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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821712/emergence-of-recombinant-mayaro-virus-strains-from-the-amazon-basin
#1
Carla Mavian, Brittany D Rife, James Jarad Dollar, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Mattia C F Prosperi, John Lednicky, J Glenn Morris, Ilaria Capua, Marco Salemi
Mayaro virus (MAYV), causative agent of Mayaro Fever, is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes. Despite recent attention due to the identification of several cases in South and Central America and the Caribbean, limited information on MAYV evolution and epidemiology exists and represents a barrier to prevention of further spread. We present a thorough spatiotemporal evolutionary study of MAYV full-genome sequences collected over the last sixty years within South America and Haiti, revealing recent recombination events and adaptation to a broad host and vector range, including Aedes mosquito species...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820883/spatial-clustering-of-patent-and-sub-patent-malaria-infections-in-northern-namibia-implications-for-surveillance-and-response-strategies-for-elimination
#2
Jennifer L Smith, Joyce Auala, Munyaradzi Tambo, Erastus Haindongo, Stark Katokele, Petrina Uusiku, Roly Gosling, Immo Kleinschmidt, Davis Mumbengegwi, Hugh J W Sturrock
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) around passively detected malaria cases is a strategy to identify and treat hotspots of malaria transmission. This study investigated the unproven assumption on which this approach is based, that in low transmission settings, infections cluster over small scales. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2014 in Ohangwena and Omusati regions in north central Namibia. Patients attending health facilities who tested positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (index cases) were traced back to their home...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820882/correlation-between-mosquito-larval-density-and-their-habitat-physicochemical-characteristics-in-mazandaran-province-northern-iran
#3
Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Shahyad Azari-Hamidian, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavinasab, Mohsen Aarabi, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Yahya Esfandyari, Ahmadali Enayati
Characteristics of mosquito larval habitats are important in determining whether they can survive and successfully complete their developmental stages. Therefore, data on the ecological factors affecting mosquito density and abundance especially the physicochemical properties of water of their breeding sites, can possibly be helpful in implementing larval management programs. Mosquito larvae were collected using a standard 350 ml dipper from fixed habitats including: artificial pool, river edge, creek and etc, in 30 villages of 16 counties from May-December 2014...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#4
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#5
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820715/limited-transmission-potential-of-takeda-s-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-candidate-by-aedes-albopictus
#6
Elizabeth A Dietrich, Yee Tsuey Ong, Janae L Stovall, Hansi Dean, Claire Y-H Huang
Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820694/differential-neurovirulence-of-african-and-asian-genotype-zika-virus-isolates-in-outbred-immunocompetent-mice
#7
Nisha K Duggal, Jana M Ritter, Erin M McDonald, Hannah Romo, Farshad Guirakhoo, Brent S Davis, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Aaron C Brault
Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820686/the-emergence-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus
#8
Jesus A Silvas, Patricia V Aguilar
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly recognized hemorrhagic fever disease found throughout Asia with a case fatality rate between 12% and 30%. Since 2009, SFTS has been reported in China throughout 14 Chinese Provinces. In addition, SFTS has been recognized in South Korea and Japan with the first confirmed cases reported in 2012. A similar disease, caused by the closely related Heartland virus, was also reported in the United States in 2009. SFTS is caused by SFTS virus, a novel tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#9
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819256/fbn30-in-wild%C3%A2-anopheles-gambiae-functions-as-a-pathogen-recognition-molecule-against-clinically-circulating-plasmodium-falciparum-in-malaria-endemic-areas-in-kenya
#10
Guodong Niu, Genwei Zhang, Caio Franca, Yingjun Cui, Stephen Munga, Yaw Afrane, Jun Li
Malaria is a worldwide health problem that affects two-thirds of the world population. Plasmodium invasion of anopheline mosquitoes is an obligatory step for malaria transmission. However, mosquito-malaria molecular interactions in nature are not clear. A genetic variation within mosquito fibrinogen related-protein 30 (FBN30) was previously identified to be associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in natural Anopheles gambiae populations at malaria endemic areas in Kenya, and reducing FBN30 expression by RNAi makes mosquitoes more susceptible to P...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819225/cytochrome-p450-abc-transporter-inhibition-simultaneously-enhances-ivermectin-pharmacokinetics-in-the-mammal-host-and-pharmacodynamics-in-anopheles-gambiae
#11
Carlos J Chaccour, Felix Hammann, Marta Alustiza, Sandra Castejon, Brian B Tarimo, Gloria Abizanda, Ángel Irigoyen Barrio, Helena Martí Soler, Rafael Moncada, José Ignacio Bilbao, Azucena Aldaz, Marta Maia, José Luis Del Pozo
Mass administration of endectocides, drugs that kill blood-feeding arthropods, has been proposed as a complementary strategy to reduce malaria transmission. Ivermectin is one of the leading candidates given its excellent safety profile. Here we provide proof that the effect of ivermectin can be boosted at two different levels by drugs inhibiting the cytochrome or ABC transporter in the mammal host and the target mosquitoes. Using a mini-pig model, we show that drug-mediated cytochrome P450/ABC transporter inhibition results in a 3-fold increase in the time ivermectin remains above mosquito-killing concentrations...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818572/ribavirin-inhibits-zika-virus-zikv-replication-in-vitro-and-suppresses-viremia-in-zikv-infected-stat1-deficient-mice
#12
Naganori Kamiyama, Ryusuke Soma, Shinya Hidano, Kei Watanabe, Hiroshi Umekita, Chiaki Fukuda, Kaori Noguchi, Yoshiko Gendo, Takashi Ozaki, Akira Sonoda, Nozomi Sachi, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yumako Miura, Etsuro Matsubara, Shigeru Tajima, Tomohiko Takasaki, Yuki Eshita, Takashi Kobayashi
Zika fever, a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), is an epidemic disease for which no effective therapy has been established. The recent outbreaks of ZIKV in Brazil and French Polynesia have been linked to a considerable increase in the incidence of fetal microcephaly and other diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Because there is currently no specific therapy or vaccine, the early exploitation of a method to prevent expansion of ZIKV is a high priority. To validate commonly used antiviral drugs, we evaluated the effect of ribavirin, a drug used to treat hepatitis C with interferon-β (IFN-β), on ZIKV replication...
August 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818084/do-the-venous-blood-samples-replicate-malaria-parasite-densities-found-in-capillary-blood-a-field-study-performed-in-naturally-infected-asymptomatic-children-in-cameroon
#13
Maurice M Sandeu, Albert N Bayibéki, Majoline T Tchioffo, Luc Abate, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Sandrine E Nsango, Diadier Diallo, Antoine Berry, Gaétan Texier, Isabelle Morlais
BACKGROUND: The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818077/evaluation-of-piperonyl-butoxide-in-enhancing-the-efficacy-of-pyrethroid-insecticides-against-resistant-anopheles-gambiae-s-l-in-ghana
#14
Samuel K Dadzie, Joseph Chabi, Andy Asafu-Adjaye, Otubea Owusu-Akrofi, Aba Baffoe-Wilmot, Keziah Malm, Constance Bart-Plange, Sylvester Coleman, Maxwell A Appawu, Daniel A Boakye
BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control methods involving the use of pyrethroids remain the strategies being used against malaria vectors in Ghana. These methods include the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying in many areas in Ghana. However, there is evidence that pyrethroid resistance is widespread in many areas in Ghana. Synergists have been shown to be useful in inhibiting the enzymes that are responsible for the development of resistance and hence enhance the insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817629/maldi-tof-ms-identification-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-blood-meal-crushed-on-whatman-filter-papers
#15
Sirama Niare, Lionel Almeras, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Amina Yssouf, Affane Bacar, Ali Toilibou, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817563/assessment-of-risk-of-dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-transmission-in-three-major-kenyan-cities-based-on-stegomyia-indices
#16
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major urban cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks)...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817086/non-destructive-analysis-of-the-internal-anatomical-structures-of-mosquito-specimens-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Naresh Kumar Ravichandran, Ruchire Eranga Wijesinghe, Seung-Yeol Lee, Kwang Shik Choi, Mansik Jeon, Hee-Young Jung, Jeehyun Kim
The study of mosquitoes and analysis of their behavior are of crucial importance in the on-going efforts to control the alarming increase in mosquito-borne diseases. Furthermore, a non-destructive and real-time imaging technique to study the anatomical features of mosquito specimens can greatly aid the study of mosquitoes. In this study, we demonstrate the three-dimensional imaging capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for structural analysis of Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes. The anatomical features of An...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816628/outbreak-and-cocirculation-of-three-different-usutu-virus-strains-in-eastern-germany
#18
Michael Sieg, Volker Schmidt, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Dirk Höper, Kristin Heenemann, Antje Rückner, Hermann Nieper, Aemero Muluneh, Martin H Groschup, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. In this study, we show the introduction of USUV to Eastern Germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (Turdus merula). We found that three diverse USUV lineages ("Europe 3," "Africa 2," and "Africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. Moreover, we detected USUV in Culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito monitoring to uncover the spread of arboviruses...
August 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816022/assessing-human-risk-of-illness-with-west-nile-virus-mosquito-surveillance-data-to-improve-public-health-preparedness
#19
S Karki, N E Westcott, E J Muturi, W M Brown, M O Ruiz
Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploit the information from mosquito testing. The objective of our study was to use the information gained from historic West Nile virus mosquito testing to determine human risk relative to mosquito infection and to assess the usefulness of our mosquito infection forecasting models to give advance warning...
August 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814307/which-intervention-is-better-for-malaria-vector-control-insecticide-mixture-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-or-standard-pyrethroid-nets-combined-with-indoor-residual-spraying
#20
Corine Ngufor, Josias Fagbohoun, Jessica Critchley, Raphael N'Guessan, Damien Todjinou, David Malone, Martin Akogbeto, Mark Rowland
BACKGROUND: Malaria control today is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in vector populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of a mixture of unrelated insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) or as a combination of interventions for improved vector control and insecticide resistance management. Studies investigating the efficacy of these different strategies are necessary. METHODS: The efficacy of Interceptor(®) G2 LN, a newly developed LN treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr (a pyrrole) and alpha-cypermethrin (a pyrethroid), was compared to a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and Interceptor(®) LN (a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN) intervention in experimental huts in Cove Southern Benin, against wild, free-flying, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s...
August 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
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