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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914960/evaluation-of-the-adequacy-of-who-revised-dosages-of-the-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-children-with-tuberculosis-using-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-simulations
#1
Yasuhiro Horita, Abdullah Alsultan, Awewura Kwara, Sampson Antwi, Antony Enimil, Antoinette Orstin, Albert Dompreh, Hongmei Yang, Lubbe Wiesner, Charles A Peloquin
Optimal doses for anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in children have yet to be established. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended revised dosages of the first-line anti-TB drugs for children. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies that investigated the adequacy of the WHO revised dosages to date have yielded conflicting results. We performed population PK modeling using data from one of these studies to identify optimal dosages ranges. Ghanaian children with tuberculosis on recommended therapy with rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) for at least 4 weeks had blood samples collected at pre-dose, 1, 2, 4, and 8-hours post-dose...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912601/preliminary-efficacy-of-a-friendly-constraint-induced-therapy-friendly-cit-program-on-motor-and-psychosocial-outcomes-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
Yu-Lun Chen, Hao-Ling Chen, Jeng-Yi Shieh, Tien-Ni Wang
AIMS: Constraint-induced therapy (CIT) is effective, but concerns have been repeatedly raised regarding the generalizability, feasibility, and potentially intrusive nature of restraining a child's unimpaired upper limb. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of friendly-CIT, which uses home-based model, a caregiver-determined schedule, and gentle restraint, in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: In a one-group pre-post intervention trial, 15 children (median of age = 8 years, 4 months) participated in 8 weeks of friendly-CIT (36 hours)...
June 18, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909128/prevalence-of-childhood-mental-disorders-in-overweight-and-obese-spanish-children-identifying-loss-of-control-eating
#3
Ana R Sepúlveda, Santos Solano, Miriam Blanco, Tatiana Lacruz, Montserrat Graell
The aim was to examine the prevalence of childhood mental disorders in overweight/obese pediatric sample and also to explore the relationship between these pathologies and loss of control eating (LOC). Another aim was to assess the association between psychopathology and severity of obesity. A total of 170 children from different Health Centers were evaluated (84 girls and 86 boys; aged 8 to 12 years). Childhood psychological problems were assessed through a standardized diagnostic interview schedule (K-SADS-R) and by questionnaires (STAIC for anxiety, CDI for depression and ChEAT for disordered eating)...
June 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884085/childhood-vaccine-attitudes-and-information-sources-among-oregon-parents-and-guardians
#4
Jessica Deas, Sandra J Bean, Iva Sokolovska, Charlie Fautin
We sought to examine parent vaccine information sources and to understand vaccine beliefs and concerns of a representative sample of Oregon parents from an area where low vaccination levels occur. We hoped to understand how these beliefs affect pediatric vaccine uptake and to inform efforts to shift vaccine-hesitant habits toward a norm of full vaccination. Oregon still permits nonmedical exemptions. We passively recruited parents of children ages 0 to 13 years, then divided them into focus groups by stance-whether vaccine-accepting or -hesitant...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883982/variability-in-immunization-practices-for-preterm-infants
#5
Srirupa Hari Gopal, Kathryn M Edwards, Buddy Creech, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp
INTRODUCTION:  The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the same immunization schedule for preterm and term infants. However, significant delays in vaccination of premature infants have been reported. OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to assess the variability of immunization practices in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted an online survey of 2,443 neonatologists in the United States, who are members of the Section for Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine of the AAP...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881194/evaluation-of-angle-trunk-rotation-measurements-to-improve-quality-and-safety-in-the-management-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#6
Jill E Larson, Maximilian A Meyer, Barrett Boody, John F Sarwark
Purpose: The evaluation, management and follow-up of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) occur frequently within a pediatric orthopedic surgery practice. Curve status can be assessed with Scoliometer measurements of angle trunk rotation (ATR), which are reliable and reproducible to within 3°. This study assessed the longitudinal efficacy, safety and cost savings of integrating ATR measurements to monitor curve status and progression in AIS, and suggests a quality-based management strategy...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868463/persistent-hypothermia-and-excessive-sweating-following-intrathecal-morphine-administration-in-a-teenage-boy-a-case-report
#7
Sara Ferraz, Telma Caria, Aline Vaz Da Silva, Maria Jose Candeias, Teresa Cenicante
Introduction: Opioids are used intrathecally to manage surgical pain. There are few reports of hypothermia after spinal morphine injection, none in the pediatric population. We present a teenager's case of mild hypothermia. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old boy was scheduled for elective abdominal laparotomy. General anesthesia was combined with spinal anesthesia, using levobupivacaine and morphine. In the recovery room, he presented a decreased tympanic temperature (34...
February 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865181/adverse-events-following-immunization-in-brazil-age-of-child-and-vaccine-associated-risk-analysis-using-logistic-regression
#8
Sílvia R C Lopes, João L R Perin, Taiane S Prass, Sandra Maria D Carvalho, Sérgio C Lessa, José G Dórea
Objective : Vaccines are effective in controlling and eradicating infectious diseases. However, adverse events following immunization (AEFI) can occur in susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian AEFI database and compare eight vaccines in order to profile risks of AEFIs related to the mandated pediatric schedule of immunization, considering the age and sex of the child, type of vaccine, and reported adverse events. Methods : We analyzed the Brazilian AEFI database integrating reports between 2005 and 2010 for children less than 10-years old immunized with eight mandated vaccines: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (TETRA); diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP); Bacillus Calmette⁻Guerin (BCG); oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV); hepatitis B (HB); and yellow fever (YF)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859572/intraoperative-pediatric-acupuncture-is-widely-accepted-by-parents
#9
James W Ochi, Andrew C Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Medical acupuncture is increasingly recognized for reducing postoperative pain, nausea and emergence agitation. Anesthetic induction is an ideal time to perform acupuncture in an effort to reduce the adverse side effects of surgery. Acupuncture is safe, inexpensive and does not lengthen the duration of anesthesia. There are however no published reports of how often patients will choose intraoperative acupuncture when given the opportunity to do so. METHODS: A retrospective review of all surgical procedures performed by one surgeon over 12 months was done...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851522/daily-weekly-and-annual-patterns-in-children-s-accidental-sport-injuries
#10
Alain Reinberg, Olivier Reinberg, Mohamed Mechkouri, Yvan Touitou, Michael H Smolensky
Details of serious injuries to children ≤16 yrs. of age that necessitated urgent surgical intervention by the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland were recorded into a database registry. Some 15 110 entries listed the precise time of injury, and 3114 (20.6%) of these resulted from participating in sport-associated activities. Time-of-day, day-of-week and month-of-year differences in the total number of children's accidental sport injuries (CASI) were validated...
May 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851190/choosing-wisely-in-pediatric-anesthesia-an-interpretation-from-the-german-scientific-working-group-of-paediatric-anaesthesia-wakka
#11
Karin Becke, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Andreas Machotta, Markus Schreiber, Robert Sümpelmann
Inspired by the Choosing Wisely initiative, a group of pediatric anesthesiologists representing the German Working Group on Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) coined and agreed upon 10 concise positive ("dos") or negative ("don'ts") evidence-based recommendations. (i) In infants and children with robust indications for surgical, interventional, or diagnostic procedures, anesthesia or sedation should not be avoided or delayed due to the potential neurotoxicity associated with the exposure to anesthetics...
May 30, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804794/clinical-and-immunological-profile-of-children-aged-5-9-years-with-persistent-egg-allergy-before-oral-immunotherapy-with-egg-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-spanish-society-of-pediatric-allergy-asthma-and-clinical-immunology-seicap
#12
L Echeverria, M F Martin-Muñoz, C Martorell, M T Belver, E Alonso Lebrero, L Zapatero, V Fuentes, M Piqué, A Plaza, C Muñoz, A Martorell, C Blasco, B Villa, C Gómez, S Nevot, J M García, R Madero
BACKGROUND: In children with egg protein allergy (EA), the probability of overcoming the allergy decreases with age, and the possibility of suffering severe adverse reactions as a consequence of dietetic transgressions results in worsened quality of life. One treatment option in such cases is oral immunotherapy (OIT) with foods. METHODS: We present a cohort of children with EA scheduled for OIT with pasteurized raw egg white, describing their clinical and allergic characteristics before the start of OIT...
May 24, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784470/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-menacwy-tt-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-co-administered-with-routine-childhood-vaccine-in-healthy-infants-a-phase-iii-randomized-study
#13
Ghassan Dbaibo, Juan Carlos Tinoco Favila, Magali Traskine, Archana Jastorff, Marie Van der Wielen
BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease has a high burden in young children, particularly during infancy. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugated vaccine (MenACWY-TT) co-administered with routine vaccines in healthy infants. METHODS: In this phase IIIb study (NCT01340898) conducted in 2 centers in Lebanon and Mexico, 750 infants were randomized (2:1:1) to receive MenACWY-TT according to 3 schedules: 3+1 (at ages 2, 4, 6 and 15-18 months; group ACWY3+1); 1+1 (at 6 and 15-18 months; group ACWY1+1) or single-dose at 15-18 months (group ACWY1)...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784234/cosleeping-and-behavioral-sleep-problems-in-school-aged-children-with-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-disorders
#14
María-Felisa Bastida-Pozuelo, Lisa J Meltzer, María-Montserrat Sánchez-Ortuño
The aim of this study was to explore the presence of sleep-related complaints and their relationship to cosleeping in a sample of 57 children with mental health disorders. Information about the practice of cosleeping was collected through an interview and behavioral sleep problems were evaluated with a subset of items from the Spanish version of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). Controlling for age, cosleepers scored higher on insomnia, daytime sleepiness and poor sleep scheduling, compared to solitary sleepers...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777565/unanticipated-hospital-admission-in-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-undergoing-ambulatory-noncardiac-surgical-procedures
#15
Koichi Yuki, Sophia Koutsogiannaki, Sandra Lee, James A DiNardo
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of surgical and nonsurgical procedures are being performed on an ambulatory basis in children. Analysis of a large group of pediatric patients with congenital heart disease undergoing ambulatory procedures has not been undertaken. AIMS: The objective of this study was to characterize the profile of children with congenital heart disease who underwent noncardiac procedures on an ambulatory basis at our institution, to determine the incidence of adverse cardiovascular and respiratory adverse events, and to determine the risk factors for unscheduled hospital admission...
May 18, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773196/reconsideration-of-the-immunotherapeutic-pediatric-safe-dose-levels-of-aluminum
#16
James Lyons-Weiler, Robert Ricketson
FDA regulations require safety testing of constituent ingredients in drugs (21 CFR 610.15). With the exception of extraneous proteins, no component safety testing is required for vaccines or vaccine schedules. The dosing of aluminum in vaccines is based on the production of antibody titers, not safety science. Here we estimate a Pediatric Dose Limit that considers body weight. We identify several serious historical missteps in past analyses of provisional safe levels of aluminum in vaccines, and provide updates relevant to infant aluminum exposure in the pediatric schedule considering pediatric body weight...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771225/the-resident-physician-as-leader-within-the-healthcare-team
#17
Lyn Kathryn Sonnenberg, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Jamiu Busari
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore inter-professional clinicians' perspectives on resident leadership in the context of inter-professional teams and to identify a definition for leadership in the clinical context. In 2015, CanMEDS changed the title of one of the core competencies from manager to leader. The shift in language was perceived by some as returning to traditional hierarchical and physician-dominant structures. The resulting uncertainty has resulted in a call to action to not only determine what physician leadership is but to also determine how to teach and assess it...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769027/immune-monitoring-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-the-prospective-chilsfree-cohort-study
#18
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Frauke Mutschler, Norman Junge, Eva Doreen Pfister, Tamara Möhring, Lorenzo d'Antiga, Patrick McKiernan, Deirdre Kelly, Dominique Debray, Valérie McLin, Joanna Pawlowska, Loreto Hierro, Kerstin Daemen, Jana Keil, Christine Falk, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Although trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs are largely used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, there is still no established tool that allows for a validated assessment of functional degree of immunosuppression or the identification of clinically relevant over- or under-immunosuppression, depending on graft homeostasis. Reliable non-invasive markers to predict biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) do not exist. Literature data suggest that longitudinal measurements of immune markers might be predictive of BPAR, but data in children are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766250/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-the-role-of-imaging-from-a-rheumatologist-s-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Clara Malattia, Nikolay Tzaribachev, J Merlijn van den Berg, Silvia Magni-Manzoni
Alongside recent advances in treatment strategies for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), paediatric rheumatologists have taken increasing interest in the use of imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and musculoskeletal ultrasound, by providing more detailed information on disease activity than clinical examination and conventional radiography (CR), have become helpful diagnostic and managerial tools. The growing skeleton, however, with changing appearances over time, is still challenging in the establishment of valid scoring systems for pathological changes...
June 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762292/a-dedicated-satellite-trauma-orthopaedic-program-operating-room-safely-increases-capacity
#20
Peter M Waters, Brian W Yang, Doreen White, Ellen Barth, Vincent Chiang, Arielle Mizrahi-Arnaud, William Sparks
BACKGROUND: Providing high-value care for urgent orthopaedic trauma patients requires effective and timely treatment. Herein, we describe the implementation of an innovative program utilizing the operating room (OR) capacity of a satellite campus to decrease stress on a pediatric tertiary care center without jeopardizing patient safety. METHODS: In addition to the daily emergency surgical room on the main campus, a dedicated orthopaedic trauma surgery OR was established in a satellite hospital location for 3 days per week in the summer and for 2 days per week for the rest of the year...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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