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Carolina Rezával, Siddharth Pattnaik, Hania J Pavlou, Tetsuya Nojima, Birgit Brüggemeier, Luis A D D'Souza, Hany K M Dweck, Stephen F Goodwin
Courtship in Drosophila melanogaster offers a powerful experimental paradigm for the study of innate sexually dimorphic behaviors [1, 2]. Fruit fly males exhibit an elaborate courtship display toward a potential mate [1, 2]. Females never actively court males, but their response to the male's display determines whether mating will actually occur. Sex-specific behaviors are hardwired into the nervous system via the actions of the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [1]. Activation of male-specific dsx/fru(+) P1 neurons in the brain initiates the male's courtship display [3, 4], suggesting that neurons unique to males trigger this sex-specific behavior...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yu-Wen Lai, Leona T Campbell, Marc R Wilkins, Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Sharon Chen, Dee A Carter
Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Wei Peng, Kaleem Tariq, Junfei Xie, Hongyu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B...
2016: PloS One
Hiroki Gotoh, Mai Ishiguro, Hideto Nishikawa, Shinichi Morita, Kensuke Okada, Takahisa Miyatake, Toshinobu Yaginuma, Teruyuki Niimi
Various types of weapon traits found in insect order Coleoptera are known as outstanding examples of sexually selected exaggerated characters. It is known that the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a significant role in sex-specific expression of weapon traits in various beetles belonging to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Although sex-specific weapon traits have evolved independently in various Coleopteran groups, developmental mechanisms of sex-specific expression have not been studied outside of the Scarabaeoidea...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jing Tang, Eric Thorhauer, Karl Bowman, Freddie H Fu, Scott Tashman
PURPOSE: The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models...
June 2, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jennifer C Chandler, Joseph Aizen, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Abigail Elizur, Tomer Ventura
The decapod Crustacea are the most species-rich order of the Crustacea and include some of the most charismatic and highly valued commercial species. Thus the decapods draw a significant research interest in relation to aquaculture, as well as gaining a broader understanding of these species' biology. However, the diverse physiology of the group considered with the lack of a model species have presented an obstacle for comparative analyses. In reflection of this, the recent integration of comparative transcriptomics has rapidly advanced our understanding of key regulatory pathways and developmental phenomena, an example being our understanding of sexual development...
June 1, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Michelle N Arbeitman, Felicia N New, Justin M Fear, Tiffany S Howard, Justin E Dalton, Rita M Graze
Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Antonia Klein, Eva Schultner, Helena Lowak, Lukas Schrader, Jürgen Heinze, Luke Holman, Jan Oettler
The major transition to eusociality required the evolution of a switch to canalize development into either a reproductive or a helper, the nature of which is currently unknown. Following predictions from the 'theory of facilitated variation', we identify sex differentiation pathways as promising candidates because of their pre-adaptation to regulating development of complex phenotypes. We show that conserved core genes, including the juvenile hormone-sensitive master sex differentiation gene doublesex (dsx) and a krüppel homolog 2 (kr-h2) with putative regulatory function, exhibit both sex and morph-specific expression across life stages in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hiroki Gotoh, Robert A Zinna, Ian Warren, Michael DeNieu, Teruyuki Niimi, Ian Dworkin, Douglas J Emlen, Toru Miura, Laura C Lavine
BACKGROUND: Genes in the sex determination pathway are important regulators of sexually dimorphic animal traits, including the elaborate and exaggerated male ornaments and weapons of sexual selection. In this study, we identified and functionally analyzed members of the sex determination gene family in the golden metallic stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, which exhibits extreme differences in mandible size between males and females. RESULTS: We constructed a C...
2016: BMC Genomics
Jianping Duan, Xianxin Meng, Sanyuan Ma, Feng Wang, Huozhen Guo, Liying Zhang, Ping Zhao, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Qingyou Xia
The doublesex gene regulates the somatic sexual development of Bombyx mori by alternatively splicing into sex-specific splice forms. In our previous study, the splice form Bmdsx (F7) , which encodes the BmDSX(F5) protein, was found to be expressed in a female-specific manner and to contain a novel C-terminus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of this C-terminus. Two transgenic lines, L1 and L2, were constructed to ectopically express Bmdsx (F7) in males. Phenotype and W chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that developmental abnormalities and sex reversal did not occur...
August 2016: Transgenic Research
Geoffrey W Meissner, Shengzhan D Luo, Brian G Dias, Michael J Texada, Bruce S Baker
The development of sexually dimorphic morphology and the potential for sexually dimorphic behavior in Drosophila are regulated by the Fruitless (Fru) and Doublesex (Dsx) transcription factors. Several direct targets of Dsx have been identified, but direct Fru targets have not been definitively identified. We show that Drosophila leucine-rich repeat G protein-coupled receptor 3 (Lgr3) is regulated by Fru and Dsx in separate populations of neurons. Lgr3 is a member of the relaxin-receptor family and a receptor for Dilp8, necessary for control of organ growth...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kamoltip Laohakieat, Nidchaya Aketarawong, Siriwan Isasawin, Siripong Thitamadee, Sujinda Thanaphum
BACKGROUND: The transformer (tra) is a sex determining switch in different orders of insects, including Diptera, as in the family Tephritidae. The lifelong autoregulatory loop of tra female-specific splicing can be reset by the intervention of male-specific primary signals (M factor). In early development, the functional female and truncated male TRA proteins relay the sexual fates to the alternative splicing of a bisexual switch gene, doublesex (dsx) cascading the sexual differentiation processes...
2016: BMC Genetics
Qing Ma, Margaret de Cuevas, Erika L Matunis
Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism...
March 1, 2016: Development
Yating Liu, Wen Xie, Xin Yang, Litao Guo, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Zezhong Yang, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
The P-element somatic inhibitor (PSI) is gene known to regulate the transcription of doublesex (dsx) when transformer (tra) is absent in Bombyx mori. In this study, we identified and characterized a PSI homolog in Bemisia tabaci (BtPSI). BtPSI cDNA had a total length of 5700 bp and contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 2208 nucleotides encoding for 735 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of the common regions of PSI proteins from B. tabaci and five other insect species revealed a high degree of sequence conservation...
April 15, 2016: Gene
Shuo Yin, Zhong-Feng Wang, Jun-Guo Duan, Lu Ji, Xue-Jing Lu
AIM: To investigate the effect of DSX, an active component extracted from Erigeron breviscapus, on the voltage-gated outward K(+) channel currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by using electrophysiological method, and to explore the possible mechanisms of DSX on optic nerve protection. METHODS: Outward K(+) currents were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on acutely isolated rat RGCs. Outward K(+) currents were induced by a series of depolarizing voltage pulses from a holding potential of -70 mV to +20 mV in an increment of 10 mV...
2015: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Keshava Mysore, Longhua Sun, Michael Tomchaney, Gwyneth Sullivan, Haley Adams, Andres S Piscoya, David W Severson, Zainulabeuddin Syed, Molly Duman-Scheel
The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx), a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females...
November 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yunpo Zhao, Claudia Cocco, Severine Domenichini, Marie-Laure Samson, Leonard Rabinow
The IMD pathway induces the innate immune response to infection by gram-negative bacteria. We demonstrate strong female-to-male sex transformations in double mutants of the IMD pathway in combination with Doa alleles. Doa encodes a protein kinase playing a central role in somatic sex determination through its regulation of alternative splicing of dsx transcripts. Transcripts encoding two specific Doa isoforms are reduced in Rel null mutant females, supporting our genetic observations. A role for the IMD pathway in somatic sex determination is further supported by the induction of female-to-male sex transformations by Dredd mutations in sensitized genetic backgrounds...
November 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
Dana C Price, Andrea Egizi, Dina M Fonseca
The doublesex (dsx) gene functions as a molecular switch at the base of the insect sex determination cascade, and triggers male or female somatic sexual differentiation in Drosophila. Having been reported from only seven current insect orders, the exact phylogenetic distribution of dsx within the largest Arthropod sub-phylum, the Hexapoda, is unknown. To understand the evolution of this integral gene relative to other arthropods, we tested for the presence of dsx within public EST and genome sequencing projects representative of all 32 hexapod orders...
2015: Scientific Reports
Gerald A LeBlanc, Elizabeth K Medlock
Branchiopod crustaceans (e.g., Daphnia sp.) and some other taxa utilize both asexual and sexual reproduction to maximize population sustainability. The decision to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental cues that foretell a potentially detrimental change in environmental conditions. This review describes the cascade of events beginning with environmental cues and ending with changes in gene expression that dictate male sex determination in daphnids, the initial event in the switch to sexual reproduction...
November 2015: FEBS Journal
R N Chatterjee, P Chatterjee, S Kuthe, M Acharyya-Ari, R Chatterjee
In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSX(F)) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix(1)/ix(1) , XX ix(2)/ix(2) and XX ix(5)/ix(5) individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dpp(disk)) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dpp(disk) mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity...
June 2015: Journal of Genetics
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