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pediátric liver transplant

Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jennifer A Minneman, James L Grijalva, Michael J LaQuaglia, Heung Bae Kim, Shawn J Rangel, Khashayar Vakili
We sought to examine the relationship between liver transplant-related total cost, patient outcome, and hospital resource utilization at freestanding children's hospitals. Using the PHIS database, a retrospective study of 374 patients that underwent liver transplantation at 15 freestanding children's hospitals from July 2010 to December 2012 was performed. One-year graft failure and patient mortality rates from July 2010 to December 2012 for each center were also obtained from the SRTR. There was a 5.1-fold difference in median cost (median $146 444, range $59 487-302 058, P<...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Tim Mitchell, Hannah Gooding, Cathy Mews, Leon Adams, Gerry MacQuillan, George Garas, Madhur Ravikumara, Ainslie Lopez, Megan Collins, Gary Jeffrey
Transition to adult care is a vulnerable period for pediatric transplant recipients and is associated with reduced medication compliance, graft loss, and increased mortality. Psychosocial outcomes in young adults differ between pediatric transplant recipients and their healthy peers. We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of all pediatric liver transplant recipients who were transitioned through our center. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of transitioned pediatric liver transplant recipients at an Australian center, including mortality, adherence, and psychosocial morbidity...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Emanuele Nicastro, Sara Giovannozzi, Paola Stroppa, Anna Paola Callegaro, Alessandra Tebaldi, Claudio Farina, Michele Colledan, Lorenzo DʼAntiga
BACKGROUND: Most pediatric liver transplantation (LT) centers administer long courses of prophylaxis against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) without evidence of benefit and with significant drug exposure and costs. We aimed at evaluating overall outcomes, direct and putative indirect effects of CMV, possible impact of viremia and risk factors for CMV infection in pediatric LT recipients managed with ganciclovir-based preemptive therapy (PET). METHODS: The records of all the children who underwent LT between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
Jacqueline Jossen, Rachel Annunziato, Hee-Sung Kim, Jaime Chu, Ronen Arnon
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are progressive immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that may require liver transplant (LT). Outcomes in children undergoing LT for these diseases are poorly studied in the Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease (PELD) era. We aimed to characterize the outcome of LT in children with AIH and PSC. METHODS: Children ≤18 years with PSC or AIH who had a first, isolated LT from 2002-2012 were identified from the UNOS database...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Justyna Rajchert, Monika Rosa, Joanna Pawłowska, Milosz Parczewski, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
BACKGROUND Despite excellent transplantation results, there is a vulnerable period of time in the post-transplant management of pediatric liver recipients, which is the time when a child becomes an adolescent. This period of psychological distress influences compliance and may result in premature transplant failure and graft loss. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric liver transplant recipients, transferred to our service for adults, in order to identify key issues associated with transition into the adult care...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Raquel Núñez-Ramos, Soledad Montoro, Marcello Bellusci, María Rosa Del Fresno-Valencia, Marta Germán-Díaz, Pedro Urruzuno, Enrique Medina, Javier Manzanares
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in our center and evaluate the prognostic value of the Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) score calculated at admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with ALF younger than 15 years between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Information collected included age, sex, etiology of ALF, laboratory tests, PELD score, stage of encephalopathy, and need for liver support devices such as MARS and/or liver transplant (LT) and survival...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Anne Tsampalieros, Greg A Knoll, Amber O Molnar, Nicholas Fergusson, Dean A Fergusson
BACKGROUND: A number of corticosteroid minimization and avoidance protocols for post-solid organ transplant have been developed. The study objective was to examine the effect of corticosteroid withdrawal/avoidance on growth and safety parameters in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. METHODS: A systematic review using Medline and Embase was performed. All randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies comparing corticosteroid withdrawal/avoidance to controls receiving corticosteroids in pediatric transplant recipients which reported growth as change in height or final height were included...
July 12, 2016: Transplantation
Allison F O'Neill, Douglas W Hanto, Howard M Katzenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Tanya N Antonini, Stacey S Beer, Tamir Miloh, William J Dreyer, Susan E Caudle
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the current literature on neuropsychological functioning in two groups of children requiring organ transplants (liver or heart) and present recent clinical data collected through the liver and cardiac transplantation programs at a large pediatric academic medical center. METHOD: Data included in this study came from 18 patients who completed evaluations for heart transplant (n = 8) or liver transplant (n = 10) between the ages of 2 and 6 years (inclusive)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Paul M K Gordon, Aneal Khan, Umair Sajid, Nicholas Chang, Varun Suresh, Leo Dimnik, Ryan E Lamont, Jillian S Parboosingh, Steven R Martin, Richard T Pon, Jene Weatherhead, Shelly Wegener, Debra Isaac, Steven C Greenway
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions. However, accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e., donor and recipient tissues after transplantation) is challenging. In human cellular transplantation, there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment, and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific or absent...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Evelyn Hsu, George V Mazariegos
Current literature and policy in pediatric liver allocation and organ procurement are reviewed here in narrative fashion, highlighting historical context, ethical framework, technical/procurement considerations and support for a logical way forward to an equitable pediatric liver allocation system that will improve pediatric wait-list and post-transplant outcomes without adversely affecting adults. Where available, varying examples of successful international pediatric liver allocation and split liver policy will be compared to current US policy to highlight potential strategies that can be considered globally...
October 5, 2016: Liver Transplantation
Martina Fanna, Amandine Baptiste, Carmen Capito, Rocio Ortego, Raffaella Pacifico, Fabrice Lesage, Florence Moulin, Dominique Debray, Samira Sissaoui, Muriel Girard, Florence Lacaille, Caroline Telion, Caroline Elie, Yves Aigrain, Christophe Chardot
This study analyzes the preoperative risk factors for intra-operative bleeding in our recent series of pediatric LTs. Between November 2009 and November 2014, 84 consecutive isolated pediatric LTs were performed in 81 children. Potential preoperative predictive factors for bleeding, amount of intra-operative transfusions, postoperative course, and outcome were recorded. Cutoff point for intra-operative HBL was defined as intra-operative RBC transfusions ≥1 TBV. Twenty-six patients (31%) had intra-operative HBL...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Koji Hashimoto, Masato Fujiki, Cristiano Quintini, Federico N Aucejo, Teresa Diago Uso, Dympna M Kelly, Bijan Eghtesad, John J Fung, Charles M Miller
Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Cyd K Eaton, Jennifer L Lee, Kristin A Loiselle, Bonney Reed-Knight, Laura L Mee, Ana M Gutierrez-Colina, Ronald L Blount
The goal of this study was to compare pretransplant patient HRQOL, parent psychological functioning, and the impact of the patient's ongoing illness on the family between organ types (ie, kidney, liver, heart) and age-groups (ie, children, AYAs). The sample included 80 pediatric patients with end-stage organ disease who were evaluated for transplantation and their parents. Parents completed self- and proxy reports at patients' pretransplant evaluations. Results indicated that patients evaluated for heart transplants consistently had lower HRQOL and their parents had greater psychological distress compared to the kidney and liver groups...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Justin J Skowno, Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Nicola R Watts, David G Little
BACKGROUND: Vascular complications following pediatric liver transplantation occur in 8-10% of cases, and no continuous, non-invasive monitoring for this problem exists. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows non-invasive, continuous, transcutaneous assessment of hemoglobin oxygenation (StO2 ) 1-4 cm below the skin surface. AIMS: We hypothesized that transcutaneous NIRS would be able to detect severe hepatic ischemia, and tested this in an animal model using 15-20 kg and 5-7 kg juvenile pigs...
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Danielle Usatin, Melissa Fernandes, Isabel E Allen, Emily R Perito, James Ostroff, Melvin B Heyman
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review risks and summarize reported complication rates associated with the performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in children during the past 2 decades. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1995 to January 2016 was conducted for observational studies published in English. Studies reporting ERCP complications in patients <21 years without history of liver transplant or cholecystectomy were included...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Sofía Verdaguer D, Juan Cristóbal Gana A
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of good quality research about the diagnosis of esophageal varices and the prophylaxis and treatment of variceal bleeding in pediatric patients with portal hypertension There is little consensus and practically no evidence-based approach about the management of these patients. AIM: To describe the behavior and preferences of pediatric gastroenterologists in Chile in the management of portal hypertension in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was sent to Chilean pediatric gastroenterologists, with questions evaluating the physicians’ approaches to screening of esophageal varices in children with portal hypertension, and their preferred methods of prophylaxis and initial management of variceal bleeding...
July 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Kang Li, Xi Zhang, Li Yang, Xin-Xing Wang, De-Hua Yang, Guo-Qing Cao, Shuai Li, Yong-Zhong Mao, Shao-Tao Tang
Biliary atresia (BA) is a pediatric inflammatory disease of the biliary system which leads to cirrhosis and the need for liver transplantation. Various cells types have been reported to participate in the pro-inflammatory response, including Th1, Th2, Th17, CD8(+) T cells, or NK cells. The suppressive Treg cells, on the contrary, were not functioning properly. The underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Focusing on why the suppressive function of Treg was impaired, we found out methylation status of CpG islands within the Foxp3 promotor of Tregs in BA patients and murine models were both increased...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
John Bucuvalas, Sandy Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2016: Liver Transplantation
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