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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775296/incorporation-of-a-theranostic-two-tone-luminescent-silver-complex-into-biocompatible-agar-hydrogel-composite-for-the-eradication-of-eskape-pathogens-in-a-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-model
#1
Miguel N Pinto, Jorge Martinez-Gonzalez, Indranil Chakraborty, Pradip K Mascharak
Microbial invasion and colonization of the skin and underlying soft tissues are among the most common types of infections, becoming increasingly prevalent in hospital settings. Systemic antibiotic chemotherapies are now extremely limited due to emergence of drug-resistant Gram-positive and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. Topical administration of antimicrobials provides an effective route for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Therefore, the development of new and effective materials for the delivery of these agents is of paramount importance...
May 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713090/candidate-genes-associated-with-color-morphs-of-female-limited-polymorphisms-of-the-damselfly-ischnura-senegalensis
#2
Michihiko Takahashi, Yuma Takahashi, Masakado Kawata
Many Odonata species exhibit female-limited polymorphisms, where one morph is similar to the conspecific male in body color and other traits (andromorph), whereas one or more other morphs differ from the male (gynomorphs). Here we investigated the differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) among males and two female morph groups (gynomorphs and andromorphs) using RNA-seq to identify candidate transcripts encoding female-limited polymorphisms in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis. Seven DETs that had significantly different expression levels between males and gynomorphs, but not between males and andromorphs, were identified...
May 1, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675466/parallel-evolution-of-batesian-mimicry-supergene-in-two-papilio-butterflies-p-polytes-and-p-memnon
#3
Takuro Iijima, Rei Kajitani, Shinya Komata, Chung-Ping Lin, Teiji Sota, Takehiko Itoh, Haruhiko Fujiwara
Batesian mimicry protects animals from predators when mimics resemble distasteful models. The female-limited Batesian mimicry in Papilio butterflies is controlled by a supergene locus switching mimetic and nonmimetic forms. In Papilio polytes , recent studies revealed that a highly diversified region (HDR) containing doublesex ( dsx -HDR) constitutes the supergene with dimorphic alleles and is likely maintained by a chromosomal inversion. In the closely related Papilio memnon , which exhibits a similar mimicry polymorphism, we performed whole-genome sequence analyses in 11 butterflies, which revealed a nearly identical dsx -HDR containing three genes ( dsx , Nach-like , and UXT ) with dimorphic sequences strictly associated with the mimetic/nonmimetic phenotypes...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660189/identification-and-characterization-of-doublesex-in-bemisia-tabaci
#4
Litao Guo, Wen Xie, Yating Liu, Zezhong Yang, Xin Yang, Jixing Xia, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important agricultural pest with a worldwide distribution. Although B.tabaci is known to have a unique haplodiploid reproductive strategy, its sex determination mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequence of B. tabaci doublesex (Btdsx) and found that Btdsx has 28 splicing isoforms. We found two new splicing isoforms of transformer 2 (Bttra2) that encode two proteins. We also confirmed that both genes lack sex-specific splicing isoforms. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of Btdsx and Bttra2 is higher in males than in females...
April 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617359/sexual-dimorphism-of-sleep-regulated-by-juvenile-hormone-signaling-in-drosophila
#5
Binbin Wu, Lingling Ma, Enyan Zhang, Juan Du, Suning Liu, Jeffrey Price, Sheng Li, Zhangwu Zhao
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are a universal phenomenon in animals. In the model animal fruit fly Drosophila, males and females exhibit long- and short-sleep phenotypes, respectively. However, the mechanism is still a mystery. In this study, we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulation of sexually dimorphic sleep in Drosophila, in which gain of JH function enlarges differences of the dimorphic sleep phenotype with higher sleep in males and lower sleep in females, while loss of JH function blurs these differences and results in feminization of male sleep and masculinization of female sleep...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570432/transcriptome-seq-provides-insights-into-sex-preference-pattern-of-gene-expression-between-testis-and-ovary-of-the-crucifix-crab-charybdis-feriatus
#6
Yin Zhang, Guidong Miao, Hanafiah Fazhan, Khor Waiho, Huaiping Zheng, Shengkang Li, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Hongyu Ma
The crucifix crab, Charybdis feriatus, which mainly inhabits Indo-Pacific region, is regarded as one of the most high-potential species for domestication and incorporation into the aquaculture sector. However, the regulatory mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation of this species remain unclear. To identify candidate genes involved in sex determination and differentiation, high throughput sequencing of transcriptome from the testis and ovary of C. feriatus was performed by Illumina platform. After removing adaptor primers, low-quality sequences and very short (<50 nt) reads, 80...
March 23, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408414/the-doublesex-gene-integrates-multi-locus-complementary-sex-determination-signals-in-the-japanese-ant-vollenhovia-emeryi
#7
Misato Okamoto Miyakawa, Koji Tsuchida, Hitoshi Miyakawa
A female diploid, male haploid sex determination system (haplodiploidy) is found in hymenopteran taxa, such as ants, wasps, bees and sawflies. In this system, a single, complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) locus functions as the primary sex-determination signal. In the taxa that has evolved this system, females and males are heterozygous and hemi/homozygous at the CSD locus, respectively. While the sl-CSD system enables females to alter sex ratios in the nest, it carries a high cost in terms of inbreeding, as individuals that are homozygous at the CSD locus become sterile diploid males...
March 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408297/do-juvenile-developmental-and-adult-body-characteristics-differ-among-genotypes-at-the-doublesex-locus-that-controls-female-limited-batesian-mimicry-polymorphism-in-papilio-memnon-a-test-for-the-cost-of-mimicry-hypothesis
#8
Shinya Komata, Chung-Ping Lin, Teiji Sota
Female-limited Batesian mimicry may have evolved because of stronger predation pressure on females than on males, but some physiological costs of mimicry may also hinder the evolution of mimicry in males. In Papilio memnon, which possesses a female-limited Batesian mimicry polymorphism, two alleles at the doublesex (dsx) locus strictly control female phenotypes. To examine whether there are physiological costs associated with mimetic genotypes in the juvenile stage, we compered mortality, juvenile growth and development, and the resultant adult characteristics among three dsx genotypes (HH, Hh, hh) at a constant temperature (25 °C) and two differing day lengths (LD 14:10 and LD 12:12; the latter might induce pupal diapause) by crossing individuals heterozygous (Hh) for the dsx allele...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389999/chinmo-prevents-transformer-alternative-splicing-to-maintain-male-sex-identity
#9
Lydia Grmai, Bruno Hudry, Irene Miguel-Aliaga, Erika A Bach
Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372584/evolving-doublesex-expression-correlates-with-the-origin-and-diversification-of-male-sexual-ornaments-in-the-drosophila-immigrans-species-group
#10
Gavin Rice, Olga Barmina, Kevin Hu, Artyom Kopp
Male ornaments and other sex-specific traits present some of the most dramatic examples of evolutionary innovations. Comparative studies of similar but independently evolved traits are particularly important for identifying repeated patterns in the evolution of these traits. Male-specific modifications of the front legs have evolved repeatedly in Drosophilidae and other Diptera. The best understood of these novel structures is the sex comb of Drosophila melanogaster and its close relatives. Here, we examine the evolution of another male foreleg modification, the sex brush, found in the distantly related Drosophila immigrans species group...
March 2018: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339074/identification-and-characterization-of-a-doublesex-gene-which-regulates-the-expression-of-insulin-like-androgenic-gland-hormone-in-fenneropenaeus-chinensis
#11
Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Kuijie Yu, Jianhai Xiang
The doublesex and its homologue genes are important regulators of sexual differentiation which are conserved among animal kingdom. In the present study, we reported a doublesex gene (designated as FcDsx) identified from the Chinese shrimp F. chinensis. The gene structure, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of FcDsx were characterized. The results showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of FcDsx had the common features of Dsx proteins, including a doublesex/male abnormal 3 (DM) domain, an oligomerization domain and a predicted monopartite nuclear localization signal...
April 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229771/-drosophila-female-specific-ilp7-motoneurons-are-generated-by-fruitless-dependent-cell-death-in-males-and-by-a-double-assurance-survival-role-for-transformer-in-females
#12
Sarah Rose C Garner, Monica C Castellanos, Katherine E Baillie, Tianshun Lian, Douglas W Allan
Female-specific Ilp7 neuropeptide-expressing motoneurons (FS-Ilp7 motoneurons) are required in Drosophila for oviduct function in egg laying. Here, we uncover cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying their female-specific generation. We demonstrate that programmed cell death (PCD) eliminates FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in males, and that this requires male-specific splicing of the sex-determination gene fruitless ( fru ) into the FruMC isoform. However, in females, fru alleles that only generate FruM isoforms failed to kill FS-Ilp7 motoneurons...
January 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203241/the-splicing-factor-transformer2-tra2-functions-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-to-regulate-lipid-storage
#13
Cezary Mikoluk, Alexis A Nagengast, Justin R DiAngelo
Excess nutrients are stored as triglycerides mainly in the adipose tissue of an animal and these triglycerides are located in structures called lipid droplets. Previous genome-wide RNAi screens in Drosophila cells identified splicing factors as playing a role in lipid droplet formation. Our lab has recently identified the SR protein, 9G8, as an important factor in fat storage as decreasing its levels results in augmented triglyceride storage in the fat body. Previous in vitro studies have implicated 9G8 in the regulation of splicing of the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) by binding to transformer (tra) and transformer2 (tra2); however, any function of these sex determination proteins in regulating metabolism is unknown...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165628/sex-differences-in-20-hydroxyecdysone-hormone-levels-control-sexual-dimorphism-in-bicyclus-anynana-wing-patterns
#14
Shivam Bhardwaj, Kathleen L Prudic, Ashley Bear, Mainak Dasgupta, Bethany R Wasik, Xiaoling Tong, Wei Fun Cheong, Markus R Wenk, Antónia Monteiro
In contrast to the important role of hormones in the development of sexual traits in vertebrates (Cox RM, Stenquist DS, Calsbeek R. 2009. Testosterone, growth and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism. J Evol Biol. 22(8):1586-1598.), the differentiation of these traits in insects is attributed almost exclusively to cell-autonomous mechanisms controlled by members of the sex determination pathway (Verhulst EC, van de Zande L. 2015. Double nexus - doublesex is the connecting element in sex determination. Brief Funct Genomics 14(6):396-406...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152671/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-differentially-expressed-genes-and-long-non-coding-rnas-between-ovary-and-testis-of-the-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain
#15
Xiaolong Yang, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Xincang Li, Fan Lin, Qingyang Wu, Yueling Zhang, Cuihong You, Wenhua Liu, Yinwei Cheng, Xi Shi, Shuqi Wang, Hongyu Ma
The molecular mechanism underlying sex determination and gonadal differentiation of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) has received considerable attention, due to the remarkably biological and economic differences between sexes. However, sex-biased genes, especially non-coding genes, which account for these differences, remain elusive in this crustacean species. In this study, the first de novo gonad transcriptome sequencing was performed to identify both differentially expressed genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between male and female S...
February 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122451/in-vivo-tibiofemoral-skeletal-kinematics-and-cartilage-contact-arthrokinematics-during-decline-walking-after-isolated-meniscectomy
#16
Liying Zheng, Robert Carey, Eric Thorhauer, Scott Tashman, Christopher Harner, Xudong Zhang
We investigated the effects of isolated meniscectomy on tibiofemoral skeletal kinematics and cartilage contact arthrokinematics in vivo. We recruited nine patients who had undergone isolated medial or lateral meniscectomy, and used a dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) system to image the patients' knee motion during decline walking. A volumetric model-based tracking process determined 3D tibiofemoral kinematics from the recorded DSX images. Cartilage contact arthrokinematics was derived from the intersection between tibial and femoral cartilage models co-registered to the bones...
January 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116078/tracing-the-origin-and-evolution-of-supergene-mimicry-in-butterflies
#17
Wei Zhang, Erica Westerman, Eyal Nitzany, Stephanie Palmer, Marcus R Kronforst
Supergene mimicry is a striking phenomenon but we know little about the evolution of this trait in any species. Here, by studying genomes of butterflies from a recent radiation in which supergene mimicry has been isolated to the gene doublesex, we show that sexually dimorphic mimicry and female-limited polymorphism are evolutionarily related as a result of ancient balancing selection combined with independent origins of similar morphs in different lineages and secondary loss of polymorphism in other lineages...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096984/segmental-variations-in-facet-joint-translations-during-in-vivo-lumbar-extension
#18
Ryan M Byrne, Yu Zhou, Liying Zheng, Suman K Chowdhury, Ameet Aiyangar, Xudong Zhang
The lumbar facet joint (FJ) is often associated with pathogenesis in the spine, but quantification of normal FJ motion remains limited to in vitro studies or static imaging of non-functional poses. The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar FJ kinematics in healthy individuals during functional activity with dynamic stereo radiography (DSX) imaging. Ten asymptomatic participants lifted three known weights starting from a trunk-flexed (∼75°) position to an upright position while being imaged within the DSX system...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095827/co-option-of-the-bzip-transcription-factor-vrille-as-the-activator-of-doublesex1-in-environmental-sex-determination-of-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#19
Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak, Quang Dang Nong, Tomoaki Matsuura, Yasuhiko Kato, Hajime Watanabe
Divergence of upstream regulatory pathways of the transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) serves as a basis for evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in animals. However, little is known about the regulation of Dsx in environmental sex determination. In the crustacean Daphnia magna, environmental sex determination is implemented by male-specific expression of the Dsx ortholog, Dsx1. Transcriptional regulation of Dsx1 comprises at least three phases during embryogenesis: non-sex-specific initiation, male-specific up-regulation, and its maintenance...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030993/maternal-provision-of-non-sex-specific-transformer-messenger-rna-in-sex-determination-of-the-wasp-asobara-tabida
#20
E Geuverink, E C Verhulst, M van Leussen, L van de Zande, L W Beukeboom
In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As...
February 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
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