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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936462/sinu-virus-a-novel-and-divergent-orthomyxovirus-related-to-members-of-the-genus-thogotovirus-isolated-from-mosquitoes-in-colombia
#1
María Angélica Contreras-Gutiérrez, Marcio R T Nunes, Hilda Guzman, Sandra Uribe, Juan Carlos Gallego Gómez, Juan David Suaza Vasco, Jedson F Cardoso, Vsevolod L Popov, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
The genome and structural organization of a novel insect-specific orthomyxovirus, designated Sinu virus, is described. Sinu virus (SINUV) was isolated in cultures of C6/36 cells from a pool of mosquitoes collected in northwestern Colombia. The virus has six negative-sense ssRNA segments. Genetic analysis of each segment demonstrated the presence of six distinct ORFs encoding the following genes: PB2 (Segment 1), PB1, (Segment 2), PA protein (Segment 3), envelope GP gene (Segment 4), the NP (Segment 5), and M-like gene (Segment 6)...
December 6, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#2
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936209/occurrence-and-spread-of-the-invasive-asian-bush-mosquito-aedes-japonicus-japonicus-diptera-culicidae-in-west-and-north-germany-since-detection-in-2012-and-2013-respectively
#3
Helge Kampen, Cornelius Kuhlisch, Andreas Fröhlich, Dorothee E Scheuch, Doreen Walther
The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was first recognised as established in Germany in 2008. In addition to the first known and quickly expanding population in the southwestern part of the country, three separate populations were discovered in West, North and southeastern Germany in 2012, 2013 and 2015, respectively, by means of the 'Mueckenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. Since the first findings of mosquito specimens in West and North Germany, these regions were checked annually for continuing colonisation and spread of the species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934910/extensive-genetic-diversity-of-rickettsiales-bacteria-in-multiple-mosquito-species
#4
Wen-Ping Guo, Jun-Hua Tian, Xian-Dan Lin, Xue-Bing Ni, Xiao-Ping Chen, Yong Liao, Si-Yuan Yang, J Stephen Dumler, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014-2015...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934765/zika-virus-produces-noncoding-rnas-using-a-multi-pseudoknot-structure-that-confounds-a-cellular-exonuclease
#5
Benjamin M Akiyama, Hannah M Laurence, Aaron R Massey, David A Costantino, Xuping Xie, Yujiao Yang, Pei-Yong Shi, Jay C Nix, J David Beckham, Jeffrey S Kieft
The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated fetal microcephaly mandates efforts to understand the molecular processes of infection. Related flaviviruses produce noncoding subgenomic flaviviral RNAs (sfRNAs) that are linked to pathogenicity in fetal mice. These viruses make sfRNAs by co-opting a cellular exonuclease via structured RNAs called xrRNAs. We found that ZIKV-infected monkey and human epithelial cells, mouse neurons, and mosquito cells produce sfRNAs. The RNA structure that is responsible for ZIKV sfRNA production forms a complex fold that is likely found in many pathogenic flaviviruses...
December 2, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934698/ltr-mediated-retroposition-as-a-mechanism-of-rna-based-duplication-in-metazoans
#6
Shengjun Tan, Margarida Cardoso-Moreira, Wenwen Shi, Dan Zhang, Jiawei Huang, Yanan Mao, Hangxing Jia, Yaqiong Zhang, Chunyan Chen, Yi Shao, Liang Leng, Zhonghua Liu, Xun Huang, Manyuan Long, Yong E Zhang
In a broad range of taxa, genes can duplicate through an RNA intermediate in a process mediated by retrotransposons (retroposition). In mammals, L1 retrotransposons drive retroposition, but the elements responsible for retroposition in other animals have yet to be identified. Here, we examined young retrocopies from various animals that still retain the sequence features indicative of the underlying retroposition mechanism. In Drosophila melanogaster, we identified and de novo assembled 15 polymorphic retrocopies and found that all retroposed loci are chimeras of internal retrocopies flanked by discontinuous LTR retrotransposons...
December 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933090/the-worldwide-spread-of-the-tiger-mosquito-as-revealed-by-mitogenome-haplogroup-diversity
#7
Vincenza Battaglia, Paolo Gabrieli, Stefania Brandini, Marco R Capodiferro, Pio A Javier, Xiao-Guang Chen, Alessandro Achilli, Ornella Semino, Ludvik M Gomulski, Anna R Malacrida, Giuliano Gasperi, Antonio Torroni, Anna Olivieri
In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933051/short-interfering-rna-inhibits-rift-valley-fever-virus-replication-and-degradation-of-protein-kinase-r-in-human-cells
#8
Bonto Faburay, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen causing severe outbreaks in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human infections are characterized by fever, sometimes leading to encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever, and occasionally death. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines or effective therapies for human use. Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes, which serves as an antiviral defense mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#9
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931234/patterns-and-determinants-of-malaria-risk-in-urban-and-peri-urban-areas-of-blantyre-malawi
#10
Don P Mathanga, Atupele Kapito Tembo, Themba Mzilahowa, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Mtimaukenena, Terrie E Taylor, Clarissa Valim, Edward D Walker, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: Although malaria disease in urban and peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a growing concern, the epidemiologic patterns and drivers of transmission in these settings remain poorly understood. Factors associated with variation in malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A health facility-based, age and location-matched, case-control study of children 6-59 months of age was conducted in four urban and two peri-urban health facilities (HF) of Blantyre city, Malawi...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931226/culex-pipiens-forms-and-urbanization-effects-on-blood-feeding-sources-and-transmission-of-avian-plasmodium
#11
Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Martina Ferraguti, Santiago Ruiz, David Roiz, Ramón C Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: The wide spread mosquito Culex pipiens pipiens have two forms molestus and pipiens which frequently hybridize. The two forms have behavioural and physiological differences affecting habitat requirements and host selection, which may affect the transmission dynamic of Cx. p. pipiens-borne diseases. METHODS: During 2013, blood engorged Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes were captured in urban, rural and natural areas from Southern Spain. In 120 mosquitoes, we identified the blood meal origin at vertebrate species/genus level and the mosquito form...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930652/safety-and-reproducibility-of-a-clinical-trial-system-using-induced-blood-stage-plasmodium-vivax-infection-and-its-potential-as-a-model-to-evaluate-malaria-transmission
#12
Paul Griffin, Cielo Pasay, Suzanne Elliott, Silvana Sekuloski, Maggy Sikulu, Leon Hugo, David Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Miles Davenport, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Karen Ivinson, Christian Ockenhouse, James McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Interventions to interrupt transmission of malaria from humans to mosquitoes represent an appealing approach to assist malaria elimination. A limitation has been the lack of systems to test the efficacy of such interventions before proceeding to efficacy trials in the field. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) infection with Plasmodium vivax. In this study, we report further validation of the IBSM model, and its evaluation for assessment of transmission of P...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930336/resistance-mutation-conserved-between-insects-and-mites-unravels-the-benzoylurea-insecticide-mode-of-action-on-chitin-biosynthesis
#13
Vassilis Douris, Denise Steinbach, Rafaela Panteleri, Ioannis Livadaras, John Anthony Pickett, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Ralf Nauen, John Vontas
Despite the major role of chitin biosynthesis inhibitors such as benzoylureas (BPUs) in the control of pests in agricultural and public health for almost four decades, their molecular mode of action (MoA) has in most cases remained elusive. BPUs interfere with chitin biosynthesis and were thought to interact with sulfonylurea receptors that mediate chitin vesicle transport. Here, we uncover a mutation (I1042M) in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of BPU-resistant Plutella xylostella at the same position as the I1017F mutation reported in spider mites that confers etoxazole resistance...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929451/the-self-regulation-model-of-illness-comparison-between-zika-and-dengue-and-its-application-to-predict-mosquito-prevention-behaviours-in-malaysia-a-dengue-endemic-country
#14
Li Ping Wong, Haridah Alias, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, I-Ching Sam, Sazaly AbuBakar
Perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. Illness perceptions of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were investigated under the framework of the Self-Regulation Model of Illness. Illness perception differences between ZIKV and dengue fever were also examined. Lastly, associations between illness perceptions of ZIKV with mosquito prevention practices were studied. Samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing in Malaysia...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929364/ipomoea-batatas-convolvulaceae-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-for-controlling-mosquito-vectors-of-aedes-albopictus-anopheles-stephensi-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#15
V Pavithra Bharathi, C Ragavendran, N Murugan, D Natarajan
We proposed an effective and eco-friendly control of dengue, malaria, and filariasis-causing vectors. We tested Ipomoea batatas leaves-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against first to fourth instar larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentrations. The synthesized AgNPs showed broad spectrum of larvicidal and adulticidal effects after 48 h of exposure. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was done using various spectral and microscopy analyses...
December 8, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929218/emerging-vector-borne-diseases
#16
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison, Dilip Nair
Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome...
October 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928533/mosquito-surveillance-and-the-first-record-of-the-invasive-mosquito-species-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-skuse-diptera-culicidae-in-southern-iran
#17
Sara Doosti, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Francis Schaffner, Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Kamran Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Gooya, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Ehsan Mosta-Favi
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of mosquito-borne viral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley fevers in neighbouring countries and risk of introduction of exotic vectors into Iran have placed this country at a significant risk for these mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: After the first dengue case reported in Iran in 2008, active entomological surveillance of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) were conducted in May/Jun, Sep, and Oct/Nov, 2008-2014...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927238/insecticide-resistance-in-malaria-vectors-in-kumasi-ghana
#18
Sandra Baffour-Awuah, Augustina A Annan, Oumou Maiga-Ascofare, Soma Diloma Dieudonné, Priscilla Adjei-Kusi, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Kwasi Obiri-Danso
BACKGROUND: There have been recent reports of surge in resistance to insecticides in pocketed areas in Ghana necessitating the need for information about local vector populations and their resistance to the insecticides approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore studied a population of malaria vectors from Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana and their resistance to currently used insecticides. We conducted susceptibility tests to the four major classes of insecticides by collecting larvae of anopheline mosquitoes from several communities in the region...
December 7, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927093/optomotor-reactions-reveal-polarization-sensitvity-in-the-zika-virus-transmitting-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-stegomyia-aegypti-diptera-nematocera
#19
Balazs Bernáth, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
In polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. However, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (PS) was considered to be non-existent in them. Recently, however, gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess PS, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. Therefore, PS in Ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic insects, apparently does not play a dominant role in locating water bodies, and is difficult to demonstrate in situations free of chemical cues...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926934/public-health-interventions-for-aedes-control-in-the-time-of-zikavirus-a-meta-review-on-effectiveness-of-vector-control-strategies
#20
Maha Bouzid, Julii Brainard, Lee Hooper, Paul R Hunter
BACKGROUND: There is renewed interest in effective measures to control Zika and dengue vectors. A synthesis of published literature with a focus on the quality of evidence is warranted to determine the effectiveness of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a meta-review assessing the effectiveness of any Aedes control measure. We searched Scopus and Medline for relevant reviews through to May 2016. Titles, abstracts and full texts were assessed independently for inclusion by two authors...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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