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Yue Yu, Jiangnan Si, Yaying Ning, Minghai Sun, Xiaoxu Deng
A plasmonic wavelength splitter based on a sub-wavelength metal-insulator-metal (MIM) periodic rectangle wrinkle waveguide with a graded grating coupler is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), excited in the metal grating with wavelength selection, are deflected by the graded difference according to the aplanatic parametric principle. The wave vector of the deflected SPPs meets the phase-matching condition and couples into the periodic rectangle wrinkle waveguide with a plasmonic bandgap...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Yang Wu, Xia Wang, Qiaozhen Liu, Xiaoxue Ma, Dawei Fang, Xuefei Jiang, Wei Guan
The dynamic phase change between a homogeneous mixture and a liquid-liquid biphase and separation of phases are explored in three-component mixtures composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF6]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]), and water through a classical simulation method and experiment. Different experimental and theoretical tools, including density measurement, dynamic light scattering study, radial distribution, mean square displacement, an interstice model, and statistical function, are used to describe the structural modifications of the ions as a function of solution concentration...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Frances P Rodriguez-Rivera, Xiaoxue Zhou, Julie A Theriot, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Mycobacteria are endowed with a highly impermeable mycomembrane that confers intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Several unique mycomembrane glycolipids have been isolated and structurally characterized, but the underlying organization and dynamics of glycolipids within the cell envelope remain poorly understood. We report here a study of mycomembrane dynamics that was enabled by trehalose-fluorophore conjugates capable of labeling trehalose glycolipids in live actinomycetes. We identified fluorescein-trehalose analogs that are metabolically incorporated into the trehalose mycolates of representative Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus species...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xianli Yang, Aizi Tong, Bowen Yan, Xiaoxue Wang
Polycomb group proteins form multiple protein complexes such as polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2, which repress the expression of thousands of genes. PRC1 and PRC2 are essential for normal development in Arabidopsis Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the functions and regulatory mechanisms of PRC1. In this review, we focus on the discovery of the composition of PRC1, functions of its components, the recruitment of PRC1 to target genes, and the control of PRC1 function in Arabidopsis Perspectives on dissecting the roles of PRC1 in plant gene expression and development are also given...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jiufang Yang, Xiaoxu Zhang, Qing Jin, Liwei Gu, Xuanjun Liu, Jingming Li, Yuanying Ni
The compositions of phenolic compounds in 10 cultivars of two mulberry species (Morus atropurpurea Roxb. and Morus alba Linn.) grown in four regions of China were analysed using HPLC-TOF-MS. Results showed that a total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in these mulberry cultivars. The Taiwan cultivar from the Jiangsu region showed the highest concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, quercetin derivatives, and anthocyanins. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that six mulberry cultivars grown in the region of Jiangsu, Ningxia, and Guangdong were differentiated regarding their species feature and regional characteristics...
January 9, 2017: Natural Product Research
Ruili Dang, Xueyuan Zhou, Mimi Tang, Pengfei Xu, Xiaoxue Gong, Yuanyuan Liu, Hongxiao Jiao, Pei Jiang
PURPOSE: Depression is frequently associated with inflammation, whereas omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) primarily found in fish oil possess anti-inflammatory properties. Although converging studies suggest an antidepressant effect of PUFAs, there is limited evidence directly linking the neuro-immune modulating features of PUFAs to the antidepressant actions. METHODS: Therefore, we assessed the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on behavioral changes, inflammatory cytokine expression and oxidative reactions in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats following repeated peripheral immune challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 weeks (500 μg/kg every other day)...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Xiaoxue Zhang, Johnna R St Clair, Erwin London, Daniel P Raleigh
Amyloid formation by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) contributes to β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Perturbation of the β-cell membrane may contribute to IAPP-induced toxicity. We examine the effects of lipid composition, salt, and buffer on IAPP amyloid formation and on the ability of IAPP to induce leakage of model membranes. Even low levels of anionic lipids promote amyloid formation and membrane permeabilization. Increasing the percentage of the anionic lipids, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(1'-rac-glycerol), enhances the rate of amyloid formation and increases the level of membrane permeabilization...
January 5, 2017: Biochemistry
Jianyi Chen, Xiaoxu Zhao, Sherman J R Tan, Hai Xu, Bo Wu, Bo Liu, Deyi Fu, Wei Fu, Dechao Geng, Yanpeng Liu, Wei Liu, Wei Tang, Linjun Li, Wu Zhou, Tze Chien Sum, Kian Ping Loh
We report the fast growth of high-quality millimeter-size monolayer MoSe2 crystals on molten glass using an ambient pressure CVD system. We found that the isotropic surface of molten glass suppresses nucleation events and greatly improves the growth of large crystalline domains. Triangular monolayer MoSe2 crystals with sizes reaching ∼2.5 mm, and with a room-temperature carrier mobility up to ∼95 cm(2)/(V·s), can be synthesized in 5 min. The method can also be used to synthesize millimeter-size monolayer MoS2 crystals...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaoxue Yuan, Gang Wei, Yilin You, Yuanyuan Huang, Hyuek Jong Lee, Meng Dong, Jun Lin, Tao Hu, Hanlin Zhang, Chuanhai Zhang, Huiqiao Zhou, Rongcai Ye, Xiaolong Qi, Baiqiang Zhai, Weidong Huang, Shunai Liu, Wen Xie, Qingsong Liu, Xiaomeng Liu, Chengbi Cui, Donghao Li, Jicheng Zhan, Jun Cheng, Zengqiang Yuan, Wanzhu Jin
Increasing energy expenditure through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a critical approach to treating obesity and diabetes. In this study, rutin, a natural compound extracted from mulberry and a drug used as a capillary stabilizer clinically for many years without any side effects, regulated whole-body energy metabolism by enhancing BAT activity. Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both genetically obese (Db/Db) and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
January 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiaoxu Lu, Yinsheng Li, Michelle Thunders, Jo Cavanagh, Cory Matthew, Xiuhong Wang, Xinchu Zhou, Jiangping Qiu
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a hemoprotein superfamily, among which CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3 play a major role in the metabolism of vast array of xenobiotics and endobiotics. This paper reports on three CYP enzyme variants (CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) in three species of earthworm (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire guillelmi and Amynthas carnosus). The relative expression levels and localization of the three associated proteins were investigated at three life-cycle points (juvenile, sub-adult and adult), through comparison of anterior and posterior body tissue and between specific organs (body wall, intestine and reproductive tissues) using western blot analysis...
December 12, 2016: Chemosphere
Irina Maljkovic Berry, Melanie C Melendrez, Tao Li, Anthony W Hawksworth, Gary T Brice, Patrick J Blair, Eric S Halsey, Maya Williams, Stefan Fernandez, In-Kyu Yoon, Leslie D Edwards, Robert Kuschner, Xiaoxu Lin, Stephen J Thomas, Richard G Jarman
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that influenza reassortment not only contributes to the emergence of new human pandemics but also plays an important role in seasonal influenza epidemics, disease severity, evolution, and vaccine efficacy. We studied this process within 2091 H3N2 full genomes utilizing a combination of the latest reassortment detection tools and more conventional phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: We found that the amount of H3N2 intra-subtype reassortment depended on the number of sampled genomes, occurred with a steady frequency of 3...
December 29, 2016: BMC Biology
Minghui Wang, Xiaoxue Wang, Priya Moni, Andong Liu, Do Han Kim, Won Jun Jo, Hossein Sojoudi, Karen K Gleason
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization directly synthesizes organic thin films on a substrate from vapor phase reactants. Dielectric, semiconducting, electrically conducting, and ionically conducting CVD polymers have all been readily integrated into devices. The absence of solvent in the CVD process enables the growth of high-purity layers and avoids the potential of dewetting phenomena, which lead to pinhole defects. By limiting contaminants and defects, ultrathin (<10 nm) CVD polymeric device layers have been fabricated in multiple laboratories...
December 29, 2016: Advanced Materials
Ira L Leeds, Vjollca Sadiraj, James C Cox, Xiaoxue Sherry Gao, Timothy M Pawlik, Kurt E Schnier, John F Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how information available at discharge affects decision-making and its effect on readmission. We sought to define the association between information used for discharge and patients' subsequent risk of readmission. METHODS: 2009-2014 patients from a tertiary academic medical center's surgical services were analyzed using a time-to-event model to identify criteria that statistically explained the timing of discharges. The data were subsequently used to develop a time-varying prediction model of unplanned hospital readmissions...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Indranil Sinha, Andrea L Pusic, Edwin G Wilkins, Jennifer B Hamill, Xiaoxue Chen, Hyungjin M Kim, Gretchen Guldbrandsen, Yoon S Chun
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infection causes devastating reconstructive failure in implant-based breast reconstructions. Large national database studies offer insights into complication rates, but only capture outcomes within 30 days postoperatively. This study evaluates both early and late surgical-site infection in immediate implant-based reconstruction and identifies predictors. METHODS: As part of the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium Study, 1662 implant-based breast reconstructions in 1024 patients were evaluated for early versus late surgical-site infection...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Guo-Qiang Zhang, Hongzhen Jin, Yunyan Zhao, Lina Guo, Xue Gao, Xiaoxue Wang, Shiyang Tie, Jie Shen, Peng George Wang, Hao Gan, Huifei Cui, Wei Zhao
Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide anticoagulant based on heparin antithrombin-binding domain, is derived from a chemical synthesis with more than 50 steps. Herein, we identified nine analogues separated from commercially available crude fondaparinux sodium, and tested their anticoagulant activity in vitro. Based on the activity results, the most active derivative Rrt1.17 was chemically synthesized. Biological properties in vitro and in vivo indicated that the well-defined derivative Rrt1.17 was a more efficient anticoagulant candidate compared with fondaparinux...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yingjie Sun, Luna Dong, Shengqing Yu, Xiaoxu Wang, Hang Zheng, Pin Zhang, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Xusheng Qiu, Guijun Wang, Ying Liao, Chan Ding
Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide...
December 23, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuyang Zhao, Jiayu Zhan, Guorui Liu, Zhiyuan Ren, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Lili Yang, Mei Wang, Xiaoxu Jiang, Xian Zhang
A field study and theoretical calculations on the profile and formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from two cement kilns co-incinerating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge were performed, and the PCDFs were mainly focused. The back-end areas of the cement kilns were identified to be the major sites of PCDD/F formation according to their distributions in particulate samples from different process stages. The proportions of tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dibenzofurans (∑Cl4-6CDFs) at the kiln back-end areas were in the range of 50-80% of the total PCDD/Fs in mass concentrations and 62-87% in toxic equivalent concentrations...
December 17, 2016: Waste Management
Wei Yan, Dan Li, Xiaoxu Zhou
Oxidative stress plays an important role in atherosclerosis, a vascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. The ETS domain-containing protein ELK1 is an oxidative stress-sensitive factor modulated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway. However, the role of ELK1 in the prevention of atherosclerosis by pravastatin remains unclear. In the present study, male apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-) ) mice fed a diet containing 1.25% cholesterol (w/w) were divided into two groups, one treated with pravastatin (80 mg/kg, 2-2...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Hao Li, Yajuan Wang, Xiaoxue Guo, Yinpeng Du, Changyou Wang, Wanquan Ji
Allohexaploid wheat was derived from interspecific hybridization, followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Newly synthesized hexaploid wheat by crossing Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii provides a classical model to understand the mechanisms of allohexaploidization in wheat. However, immediate chromosome level variation and microsatellite level variation of newly synthesized hexaploid wheat have been rarely reported. Here, unreduced gametes were applied to develop synthesized hexaploid wheat, NA0928, population by crossing T...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
Mingmei Ding, Meng Chen, Xiaofang Zhong, Yuhong Wang, Shengli Fu, Xiaoxue Yin, Zheng Guo, Jianmin Ye
C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is a multi-functional serine protease inhibitor in plasmatic cascades, not only inactivating various proteases, but also regulating both complement and contact system activation. In this study, we described the identification and characterization of a C1INH ortholog from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at molecular, protein and cellular levels. The full-length cDNA of Oreochromis niloticus C1INH (OnC1INH) consisted of 1791 bp of nucleotide sequence encoding polypeptides of 596 amino acids...
December 13, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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