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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243171/generic-physiologically-based-toxicokinetic-modelling-for-fish-integration-of-environmental-factors-and-species-variability
#1
Audrey Grech, Cleo Tebby, Céline Brochot, Frédéric Y Bois, Anne Bado-Nilles, Jean-Lou Dorne, Nadia Quignot, Rémy Beaudouin
One of the goals of environmental risk assessment is to protect the whole ecosystem from adverse effects resulting from exposure to chemicals. Many research efforts have aimed to improve the quantification of dose-response relationships through the integration of toxicokinetics. For this purpose, physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models have been developed to estimate internal doses from external doses in a time-dependent manner. In this study, a generic PBTK model was developed and adapted for rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), zebrafish (Danio rerio), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242987/do-patients-with-skin-psoriasis-show-subclinical-axial-inflammation-on-mri-of-the-sacroiliac-joints-and-entire-spine
#2
Vlad A Bratu, Peter Häusermann, Ulrich A Walker, Thomas Daikeler, Veronika Zubler, Veronika K Jaeger, Ulrich Weber, Ueli Studler
OBJECTIVE: To explore potential subclinical involvement of the axial skeleton by MRI of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) and entire spine in patients with skin psoriasis without clinical evidence of peripheral or axial inflammation. METHODS: Twenty patients with skin psoriasis but no clinical evidence of peripheral or axial inflammation and 22 healthy controls underwent standardized dermatologic and rheumatologic clinical examination and unenhanced 1.5T MRI of the SIJ and the entire spine...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242508/paget-s-disease-of-the-lumbar-spine-decompressive-surgery-following-17-years-of-bisphosphonate-treatment
#3
Alexander Hofmann, Sabine Opitz, Christoph Eckhard Heyde, Nicolas Heinz von der Höh
BACKGROUND: We present a rare case of Paget's disease (PD) with involvement of the lumbar spine over a period of 19 years. We discuss the diagnostic process to rule out alternative diagnoses and medical and surgical treatment strategies. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old man first diagnosed with PD in 1998 with solid involvement of the 4th lumbar vertebra has been undergoing periodic examinations over a period of 18 years. Since then, the patient has been treated conservatively with bisphosphonates...
September 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242507/possible-factors-associated-with-sagittal-malalignment-recurrence-after-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy
#4
David Eichler, Yann Philippe Charles, Florent Baldairon, Yves Ntilikina, Erik André Sauleau, Jean-Paul Steib
PURPOSE: This retrospective study investigates sagittal alignment after pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). The purpose was to investigate factors associated with malalignment recurrence. METHODS: Full spine radiographs were analyzed in 66 patients (average age 54.5 years, follow-up 3.8 years). Measurements were taken preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, at follow-up: SVA C2 and C7, C2-C7 lordosis, T4-T12 kyphosis, L1-S1 lordosis, PSO lordosis, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope...
September 21, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242494/a-radiological-and-anatomic-examination-of-intralaminar-screws-in-the-thoracic-spine-a-theoretical-feasibility-study
#5
Jonas Müller, Jan-Uwe Müller, Thomas Koppe, Stephan Nowak, Henry W S Schroeder, Jörg Baldauf
BACKGROUND: Failure of pedicle screws and anatomical variations which prevent pedicle screw implantation make the search for an alternative to pedicle screws in thoracic spine surgery necessary. To date, published data have shown that intralaminar screws could be a possible way of fixation. Object of this study is a systematic examination of the feasibility of lamina screws in the whole thoracic spine. METHODS: Fifty females and 50 males (age 20 to 60 years) who underwent a polytrauma CT from 2010 to 2012 were randomly selected...
September 21, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242492/novel-loci-fsd6-1-and-csgl3-regulate-ultra-high-fruit-spine-density-in-cucumber
#6
Kailiang Bo, Han Miao, Min Wang, Xiaoxiao Xie, Zichao Song, Qing Xie, Lixue Shi, Weiping Wang, Shuang Wei, Shengping Zhang, Xingfang Gu
Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis of multiple populations in multiple environments revealed that the fsd6.2 locus, which includes the candidate gene Csgl3, controls high fruit spine density in natural cucumbers. GWAS identified a novel locus fsd6.1, which regulates ultra-high fruit spine density in combination with Csgl3, and evolved during cucumber domestication. Fruit spine density, a domestication trait, largely influences the commercial value of cucumbers. However, the molecular basis of fruit spine density in cucumber remains unclear...
September 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242340/concussion-evaluation-and-management-an-osteopathic-perspective
#7
Hallie Zwibel, Adena Leder, Sheldon Yao, Christina Finn
Concussions have been increasingly reported over the past decade, but the reported incidence likely minimizes the actual numbers of people affected. Associated symptoms include emotional, somatic, and cognitive complaints, which may be prolonged in patients with certain risk factors. Neurologic examination is necessary to exclude upper motor neuron lesions and thus the need for brain imaging. Cervical conditions are often found concurrently with head injury and displays a similar presentation to concussions...
September 17, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242134/astn2-modulates-synaptic-strength-by-trafficking-and-degradation-of-surface-proteins
#8
Hourinaz Behesti, Taylor R Fore, Peter Wu, Zachi Horn, Mary Leppert, Court Hull, Mary E Hatten
Surface protein dynamics dictate synaptic connectivity and function in neuronal circuits. ASTN2 , a gene disrupted by copy number variations (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum, was previously shown to regulate the surface expression of ASTN1 in glial-guided neuronal migration. Here, we demonstrate that ASTN2 binds to and regulates the surface expression of multiple synaptic proteins in postmigratory neurons by endocytosis, resulting in modulation of synaptic activity. In cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), by immunogold electron microscopy, ASTN2 localizes primarily to endocytic and autophagocytic vesicles in the cell soma and in subsets of dendritic spines...
September 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242133/activation-of-autophagy-rescues-synaptic-and-cognitive-deficits-in-fragile-x-mice
#9
Jingqi Yan, Morgan W Porch, Brenda Court-Vazquez, Michael V L Bennett, R Suzanne Zukin
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent form of heritable intellectual disability and autism. Fragile X ( Fmr1 -KO) mice exhibit aberrant dendritic spine structure, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Autophagy is a catabolic process of programmed degradation and recycling of proteins and cellular components via the lysosomal pathway. However, a role for autophagy in the pathophysiology of FXS is, as yet, unclear. Here we show that autophagic flux, a functional readout of autophagy, and biochemical markers of autophagy are down-regulated in hippocampal neurons of fragile X mice...
September 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242046/convergent-metabotropic-signalling-pathways-inhibit-sk-channels-to-promote-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Cezar M Tigaret, Sophie E L Chamberlain, Joseph H L P Sadowski, Michael C Ashby, Jack R Mellor
Hebbian synaptic plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses is tightly regulated by postsynaptic SK channels that restrict NMDA receptor activity. SK channels are themselves modulated by G-protein-coupled signalling pathways, but it is not clear under what conditions these are activated to enable synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signalling pathways, which are known to inhibit SK channels and thereby disinhibit NMDA receptors, converge to facilitate spine calcium transients during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons of male rats...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241984/scapular-fractures-in-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty-grammont-style-prevalence-functional-and-radiographic-results-with-minimum-5-year-follow-up
#11
Lionel Neyton, John Erickson, Francesco Ascione, Giulia Bugelli, Enricomaria Lunini, Gilles Walch
BACKGROUND: Scapular fractures after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) are an increasingly reported complication. Information is missing regarding midterm to long-term follow-up consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of scapular fracture (acromial base and spine) after Grammont-style RSA and to report functional and radiographic results of patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 1953 Grammont-style RSAs in 1745 patients in a multicenter study...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241506/the-estrogen-receptor-1-gene-affects-bone-mineral-density-and-osteoporosis-treatment-efficiency-in-slovak-postmenopausal-women
#12
Vladimira Mondockova, Maria Adamkovicova, Martina Lukacova, Birgit Grosskopf, Ramona Babosova, Drahomir Galbavy, Monika Martiniakova, Radoslav Omelka
BACKGROUND: The study investigated the associations of rs9340799:A > G (XbaI) and rs2234693:T > C (PvuII) polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) with femoral neck (BMD-FN) and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD-LS), biochemical markers of bone turnover, calcium and phosphate levels, fracture prevalence, and a response to two types of anti-osteoporotic therapy in postmenopausal women from southern Slovakia. METHODS: We analysed 343 postmenopausal Slovak women (62...
September 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240960/age-at-menarche-and-osteoporosis-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#13
Qiang Zhang, Jonathan Greenbaum, Wei-Dong Zhang, Qing-Chang Sun, Hong-Wen Deng
PURPOSE: Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between age at menarche (years) (AAM) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the sites of the femoral neck and lumbar spine (FNK and LS BMD), indicating a potentially important relationship between AAM and the development of osteoporosis (OP). However, these findings may be influenced by unmeasured confounding factors that can obscure the true relationship between the phenotypic traits. Therefore, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether there is a causal relationship between AAM and BMD (FNK and LS BMD), where late AAM may increase the risk of developing OP...
September 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240877/the-effect-of-surgically-implanted-metallic-bullet-fragments-on-the-intervertebral-disc-using-a-canine-model
#14
Nathaniel L Tindel, Mitchell F Reiter, Wayne B Cohen-Levy, Brian Zafonte, Kresimir Banovac, Frank J Eismont
PURPOSE: To characterize the gross, histologic and systemic changes caused by implantation of metal fragments commonly used in commercial bullets into the intervertebral disc. BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Long-term complications of retained bullet fragments in the spine have been documented in the literature however the impact of different metal projectiles on the intervertebral disc has not been described. This study was performed to assess the local effects of the metallic bullet fragments on the intervertebral disc and their systemic effects regarding metal ion concentrations in serum and solid organs...
September 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240862/clinical-and-radiological-features-of-osteoporotic-spine-fracture-with-delayed-neurological-compromises
#15
Hyung-Youl Park, Joo-Hyun Ahn, Kee-Yong Ha, Young-Hoon Kim, Sang-Il Kim, Hyung-Ki Min, In-Soo Oh, Jun-Yeong Seo, Seong-Hyeon Park
OBJECTIVES: Osteoporotic spine fractures (OSFs) with delayed neurological compromises (NC) have been increasingly reported. Although several studies have addressed that the pathomechanism of NC involves nonunion and segmental instability, the risk factors still remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the radiological and clinical features of OSFs with delayed NC. MATERIAL & METHODS: Thirty patients presented with delayed NC (group I) were matched in a 1-to-1 format with 30 patients without delayed NC (group II) by age, bone mineral density, body mass index and medical treatment for osteoporosis...
September 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240628/label-free-3d-clem-using-endogenous-tissue-landmarks
#16
Manja Luckner, Steffen Burgold, Severin Filser, Maximilian Scheungrab, Yilmaz Niyaz, Eric Hummel, Gerhard Wanner, Jochen Herms
Emerging 3D correlative light and electron microscopy approaches enable studying neuronal structure-function relations at unprecedented depth and precision. However, established protocols for the correlation of light and electron micrographs rely on the introduction of artificial fiducial markers, such as polymer beads or near-infrared brandings, which might obscure or even damage the structure under investigation. Here, we report a general applicable "flat embedding" preparation, enabling high-precision overlay of light and scanning electron micrographs, using exclusively endogenous landmarks in the brain: blood vessels, nuclei, and myelinated axons...
August 31, 2018: iScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240280/improving-image-quality-with-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-at-quarter-of-nominal-dose-in-upper-abdominal-ct
#17
Xirong Zhang, Jing Chen, Nan Yu, Zhanli Ren, Qian Tian, Xin Tian, Taiping He, Changyi Guo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for improving image quality in upper abdominal CT with quarter of the normal dose, in comparison with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) at normal dose. METHODS: 40 upper abdominal patients were randomly divided into two groups: normal-dose group (n = 20) with tube current modulation for noise index (NI) of 10 HU and 40% ASiR reconstruction; low-dose group (n = 20) with NI = 20  HU in the delay phase and MBIR and 40%ASiR...
September 21, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240027/imaging-phosphodiesterase-10a-availability-in-cocaine-use-disorder-with-11-c-ima107-and-pet
#18
Savannah Tollefson, Joshua Gertler, Michael L Himes, Jennifer Paris, Steve Kendro, Brian Lopresti, Scott N Mason, Rajesh Narendran
Phosphodiesterase-10a (PDE10a) is located exclusively in medium spiny neurons (MSN). Rodent studies show an increase in striatal MSN spine density following exposure to cocaine. These increases in MSN spine density are suggested to underlie neurobiological changes which contribute to cocaine self-administration. No postmortem or imaging studies have confirmed this finding in humans. Here, we hypothesized an increase in the MSN marker PDE10a in subjects with cocaine use disorder ("cocaine users") compared to controls...
September 21, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239765/influence-of-risk-organ-based-tube-current-modulation-on-ct-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-a-biological-phantom-model
#19
Michael Brand, Wolfgang Wuest, Matthias May, Michael Uder, Matthias Sommer
Techniques for dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) are receiving increasing attention. Lowering the tube current in front of the patient, known as risk-organ-based tube current modulation (RTM), represents a new approach. Physical dose parameters can determine the exposure but are not able to assess the biological-X-ray interactions. The purpose of this study was to establish a biological phantom model to evaluate the effect of RTM on X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In breast phantoms and in the location of the spine in an Alderson phantom, isolated human blood lymphocytes were irradiated using a 128-slice CT scanner...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239549/intermittent-bolus-feeding-promotes-greater-lean-growth-than-continuous-feeding-in-a-neonatal-piglet-model
#20
Samer W El-Kadi, Claire Boutry, Agus Suryawan, Maria C Gazzaneo, Renán A Orellana, Neeraj Srivastava, Hanh V Nguyen, Scot R Kimball, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
Background: Orogastric tube feeding is indicated in neonates with an impaired ability to ingest food normally and can be administered with an intermittent bolus or continuous feeding schedule. Objectives: The objectives were to 1) compare the long-term effect of continuous with intermittent feeding on growth using the newborn pig as a model, 2) determine whether feeding frequency alters lean tissue and fat mass gain, and 3) identify the signaling mechanisms by which protein deposition is controlled in skeletal muscle in response to feeding frequency...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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