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Nutritional combinations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#1
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109422/improving-the-nutritional-impact-of-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-perspectives-from-the-participants
#2
Cindy W Leung, Aviva A Musicus, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program designed to alleviate food insecurity and improve dietary intake. This study assessed the opinions of SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants on their perceptions of the program and strategies to improve its nutritional impact. METHODS: This study surveyed 387 individuals via Amazon Mechanical Turk, of whom 118 were SNAP participants and 269 were food insufficient but not enrolled in SNAP (nonparticipants)...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107301/implementation-of-a-pediatric-orthopaedic-bundle-to-reduce-surgical-site-infections
#3
Jan Schriefer, James Sanders, Julie Michels, Kori Wolcott, Connor Ruddy, Jenna Hanson
Surgical site infections (SSIs) cost an estimated $27,288 per case. An analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data at the University of Rochester Medical Center suggested that rates of SSIs could be lowered in comparison with both peers and baseline. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of SSIs to zero through the implementation of a "bundle" or a combination of practices. Meetings were held with the multidisciplinary care team that includes surgeons and staff from pediatric pharmacy, pediatric infectious diseases, anesthesia, and nursing to create a care bundle for all pediatric orthopaedic surgery patients...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106512/endoglucanase-and-xylanase-production-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture-glycosyl-hydrolases-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture
#4
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104436/capsaicin-synergizes-with-camptothecin-to-induce-increased-apoptosis-in-human-small-cell-lung-cancers-via-the-calpain-pathway
#5
Jamie R Friedman, Haley E Perry, Kathleen C Brown, Yin Gao, Ju Lin, Cathyrn D Stevenson, John D Hurley, Nicholas A Nolan, Austin T Akers, Yi Charlie Chen, Krista L Denning, Linda G Brown, Piyali Dasgupta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by excellent initial response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy with a majority of the patients showing tumor shrinkage and even remission. However, the challenge with SCLC therapy is that patients inevitably relapse and subsequently do not respond to the first line treatment. Recent clinical studies have investigated the possibility of camptothecin-based combination therapy as first line treatment for SCLC patients. Conventionally, camptothecin is used for recurrent SCLC and has poor survival outcomes...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104187/growth-faltering-in-rural-gambian-children-after-four-decades-of-interventions-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Helen M Nabwera, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering remains common in children in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Due to a very slow decline in the prevalence of stunting, the total number of children with stunting continues to rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of effective interventions remains a challenge. METHODS: We analysed the effect of 36 years of intensive health interventions on growth in infants and young children from three rural Gambian villages...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103825/factors-behind-the-success-story-of-under-five-stunting-in-peru-a-district-ecological-multilevel-analysis
#7
Luis Huicho, Carlos A Huayanay-Espinoza, Eder Herrera-Perez, Eddy R Segura, Jessica Niño de Guzman, María Rivera-Ch, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: Stunting prevalence in children less than 5 years has remained stagnated in Peru from 1992 to 2007, with a rapid reduction thereafter. We aimed to assess the role of different predictors on stunting reduction over time and across departments, from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: We used various secondary data sources to describe time trends of stunting and of possible predictors that included distal to proximal determinants. We determined a ranking of departments by annual change of stunting and of different predictors...
January 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#8
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#9
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#10
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100287/characterisation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-different-insulin-resistant-phenotypes-by-means-of-stable-isotopes
#11
Ellen E Blaak
The obese insulin resistant and/or prediabetic state is characterised by systemic lipid overflow, mainly driven by an impaired lipid buffering capacity of adipose tissue, and an impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to increase fat oxidation upon increased supply. This leads to the accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites in skeletal muscle interfering with insulin sensitivity via various mechanisms. In this review, the contribution of dietary v. endogenous fatty acids to lipid overflow, their extraction or uptake by skeletal muscle as well as the fractional synthetic rate, content and composition of the muscle lipid pools is discussed in relation to the development or presence of insulin resistance and/or an impaired glucose metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100190/translation-of-a-tailored-nutrition-and-resistance-exercise-intervention-for-elderly-people-to-a-real-life-setting-adaptation-process-and-pilot-study
#12
Ellen Ji van Dongen, Joanne N Leerlooijer, Jan M Steijns, Michael Tieland, Lisette Cpgm de Groot, Annemien Haveman-Nies
BACKGROUND: Combining increased dietary protein intake and resistance exercise training for elderly people is a promising strategy to prevent or counteract the loss of muscle mass and decrease the risk of disabilities. Using findings from controlled interventions in a real-life setting requires adaptations to the intervention and working procedures of healthcare professionals (HCPs). The aim of this study is to adapt an efficacious intervention for elderly people to a real-life setting (phase one) and test the feasibility and potential impact of this prototype intervention in practice in a pilot study (phase two)...
January 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100170/interaction-between-acyl-ghrelin-and-bmi-predicts-clinical-outcomes-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Ilia Beberashvili, Inna Sinuani, Ada Azar, Gregory Shapiro, Leonid Feldman, Keren Doenyas-Barak, Kobi Stav, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, a gastric orexigenic peptide, and body mass index (BMI) are known as inversely associated to each other and are both linked to cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, it is unclear whether the interaction between ghrelin and BMI is associated with a risk of all-cause and CV death in this population. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed on 261 MHD outpatients (39% women, mean age 68...
January 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099077/disease-complexity-in-a-declining-alaskan-muskox-ovibos-moschatus-population
#14
Josephine A Afema, Kimberlee B Beckmen, Stephen M Arthur, Kathy Burek Huntington, Jonna A K Mazet
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-1992, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097839/nutritional-assessment-of-a-population-with-a-history-of-childhood-craniopharyngioma-seen-at-hospital-prof-dr-juan-p-garrahan
#15
Carolina Caminiti, Carola Saure, Ilanit Bomer, Mercedes Brea, Javier González Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign malformations located between the pituitary and hypothalamus that may affect key hormone secretion for endocrine regulation and satiety modulation. Although this is a relatively benign disease, the combination of severe hypothalamic obesity and associated comorbidities results in a reduced quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status of patients after craniopharyngioma surgery. POPULATION AND METHODS: Patients younger than 21 years old at the time of the study who required craniopharyngioma surgery at Hospital de Pediatr...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096611/recent-advances-in-role-of-chromium-and-its-antioxidant-combinations-in-poultry-nutrition-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Z Haq, R K Jain, N Khan, M Y Dar, S Ali, M Gupta, T K Varun
Poultry is reared in open side houses in most of the tropical countries, which results in huge temperature variation in shed causing stress resulting in increased demand of antioxidant supplementation. Since cooling of poultry houses or environment control is very expensive, thus methods focused on nutritional modifications appears to be the much logical approach. Stress increases mineral and vitamin mobilization from tissues and their excretion. Effect of some minerals and vitamin supplements such as chromium (Cr) and ascorbic acid to elevate the negative effects of environmental stress is well documented...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#17
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094324/early-life-adversity-accelerates-cellular-ageing-and-affects-adult-inflammation-experimental-evidence-from-the-european-starling
#18
Daniel Nettle, Clare Andrews, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Claire Kolenda, Craig Parker, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094233/association-between-the-mthfr-c677t-polymorphism-blood-folate-and-vitamin-b12-deficiency-and-elevated-serum-total-homocysteine-in-healthy-individuals-in-yunnan-province-china
#19
Juan Ni, Ling Zhang, Tao Zhou, Wei-Jiang Xu, Jing-Lun Xue, Neng Cao, Xu Wang
BACKGROUND: An increased serum total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is typically associated with genetic defects involved in Hcy metabolism or related nutritional deficiencies. In this study, the combined effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency on serum total Hcy (tHcy) levels were evaluated in a healthy Chinese population in Yunnan Province, China. METHODS: The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped in 330 volunteers (164 men and 166 women) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094058/association-between-dietary-patterns-cadmium-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease-among-adults
#20
Zumin Shi, Anne W Taylor, Malcolm Riley, Julie Byles, Jianghong Liu, Manny Noakes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Almost one in ten Chinese adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the link between dietary patterns, dietary cadmium intake and CKD has not been studied in China. METHOD: Adults (n = 8429) in the China Health and Nutrition Survey who had at least one 3-day 24 h food record in combination with household food inventory in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured in 2009. Dietary pattern was identified using factor analysis...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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