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Konstantinos Mavridis, Emmanouil A Fotakis, Ilias Kioulos, Spiridoula Mpellou, Spiros Konstantas, Evangelia Varela, Sandra Gewehr, Vasilis Diamantopoulos, John Vontas
During July-October 2017 a WNV outbreak took place in the Peloponnese, Southern Greece with five confirmed deaths. During routine monitoring survey in the Peloponnese, supported by the local Prefecture, we have confirmed the presence of all three Culex pipiens biotypes in the region, with a high percentage of Culex pipiens/molestus hybrids (37.0%) which are considered a highly competent vector of WNV. Kdr mutations related to pyrethroid resistance were found at relatively low levels (14.3% homozygosity) while no mosquitoes harboring the recently identified chitin synthase diflubenzuron-resistance mutations were detected in the region...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kumudini M Meepagala, Alden S Estep, Brandon M Clausen, James J Becnel
The culture filtrate of a plant pathogenic fungus that infects English ivy (Hedera helix L., Araliaceae) was investigated for mosquitocidal constituents by bioassay-guided isolation. The fungus responsible for pathogenic effects on the plant H. helix has been identified as Diaporthe eres Nitschke by molecular techniques. The mosquito adulticidal constituent in the culture filtrate was identified as 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylisocoumarin (1) by spectroscopic techniques. Laboratory bioassays showed that (1) had larvicidal activity against permethrin-susceptible and -resistant Aedes aegypti strains...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rohani Ahmad, Ismail Suzilah, Wan Mohamad Ali Wan Najdah, Omar Topek, Ibrahim Mustafakamal, Han Lim Lee
A large scale study was conducted to elucidate the true relationship among entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors that contributed to dengue outbreak in Malaysia. Two large areas (Selayang and Bandar Baru Bangi) were selected in this study based on five consecutive years of high dengue cases. Entomological data were collected using ovitraps where the number of larvae was used to reflect Aedes mosquito population size; followed by RT-PCR screening to detect and serotype dengue virus in mosquitoes...
2018: PloS One
Victor A Brugman, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Jolyon M Medlock, Anthony R Fooks, Simon Carpenter, Nicholas Johnson
Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Raji Venkatesan, Govindaraju Ramkumar, Sengodan Karthi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Muthugoundar Subramanian Shivakumar
Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) -...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Danielle K Offerdahl, Marshall E Bloom
Each year there are more than 15 000 cases of human disease caused by infections with tick-borne viruses (TBVs). These illnesses occur worldwide and can range from very mild illness to severe encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Although TBVs are currently identified as neglected vector-borne pathogens and receive less attention than mosquito-borne viruses, TBVs are expanding into new regions, and infection rates are increasing. Furthermore, effective vaccines, diagnostic tools, and other countermeasures are limited...
February 23, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Brittany L Dodson, Sujit Pujhari, Jason L Rasgon
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector-borne flavivirus that has caused recent outbreaks associated with serious disease in infants and newborns in the Americas. Aedes mosquitoes are the primary vectors for ZIKV, but little is known about the diversity of mosquitoes that can transmit ZIKV in North America. We chose three abundant North American mosquito species ( Anopheles freeborni , Anopheles quadrimaculatus , and Culex tarsalis ) and one known vector species ( Aedes aegypti ), fed them blood meals supplemented with a recent outbreak ZIKV strain, and tested bodies, legs, and saliva for infectious ZIKV...
2018: PeerJ
Raj K Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Yashpal S Malik, Rubén Bueno-Marí
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lu Zhao, Han Xia, Yujuan Wang, Atoni Evans, Yunzhi Zhang, Zhiming Yuan
We report here the complete genome sequence of a new strain of Tanay virus, isolate YN15_103_01, which was isolated from Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes caught in China. Sequence analysis showed that it shares a 79% nucleotide sequence identity with the only other previously reported strains of Tanay virus, which were isolated from the Philippines.
February 22, 2018: Genome Announcements
Jiayue Yan, Juli Broggi, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Laura Gangoso, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Host selection by mosquitoes plays a central role in the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. Although interspecific variation in mosquito attraction has often been reported, the mechanisms underlying intraspecific differences in hosts' attractiveness to mosquitoes are still poorly known. Metabolic rate is related to several physiological parameters used as location cues by mosquitoes, and so potentially affect host-vector contact rates. Therefore, individual hosts with higher metabolic rates should be more attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes...
February 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
João Silveira Moledo Gesto, Alejandra Saori Araki, Eric Pearce Caragata, Caroline Dantas de Oliveira, Ademir Jesus Martins, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Luciano Andrade Moreira
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading to vast territories, putting at risk most of the world's population. A key player in this scenario is Aedes aegypti, a hematophagous species which hosts and transmits viruses causing dengue and other serious illnesses. Since vector control strategies relying only on insecticides have proven unsustainable, an alternative method involving the release of Wolbachia-harboring individuals has emerged. Its successful implementation vastly depends on how fit the released individuals are in the natural habitat, being able to mate with wild populations and to spread Wolbachia to subsequent generations...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kathleen R Walker, Daniel Williamson, Yves Carrière, Pablo A Reyes-Castro, Steven Haenchen, Mary H Hayden, Eileen Jeffrey Gutierrez, Kacey C Ernst
Aedes aegypti (L.; Diptera: Culicidae) has been established in the southwestern United States for several decades, but relationships between humans and mosquitoes in this arid region are not well-characterized. In August 2012, the outdoor premises of 355 houses within 20 neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona were surveyed for containers that could provide larval habitat for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. At the same time, a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) questionnaire was administered to a resident of each house surveyed for immature mosquitoes...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
K Mitura, S Kozieł
BACKGROUND: In low-resource countries, a suture repair is still in common use due to the limited access to commercial mesh implants. The search for less expensive alternatives to the synthetic meshes has led to using mosquito nets. Sterilized mosquito net appears to be a low-cost and commonly available product that closely resembles commercially available meshes. However, the extent to which sterilization alters the structure of mosquito nets is still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of different sterilization types on physico-mechanical properties of mosquito nets...
February 22, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ksenia S Onufrieva, Alexey V Onufriev
An accurate quantitative relationship between key characteristics of an insect population, such as season-long and peak abundances, can be very useful in pest management programs. To the best of our knowledge, no such relationship has yet been established. Here we establish a predictive linear relationship between insect catch Mpw during the week of peak abundance, the length of seasonal flight period, F (number of weeks) and season-long cumulative catch (abundance) A = 0.41MpwF. The derivation of the equation is based on several general assumptions and does not involve fitting to experimental data, which implies generality of the result...
2018: PloS One
Shubham Shrivastava, Divya Tiraki, Arundhati Diwan, Sanjay K Lalwani, Meera Modak, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya A Arankalle
Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In recent years, India has reported increased incidences of concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV). In the present study, we have characterized DENV circulating during a single season of 2016 in Pune, India. A total of 64 serum samples from NS1 ELISA positive dengue patients were used for PCR amplification of CprM region of the viral genome and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis documented circulation of all the four DENV serotypes with predominance of DENV-2 (40...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca S Brown, Judy J Wan, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical particles that bud from the plasma membrane. In this review, we discuss what is known about the alphavirus exit pathway during a cellular infection. We describe the viral protein interactions that are critical for virus assembly/budding and the host factors that are involved, and we highlight the recent discovery of cell-to-cell transmission of alphavirus particles via intercellular extensions...
February 22, 2018: Viruses
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jiang Tao, Guo Li-Liang, Yang Fan, Yang Ling, Zhu Tao, Zhang Xiao-Zhong
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of malaria prevalence in Danyang City from 2004 to 2015, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the strategy of prevention and control of malaria. METHODS: The data of malaria serum tests, the reported malaria cases from the Internet Reporting System, and the epidemiological case survey from 2004 to 2015 as well as the mosquito monitoring data from 2008 to 2015 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2015, 58 malaria cases were reported in Danyang City, with an average annual incidence rate of 0...
December 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Li Chuan-Ming, Tang Jian-Xia, Cai Yang-Sheng, Xu Bin, Han Guang-Jie, Liu Qin, Zhao Song, Xu Jian
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the type of neighborhoods on the population structure and dynamics of mosquitoes. METHODS: The adult population dynamics and larvae breeding of mosquitoes in four different types of neighborhoods were investigated in Yangzhou City. RESULTS: The number of trapped mosquitoes was the largest in the urban villages, and more than 800 adult mosquitoes were trapped in each urban village, which was significantly higher than that of ordinary and high quality residences...
December 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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