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Li Li, Yuanzhi Wu, Jie Wu
Hexagonal-close-packed structure aggregates exhibit complicated deformation behaviors, involving different slips and twinning. Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (micro-XRD) was utilized to study in situ an extruded Mg-3Al-1Zn strip subjected to uniaxial tension. The evolution of grain rotation and lattice strain was analyzed under the load levels from 12 to 73 MPa. The micro-XRD data was used to map an area of 396 × 200 μm within the region of interest. The experimental set-up and X-ray diffraction microscopy in two dimensions allow the morphology, orientation and strain of the target grain to be determined at the submicron size...
May 17, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Farhad Ghorbani, Hamed Gheibollahi, Saeid Tavanafar, Hamid Reza Eftekharian
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of orthognathic surgery on the long-term quality of life of patients who received this treatment and to delineate the common reasons for dissatisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were studied. One hundred thirty-two patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery from 2007 to 2017 in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department participated in this study...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Minggan Li, Dehi Joung, Dae Kun Hwang
Environment responsive hydrogel structures are of great interests in materials research and have a wide range of applications. By using a flow lithography technique, we report a one-step and high throughput fabrication method for the synthesis of highly pH-responsive hydrogels with designed shape transformations. In this method, heterogeneous hydrogels with porous and nonporous layers are synthesized using a single UV exposure in a microfluidic channel. During the UV polymerization the porous layers, which are formed by using polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS), significantly increase the swelling capability and enhance the swelling rate of the hydrogels...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Andrei Kolesnikov, Nikolaj Georgi, Yury A Budkov, Jens Möllmer, Jorg Hofmann, Juergen Adolphs, Roger Gläser
We present a new model of adsorption-induced deformation of mesoporous solids. The model is based on a simplified version of Local Density Functional Theory in the framework of solvation free energy. Instead of density, which is treated as constant here, we used the film thickness and pore radius as order parameters. This allows us to obtain a self-consistent system of equations describing simultaneously the processes of gas adsorption and adsorbent deformation, as well as conditions for capillary condensation and evaporation...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Minsik Jo, Kyungtaek Min, Biswajit Roy, Sookyoung Kim, Sangmin Lee, Ji-Yong Park, Sunghwan Kim
Human skin provides an interface that transduces external stimuli into electrical signals for communication with the brain. There has been considerable effort to produce soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) devices. However, common polymers cannot imitate human skin perfectly due to their poor biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and permeability to many chemicals and biomolecules. Herein, we report on highly flexible, stretchable, conformal, molecule-permeable, and skin-adhering E-skins that combine a metallic nanowire (NW) network and silk protein hydrogel...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Hongxia Li, Ablimit Aili, Mohamed H Alhosani, Qiaoyu Ge, TieJun Zhang
Condensation widely exists in nature and industry, and its performance heavily relies on the efficiency of condensate removal. Recent advances in micro/nano-scale surface engineering enable condensing droplet removal from solid surfaces without extra energy cost, but it is still challenging to achieve passive transport of micro-droplets over long distance along horizontal surfaces. The mobility of these condensate droplets can be enhanced by lubricant oil infusion on flat surfaces and frequent coalescence, which lead to fast growth but random motion of droplets...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shelley Hancock, Curtis Froehlich, Veronica Armijo-Garcia, Andrew D Meyer
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory failure is the leading cause of mortality in individuals with congenital spine and rib deformities. We present a case report of a child with Jeune syndrome surviving respiratory failure using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We also summarize thoracic insufficiency syndrome cases reported in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry. CASE REPORT: A two-year-old male with a chest circumference less than a third percentile for age was admitted with influenza pneumonia developing a peak oxygenation index of 103...
May 1, 2018: Perfusion
Andrea S Klauser, Tommaso Buzzegoli, Mihra S Taljanovic, Sylvia Strobl, Stefan Rauch, James Teh, Julia Wanschitz, Wolfgang Löscher, Carlo Martinoli
Nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremity are associated with structural abnormalities or by an intrinsic abnormality of the nerve. Nerve entrapment syndromes generally have a typical clinical presentation, and findings on physical examination and in conjunction with electrodiagnostic studies imaging is used to evaluate the cause, severity, and etiology of the entrapment. With the development of high-frequency linear array transducers (12-24 MHz), ultrasound (US) is incomparable in terms of spatial resolution to depict morphological aspects and changes in nerves...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Muna A Al Dhaibani, Ayman W El-Hattab, Omar Ismayl, Jehan Suleiman
Mutations in B3GALNT2 , encoding a glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in α-dystroglycan glycosylation, have been recently associated with dystroglycanopathy, a well-recognized subtype of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Only a few cases have been reported with B3GALNT2 -related dystroglycanopathy with variable severity ranging from mild CMD to severe muscle-eye-brain disease. Here, we describe a child with a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in B3GALNT2 . The affected child has severe neurological disease since birth, including muscle disease manifested as hypotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting with elevated creatine kinase, eye disease including microphthalmia and blindness, brain disease with extensive brain malformations including massive hydrocephalus, diffuse cobblestone-lissencephaly, deformed craniocervical junction, and pontocerebellar hypoplasia...
May 23, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Thomas O Carpenter, Michael P Whyte, Erik A Imel, Annemieke M Boot, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart, Raja Padidela, William Van't Hoff, Meng Mao, Chao-Yin Chen, Alison Skrinar, Emil Kakkis, Javier San Martin, Anthony A Portale
BACKGROUND: X-linked hypophosphatemia is characterized by increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), which leads to hypophosphatemia and consequently rickets, osteomalacia, and skeletal deformities. We investigated burosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets FGF-23, in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 52 children with X-linked hypophosphatemia, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive subcutaneous burosumab either every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks; the dose was adjusted to achieve a serum phosphorus level at the low end of the normal range...
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Mari Miura Sugii, Bruno de Castro Ferreira Barreto, Waldemir Francisco Vieira-Júnior, Katia Regina Izola Simone, Ataís Bacchi, Ricardo Armini Caldas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of his study was to evaluate the stress on tooth and alveolar bone caused by orthodontic intrusion forces in a supraerupted upper molar, by using a three-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM). METHODS: A superior maxillary segment was modeled in the software SolidWorks 2010 (SolidWorks Corporation, Waltham, MA, USA) containing: cortical and cancellous bone, supraerupted first molar, periodontal tissue and orthodontic components. A finite element model has simulated intrusion forces of 4N onto a tooth, directed to different mini-screw locations...
January 2018: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
Gonzalo de la Iglesia, André Walter, Fernando de la Iglesia, Heinz Winsauer, Andreu Puigdollers
INTRODUCTION: The force applied to the teeth by fixed orthopaedic expanders has previously been studied, but not the force applied to the orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) used to expand the maxilla with Hyrax hybrid expanders (HHE). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical safety of the components (OMI, abutment and double wire arms) of three different force-transmitting systems (FTS) for conducting orthopaedic maxillary expansion: Jeil Medical & Tiger Dental™, Microdent™ and Ortholox™...
January 2018: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
Luz Marina Alfonso Dutra, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Manuela Costa Melo, Danyelle Lorrane Carneiro Veloso, Dayane Leticia Faustino, Leila Maria Sales Sousa
OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for foot ulceration through the tracing of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease in individuals with type I and II diabetes, who were assisted in reference centers of the Federal District, Brazil. METHOD: a cross-sectional and analytical study, with the assessment of 117 individuals in outpatient clinics of the Federal District. Continuous variables were compared through Mann-Whitney test, and categorized variables, through Chi-square test for univariate analysis and Logistics regression test for multivariate analysis...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Yue Hu, Ying Xiong, Xiangyu Chen, Haobo Bai, Yangchao Tian, Gang Liu
A novel method to fabricate a microlens array with a long focal length has been developed in this paper. It is based on the fabricating and heating of a microlens consisting of two materials with a great difference in coefficient of thermal expansion. A thermal expansion process leads to considerable deformation of the microlens surface and significant increase in focal length, which could be controlled by altering the processing temperature. Cylindrical polymeric microlens arrays with different focal lengths were successfully fabricated...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Johannes Hartung, Henrik von Lukowicz, Jan Kinast
Varying temperatures influence the figure errors of freeform metal mirrors by thermal expansion. Furthermore, different materials lead to thermo-elastic bending effects. The paper presents a derivation of a compensation approach for general static loads. Utilizing perturbation theory, this approach works for shape compensation of substrates that operate in various temperature environments. Verification is made using a finite element analysis, which is further used to produce manufacturable CAD models. The remaining low spatial frequency errors are deterministically correctable using diamond turning or polishing techniques...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Chen Li, Feihu Zhang, Xin Wang, Xiaoshuang Rao
In this paper, nanoindentation tests of GGG single crystal are performed on an Agilent G200 nanoindenter. The surface morphology and subsurface deformation mechanism induced by the nanoindentation are analyzed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The ductile deformation mechanism of GGG single crystal induced by the nanoindentation is a combination of "polycrystalline nanocrystallites" and "amorphous transformation." In addition, the relationships between the normal force and elastic recovery, microhardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness of GGG single crystal are researched...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Mikael Sjodahl, Eynas Amer
The two techniques of lateral shear interferometry and speckle deflectometry are analyzed in a common optical system for their ability to measure phase gradient fields of a thin phase object. The optical system is designed to introduce a shear in the frequency domain of a telecentric imaging system that gives a sensitivity of both techniques in proportion to the defocus introduced. In this implementation, both techniques successfully measure the horizontal component of the phase gradient field. The response of both techniques scales linearly with the defocus distance, and the precision is comparative, with a random error in the order of a few rad/mm...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
David Alaluf, Renaud Bastaits, Kainan Wang, Mihaita Horodinca, Grégory Martic, Bilal Mokrani, André Preumont
This paper presents a unimorph deformable mirror intended to be used as secondary corrector in space telescopes. The deformable mirror consists of a single-crystal silicon wafer (76.2 mm diameter, 500 μm thickness) covered with an optical coating on the front side and an array of 25 independent piezoelectric transducer (PZT) actuators acting in d31 mode on the back side. The mirror is mounted on an isostatic support with three position linear actuators controlling the rigid-body motion. The first part of the paper presents the experimental results obtained with the manufactured prototype...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Xiang Ren, Brittni Foster, Parham Ghassemi, Jeannine S Strobl, Bethany A Kerr, Masoud Agah
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are broadly accepted as an indicator for early cancer diagnosis and disease severity. However, there is currently no reliable method available to capture and enumerate all CTCs as most systems require either an initial CTC isolation or antibody-based capture for CTC enumeration. Many size-based CTC detection and isolation microfluidic platforms were presented in the past few years. Here we describe a new size-based, multiple-row cancer cell entrapment device that captured LNCaP-C4-2 prostate cancer cells with >95% efficiency when in spiked mouse whole blood at ~50 cells/mL...
May 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Arjun V Pendharkar, Maryam N Shahin, Claudio Cavallo, Xiaochun Zhao, Allen L Ho, Eric S Sussman, Gerald A Grant
Craniosynostosis (CS) is defined as the premature fusion of one or more calvarial sutures. This carries several consequences, including abnormal/asymmetric cranial vault development, increased intracranial pressure, compromised neurocognitive development, and craniofacial deformity. Definitive management is surgical with the goal of protecting cerebral development by re-establishing normal cranial vault expansion and correcting cosmetic deformity. In today's practice, CS surgery has advanced radically from simple craniectomies to major cranial vault reconstructive (CVR) procedures...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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