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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734023/how-do-we-manage-blood-donors-and-recipients-after-a-positive-zika-screening-result
#1
Alexandra Jimenez, Beth H Shaz, Debra Kessler, Evan M Bloch
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic. ZIKV is notable for its severe neurologic sequelae in babies born to infected mothers. High rates of subclinical infection, as evidenced by the finding of ZIKV RNA in asymptomatic donors, raise concerns of risk to the blood supply. To date, a total of four suspected cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV have been reported (all in Brazil), none of which were associated with clinical infection in the transfusion recipients...
July 21, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733842/human-dirofilaria-repens-infections-diagnosed-in-slovakia-in-the-last-10-years-2007-2017
#2
Martina Miterpáková, Daniela Antolová, František Ondriska, Viliam Gál
Human dirofilariosis is currently considered to be an emerging zoonosis of Central Europe with climate change and globalization playing a key role in its spreading. Additionally, the occurrence of Dirofilaria spp. is strongly subject to a certain number of microfilaremic dogs and the presence of the mosquito vectors. Both conditions are fulfilled in Slovakia. The first human case of autochthonous dirofilariosis in Slovakia was diagnosed in 2007, 2 years after the infection had been observed in the Slovak dog population...
July 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733628/solute-carriers-affect-anopheles-stephensi-survival-and-plasmodium-berghei-infection-in-the-salivary-glands
#3
J Couto, S Antunes, R Pinheiro-Silva, V do Rosário, J de la Fuente, A Domingos
Malaria is caused by mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp. parasites that must infect and survive within mosquito salivary glands (SGs) prior to host transmission. Recent advances in transcriptomics and the complete genome sequencing of mosquito vectors have increased our knowledge of the SG genes and proteins involved in pathogen infection and transmission. Membrane solute carriers are key proteins involved in drug transport and are useful in the development of new interventions for transmission blocking. Herein, we applied transcriptomics analysis to compare SGs mRNA levels in Anopheles stephensi fed on non-infected and P...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732068/effects-of-liver-stage-clearance-by-primaquine-on-gametocyte-carriage-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum
#4
Rahel Wampfler, Natalie E Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Inoni Betuela, Benson Kinboro, Lina Lorry, Mariabeth Silkey, Leanne J Robinson, Ivo Mueller, Ingrid Felger
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) is the only currently licensed antimalarial that prevents Plasmodium vivax (Pv) relapses. It also clears mature P. falciparum (Pf) gametocytes, thereby reducing post-treatment transmission. Randomized PQ treatment in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort in Papua New Guinean children permitted the study of Pv and Pf gametocyte carriage after radical cure and to investigate the contribution of Pv relapses. METHODS: Children received radical cure with Chloroquine, Artemether-Lumefantrine plus either PQ or placebo...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732048/wolbachia-and-dengue-virus-infection-in-the-mosquito-aedes-fluviatilis-diptera-culicidae
#5
Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva, Debora Magalhães Alves, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Thiago Nunes Pereira, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731409/assessment-of-the-probability-of-autochthonous-transmission-of-chikungunya-virus-in-canada-under-recent-and-projected-climate-change
#6
Victoria Ng, Aamir Fazil, Philippe Gachon, Guillaume Deuymes, Milka Radojević, Mariola Mascarenhas, Sophiya Garasia, Michael A Johansson, Nicholas H Ogden
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging pathogen transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The ongoing Caribbean outbreak is of concern due to the potential for infected travelers to spread the virus to countries where vectors are present and the population is susceptible. Although there has been no autochthonous transmission of CHIKV in Canada, there is concern that both Ae. albopictus and CHIKV will become established, particularly under projected climate change...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731348/proton-transport-in-hierarchical-structured-nafion-membranes-a-nmr-study
#7
Hengrui Yang, Jin Zhang, Jingliang Li, San Ping Jiang, Maria Forsyth, Haijin Zhu
It is known that hierarchical structure plays a key role in many unique material properties such as self-cleaning effect of lotus leaves and the anti-fogging property of the compound eyes of mosquitoes. This study reports a series of highly ordered meso-porous Nafion membranes with unique hierarchical structural features at the nanometre scale. Using NMR, we show for the first time that at low RH conditions, the proton in the ionic domains migrates via a surface diffusion mechanism and exhibits approximately two orders of magnitude faster transport than that in the nano-pores, whereas the nano-pores play a role of reservoir and maintain water and thereby conductivity at higher temperature and lower humidities...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730366/to-coil-or-not-to-coil-application-practices-perception-and-efficacy-of-mosquito-coils-in-a-malaria-endemic-community-in-ghana
#8
Silas W Avicor, Mustafa F F Wajidi, Ebenezer O Owusu
Although evidence of mosquito coils' impact on disease epidemiology is limited, they are popularized as mosquito-borne disease prevention devices. Their usage affects the environment, human and mosquito health. This study investigated the perception, usage pattern and efficacy of coils in a predominantly poor malaria-endemic Ghanaian peri-urban area. Information on protection methods, perception and usage pattern was garnered using questionnaires. The efficacy of commonly used coils in the area was then assessed on the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in a glass chamber...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729711/an-ecological-and-digital-epidemiology-analysis-on-the-role-of-human-behavior-on-the-2014-chikungunya-outbreak-in-martinique
#9
Benjamin Roche, Béatrice Gaillard, Lucas Léger, Renélise Pélagie-Moutenda, Thomas Sochacki, Bernard Cazelles, Martine Ledrans, Alain Blateau, Didier Fontenille, Manuel Etienne, Frédéric Simard, Marcel Salathé, André Yébakima
Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic infections is of critical importance for a deeper understanding of pathogen transmission, and for the design of more efficient public health strategies. However, very few studies in this domain have focused on emerging infections, generating a gap of knowledge that hampers epidemiological response planning. Here, we analyze the case of a Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Martinique in 2014. Using time series estimates from a network of sentinel practitioners covering the entire island, we first analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics and show that the largest city has served as the epicenter of this epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729672/plasmodium-berghei-p47-is-essential-for-ookinete-protection-from-the-anopheles-gambiae-complement-like-response
#10
Chiamaka Valerie Ukegbu, Maria Giorgalli, Hassan Yassine, Jose Luis Ramirez, Chrysanthi Taxiarchi, Carolina Barillas-Mury, George K Christophides, Dina Vlachou
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease affecting millions of people every year. The rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei has served as a model for human malaria transmission studies and played a pivotal role in dissecting the mosquito immune response against infection. The 6-cysteine protein P47, known to be important for P. berghei female gamete fertility, is shown to serve a different function in Plasmodium falciparum, protecting ookinetes from the mosquito immune response. Here, we investigate the function of P...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728996/conditions-for-success-of-engineered-underdominance-gene-drive-systems
#11
Matthew P Edgington, Luke S Alphey
Engineered underdominance is one of a number of different gene drive strategies that have been proposed for the genetic control of insect vectors of disease. Here we model a two-locus engineered underdominance based gene drive system that is based on the concept of mutually suppressing lethals. In such a system two genetic constructs are introduced, each possessing a lethal element and a suppressor of the lethal at the other locus. Specifically, we formulate and analyse a population genetics model of this system to assess when different combinations of release strategies (i...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728607/zika-virus-transmission-to-mouse-ear-by-mosquito-bite-a-laboratory-model-that-replicates-the-natural-transmission-process
#12
Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Barbara Aparecida Chaves, Alessandra Silva Orfano, Karine Renata Dias Silveira, Nilton Barnabe Rodrigues, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luiz Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Breno Melo Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Douglas Eric Norris, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. METHODS: We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728590/chikungunya-virus-infection-in-cynomolgus-macaques-following-intradermal-and-aerosol-exposure
#13
Chris M Cirimotich, Eric M Vela, Jennifer Garver, Roy E Barnewall, Brian D Miller, Gabriel T Meister, James V Rogers
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeutics to protect against CHIKV infection in humans. Animal models recapitulating human disease, especially for transmission by aerosol, are needed for licensure of such medical countermeasures. METHODS: Cynomolgus macaques (CMs) were challenged by intradermal (ID) inoculation or exposure to an aerosol containing CHIKV Ross strain at different target infectious doses (10(3)-10(7) plaque forming units (PFU))...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728572/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-malaria-transmission-in-mamfene-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa-2015
#14
Pinky N Manana, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Hluphi D Mpangane, Lizette L Koekemoer
BACKGROUND: In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728201/-fever-and-headache-after-a-vacation-in-thailand
#15
Benedikt Schwermer, Daniel Eschle, Constantine Bloch-Infanger
History 50 year-old man with fever and headache starting one week after returning from his vacation in Thailand. His general practitioner prescribed amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, without further analyses to pinpoint the infection. Examinations The examination of cerebro-spinal fluid was crucial for the final diagnosis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated a predominantly mononuclear pleocytosis of 80 cells/µl (< 5) with an elevated protein of 782 mg/l (< 450); glucose and lactate were within normal limits...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727821/advances-in-using-internet-searches-to-track-dengue
#16
Shihao Yang, Samuel C Kou, Fred Lu, John S Brownstein, Nicholas Brooke, Mauricio Santillana
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that threatens over half of the world's population. Despite being endemic to more than 100 countries, government-led efforts and tools for timely identification and tracking of new infections are still lacking in many affected areas. Multiple methodologies that leverage the use of Internet-based data sources have been proposed as a way to complement dengue surveillance efforts. Among these, dengue-related Google search trends have been shown to correlate with dengue activity...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727779/contemporary-status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-the-major-aedes-vectors-of-arboviruses-infecting-humans
#17
REVIEW
Catherine L Moyes, John Vontas, Ademir J Martins, Lee Ching Ng, Sin Ying Koou, Isabelle Dusfour, Kamaraju Raghavendra, João Pinto, Vincent Corbel, Jean-Philippe David, David Weetman
Both Aedes aegytpi and Ae. albopictus are major vectors of 5 important arboviruses (namely chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Rift Valley fever virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus), making these mosquitoes an important factor in the worldwide burden of infectious disease. Vector control using insecticides coupled with larval source reduction is critical to control the transmission of these viruses to humans but is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Here, we review the available evidence for the geographical distribution of insecticide resistance in these 2 major vectors worldwide and map the data collated for the 4 main classes of neurotoxic insecticide (carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726621/characterization-of-fitzroy-river-virus-and-serologic-evidence-of-human-and-animal-infection
#18
Cheryl A Johansen, Simon H Williams, Lorna F Melville, Jay Nicholson, Roy A Hall, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Natalie A Prow, Glenys R Chidlow, Shani Wong, Rohini Sinha, David T Williams, W Ian Lipkin, David W Smith
In northern Western Australia in 2011 and 2012, surveillance detected a novel arbovirus in mosquitoes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses confirmed that the new flavivirus, named Fitzroy River virus, is related to Sepik virus and Wesselsbron virus, in the yellow fever virus group. Most (81%) isolates came from Aedes normanensis mosquitoes, providing circumstantial evidence of the probable vector. In cell culture, Fitzroy River virus replicated in mosquito (C6/36), mammalian (Vero, PSEK, and BSR), and avian (DF-1) cells...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726615/west-nile-virus-outbreak-in-houston-and-harris-county-texas-usa-2014
#19
Diana Martinez, Kristy O Murray, Martin Reyna, Raouf R Arafat, Roberto Gorena, Umair A Shah, Mustapha Debboun
Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726605/detection-of-elizabethkingia-spp-in-culicoides-biting-midges-australia
#20
Peter T Mee, Stacey E Lynch, Peter J Walker, Lorna Melville, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
The bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia is known to exist in certain species of mosquito but was unknown in other arthropods. We report the detection and identification of Elizabethkingia in species of Culicoides biting midge in Australia, raising the possibility of bacterial transmission via this species.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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