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Shunsuke Wagamitsu, Dan Takase, Fugaku Aoki, Masataka G Suzuki
Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
Ameet Aiyangar, Liying Zheng, William Anderst, Xudong Zhang
The study aimed to map instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs) of lumbar motion segments during a functional lifting task and examine differences across segments and variations caused by magnitude of weight lifted. Eleven healthy participants lifted loads of three different magnitudes (4.5, 9, and 13.5kg) from a trunk-flexed (~75°) to an upright position, while being imaged by a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. Tracked lumbar vertebral (L2-S1) motion data were processed into highly accurate 6DOF intervertebral (L2L3, L3L4, L4L5, L5S1) kinematics...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Yasemin B Yilmazer, Masayuki Koganezawa, Kosei Sato, Jinhua Xu, Daisuke Yamamoto
Drosophila platonic (plt) males court females, but fail to copulate. Here we show that plt is an allele of scribbler (sbb), a BMP signalling component. sbb knockdown in larvae leads to the loss of approximately eight serotonergic neurons, which express the sex-determinant protein Doublesex (Dsx). Genetic deprivation of serotonin (5-HT) from dsx-expressing neurons results in copulation defects. Thus, sbb(+) is developmentally required for the survival of a specific subset of dsx-expressing neurons, which support the normal execution of copulation in adults by providing 5-HT...
December 13, 2016: Nature Communications
Jun Xu, Shuai Zhan, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Zhiqian Li, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Anthony Percival-Smith
A major problem in developmental genetics is how HOX transcription factors, like Proboscipedia (PB) and Ultrabithorax (UBX), regulate distinct programs of gene expression to result in a proboscis versus a haltere, respectively, when the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of HOX transcription factors recognizes similar DNA-binding sequences. Indeed, the lack of DNA-binding specificity is a problem for all transcription factors (TFs), as the DNA-binding domains generally recognize small targets of five to six bases in length...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
Carolina Rezával, Siddharth Pattnaik, Hania J Pavlou, Tetsuya Nojima, Birgit Brüggemeier, Luis A D D'Souza, Hany K M Dweck, Stephen F Goodwin
Courtship in Drosophila melanogaster offers a powerful experimental paradigm for the study of innate sexually dimorphic behaviors [1, 2]. Fruit fly males exhibit an elaborate courtship display toward a potential mate [1, 2]. Females never actively court males, but their response to the male's display determines whether mating will actually occur. Sex-specific behaviors are hardwired into the nervous system via the actions of the sex determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [1]. Activation of male-specific dsx/fru(+) P1 neurons in the brain initiates the male's courtship display [3, 4], suggesting that neurons unique to males trigger this sex-specific behavior...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yu-Wen Lai, Leona T Campbell, Marc R Wilkins, Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Sharon Chen, Dee A Carter
Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Wei Peng, Kaleem Tariq, Junfei Xie, Hongyu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B...
2016: PloS One
Hiroki Gotoh, Mai Ishiguro, Hideto Nishikawa, Shinichi Morita, Kensuke Okada, Takahisa Miyatake, Toshinobu Yaginuma, Teruyuki Niimi
Various types of weapon traits found in insect order Coleoptera are known as outstanding examples of sexually selected exaggerated characters. It is known that the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a significant role in sex-specific expression of weapon traits in various beetles belonging to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Although sex-specific weapon traits have evolved independently in various Coleopteran groups, developmental mechanisms of sex-specific expression have not been studied outside of the Scarabaeoidea...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jing Tang, Eric Thorhauer, Karl Bowman, Freddie H Fu, Scott Tashman
PURPOSE: The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models...
June 2, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jennifer C Chandler, Joseph Aizen, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Abigail Elizur, Tomer Ventura
The decapod Crustacea are the most species-rich order of the Crustacea and include some of the most charismatic and highly valued commercial species. Thus the decapods draw a significant research interest in relation to aquaculture, as well as gaining a broader understanding of these species' biology. However, the diverse physiology of the group considered with the lack of a model species have presented an obstacle for comparative analyses. In reflection of this, the recent integration of comparative transcriptomics has rapidly advanced our understanding of key regulatory pathways and developmental phenomena, an example being our understanding of sexual development...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Michelle N Arbeitman, Felicia N New, Justin M Fear, Tiffany S Howard, Justin E Dalton, Rita M Graze
Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Antonia Klein, Eva Schultner, Helena Lowak, Lukas Schrader, Jürgen Heinze, Luke Holman, Jan Oettler
The major transition to eusociality required the evolution of a switch to canalize development into either a reproductive or a helper, the nature of which is currently unknown. Following predictions from the 'theory of facilitated variation', we identify sex differentiation pathways as promising candidates because of their pre-adaptation to regulating development of complex phenotypes. We show that conserved core genes, including the juvenile hormone-sensitive master sex differentiation gene doublesex (dsx) and a krüppel homolog 2 (kr-h2) with putative regulatory function, exhibit both sex and morph-specific expression across life stages in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior...
March 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hiroki Gotoh, Robert A Zinna, Ian Warren, Michael DeNieu, Teruyuki Niimi, Ian Dworkin, Douglas J Emlen, Toru Miura, Laura C Lavine
BACKGROUND: Genes in the sex determination pathway are important regulators of sexually dimorphic animal traits, including the elaborate and exaggerated male ornaments and weapons of sexual selection. In this study, we identified and functionally analyzed members of the sex determination gene family in the golden metallic stag beetle Cyclommatus metallifer, which exhibits extreme differences in mandible size between males and females. RESULTS: We constructed a C...
March 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
Jianping Duan, Xianxin Meng, Sanyuan Ma, Feng Wang, Huozhen Guo, Liying Zhang, Ping Zhao, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Qingyou Xia
The doublesex gene regulates the somatic sexual development of Bombyx mori by alternatively splicing into sex-specific splice forms. In our previous study, the splice form Bmdsx (F7) , which encodes the BmDSX(F5) protein, was found to be expressed in a female-specific manner and to contain a novel C-terminus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of this C-terminus. Two transgenic lines, L1 and L2, were constructed to ectopically express Bmdsx (F7) in males. Phenotype and W chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that developmental abnormalities and sex reversal did not occur...
August 2016: Transgenic Research
Geoffrey W Meissner, Shengzhan D Luo, Brian G Dias, Michael J Texada, Bruce S Baker
The development of sexually dimorphic morphology and the potential for sexually dimorphic behavior in Drosophila are regulated by the Fruitless (Fru) and Doublesex (Dsx) transcription factors. Several direct targets of Dsx have been identified, but direct Fru targets have not been definitively identified. We show that Drosophila leucine-rich repeat G protein-coupled receptor 3 (Lgr3) is regulated by Fru and Dsx in separate populations of neurons. Lgr3 is a member of the relaxin-receptor family and a receptor for Dilp8, necessary for control of organ growth...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kamoltip Laohakieat, Nidchaya Aketarawong, Siriwan Isasawin, Siripong Thitamadee, Sujinda Thanaphum
BACKGROUND: The transformer (tra) is a sex determining switch in different orders of insects, including Diptera, as in the family Tephritidae. The lifelong autoregulatory loop of tra female-specific splicing can be reset by the intervention of male-specific primary signals (M factor). In early development, the functional female and truncated male TRA proteins relay the sexual fates to the alternative splicing of a bisexual switch gene, doublesex (dsx) cascading the sexual differentiation processes...
2016: BMC Genetics
Qing Ma, Margaret de Cuevas, Erika L Matunis
Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism...
March 1, 2016: Development
Yating Liu, Wen Xie, Xin Yang, Litao Guo, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Zezhong Yang, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
The P-element somatic inhibitor (PSI) is gene known to regulate the transcription of doublesex (dsx) when transformer (tra) is absent in Bombyx mori. In this study, we identified and characterized a PSI homolog in Bemisia tabaci (BtPSI). BtPSI cDNA had a total length of 5700 bp and contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 2208 nucleotides encoding for 735 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of the common regions of PSI proteins from B. tabaci and five other insect species revealed a high degree of sequence conservation...
April 15, 2016: Gene
Shuo Yin, Zhong-Feng Wang, Jun-Guo Duan, Lu Ji, Xue-Jing Lu
AIM: To investigate the effect of DSX, an active component extracted from Erigeron breviscapus, on the voltage-gated outward K(+) channel currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by using electrophysiological method, and to explore the possible mechanisms of DSX on optic nerve protection. METHODS: Outward K(+) currents were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on acutely isolated rat RGCs. Outward K(+) currents were induced by a series of depolarizing voltage pulses from a holding potential of -70 mV to +20 mV in an increment of 10 mV...
2015: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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