderly patients with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness of arthroplasty (AR) and internal fixation (IF). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically up to January 2016. All randomized controlled trials directly comparing the effectiveness of AR and IF for displaced intracapsular fracture were retrieved with no limitation on language or publication year...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Ming-Jie Wang, Hao-Yu Yang, Hui Zhang, Xindie Zhou, Rui-Ping Liu, Yuan-Yuan Mi
Accumulating evidences suggested that tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene rs10499194, rs13207033 polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, these studies yielded contradictory findings. To clarify convincing associations, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis by searching in PubMed, Embase, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using fixed-effect or random-effect models...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Huang Huang, Yan Shi, Jietao Huang, Xiaohui Wang, Rui Zhang, Hong Chen
OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidences demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) show significant high concentration in plasma of lung cancer patients compared to control cohorts, suggesting that CTCs may be a promising biomarker for lung cancer. The meta-analysis was used to evaluate potential diagnostic value of CTCs in diagnosing lung cancer. METHODS: Relevant literatures were searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Technology of Chongqing (VIP), and Wan Fang Data...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Vandit Sardana, Joanna Burzynski, Paul Zalzal
PURPOSE: Topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel has been used for the alleviation of symptoms in osteoarthritis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with various side effects. Topical NSAIDs are known to have a lower side-effect profile when compared with systemic administration. The present systematic review aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel in knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed...
October 24, 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
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