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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915155/vertically-oriented-structure-and-its-fracture-behavior-of-the-indonesia-white-pearl-oyster
#1
Guowei Chen, Hongyun Luo, Shunfei Luo, Zhenying Lin, Yue Ma
Structural calcites, aragonites, and the bonding organic network decide the growth, structure and mechanical properties of the mollusk bivalvia shell. Here, it was found out that the calcite prisms together with the coated organics construct another kind of 'brick and mortar' structure similar to the aragonite tablets. The calcite layer can be divided into three sublayers and direct evidences show that the calcite prisms are produced by two methods: nucleation and growing in the first sublayer; or fusing from the aragonites, which is quite different from some previous reports...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915133/novel-reconstruction-technique-for-an-isolated-plantar-calcaneonavicular-spring-ligament-tear-a-5-case-series-report
#2
Ezequiel Palmanovich, Shay Shabat, Yaron S Brin, Sabri Massrawe, Iftach Hestroni, Meir Nyska
BACKGROUND: It is usually accepted that acquired flatfoot deformity after injury is usually due to partial or complete tear of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), with secondary failure of the other structures which maintain the medial longitudinal arch, such as the plantar calcaneo-navicular (SPRING) ligament. It is unusual to find an isolated Spring Ligament (SL) tear, with an intact TP tendon. METHODS: The medial arch reconstruction technique of an isolated SL tear in 5 patients is presented discussed in this paper...
November 18, 2016: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914660/radiographic-and-clinical-results-of-tension-suture-fixation-using-two-washers-with-philos-plate-for-proximal-humeral-fractures
#3
Chul-Hyun Cho, Du Han Kim, Beom-Soo Kim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical results of tension suture fixation using two washers with PHILOS plate (Synthes, West Chester, PA, USA) for proximal humeral fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive 39 patients were included and divided into two groups of adequate and inadequate medial support (MS (+) group vs MS (-) group). The mean follow-up period was 45months (range: 26-69 months). The mean age at the time of surgery was 59 years (range: 17-86 years) and there were 12 men and 27 women...
November 28, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914181/can-sonography-be-used-to-estimate-deep-abdominal-muscle-activation-in-different-static-arm-positions-while-standing
#4
Martin Eriksson Crommert, Monica Unsgaard-Tøndel, Ottar Vasseljen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sonography is a reliable tool for measuring deep abdominal muscle activation in different static arm positions while standing. METHODS: Sonographic recordings were made of the transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis in 4 different static arm positions that varied with regard to the postural demand and loading direction posed on the trunk. Ten nonconsecutive repetitions of each arm position were performed, and thickness measurements were made at 2 locations within each muscle...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914027/the-role-of-guided-growth-as-it-relates-to-limb-lengthening
#5
REVIEW
Peter M Stevens
For decades, the classic indication for limb lengthening has been reserved for anisomelia that was expected to reach or exceed 5 cm at maturity. Epiphysiodesis was reserved for discrepancies in the 2-5 cm range. With the increasing sophistication of fixators, including rail, hexapod, and hybrid, complex deformities may be corrected simultaneously while moderate to extreme lengthening is achieved. More recently, iterations of telescoping intramedullary rods have further strengthened our armamentarium. Meanwhile, permanent epiphysiodesis techniques, both open and percutaneous, have yielded to more versatile and reversible tethering of one (angle) or both (length) sides of a physis...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914012/biomechanical-investigation-of-titanium-elastic-nail-prebending-for-treating-diaphyseal-long-bone-fractures
#6
Yen-Nien Chen, Pei-Yuan Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, Yi-Hung Ho, Yao-Te Peng, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li
This study numerically investigated the deformation of titanium elastic nails prebent at various degrees during implantation into the intramedullary canal of fractured bones and the mechanism by which this prebending influenced the stability of the fractured bone. Three degrees of prebending the implanted portions of the nails were used: equal to, two times, and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. Furthermore, a simulated diaphyseal fracture with a 5-mm gap was created in the middle shaft portion of the bone fixed with two elastic nails in a double C-type configuration...
December 2, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913730/dna-recognition-by-the-swai-restriction-endonuclease-involves-unusual-distortion-of-an-8-base-pair-a-t-rich-target
#7
Betty W Shen, Daniel F Heiter, Keith D Lunnen, Geoffrey G Wilson, Barry L Stoddard
R.SwaI, a Type IIP restriction endonuclease, recognizes a palindromic eight base pair (bp) symmetric sequence, 5'-ATTTAAAT-3', and cleaves that target at its center to generate blunt-ended DNA fragments. Here, we report three crystal structures of SwaI: unbound enzyme, a DNA-bound complex with calcium ions; and a DNA-bound, fully cleaved complex with magnesium ions. We compare these structures to two structurally similar 'PD-D/ExK' restriction endonucleases (EcoRV and HincII) that also generate blunt-ended products, and to a structurally distinct enzyme (the HNH endonuclease PacI) that also recognizes an 8-bp target site consisting solely of A:T base pairs...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912173/improved-anticancer-and-antiparasitic-activity-of-new-lawsone-mannich-bases
#8
Katharina Mahal, Aamir Ahmad, Florian Schmitt, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Kathrin Starz, Rohan Pradhan, Subhash Padhye, Fazlul H Sarkar, Waleed S Koko, Rainer Schobert, Klaus Ersfeld, Bernhard Biersack
Substituted lawsone Mannich bases 2a-e, 3a-e and 4a-e were prepared and tested for their biological activities. The new fatty alkyl substituted compounds 2a-c exhibited strong and selective growth inhibitory activities in the low one-digit micromolar and sub-micromolar range against a panel of human cancer cell lines associated with ROS formation. In addition, compounds 2a-c revealed sub-micromolar anti-trypanosomal activities against parasitic Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells via deformation of the microtubule cytoskeleton...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911542/higher-loop-amplitude-monodromy-relations-in-string-and-gauge-theory
#9
Piotr Tourkine, Pierre Vanhove
The monodromy relations in string theory provide a powerful and elegant formalism to understand some of the deepest properties of tree-level field theory amplitudes, like the color-kinematics duality. This duality has been instrumental in tremendous progress on the computations of loop amplitudes in quantum field theory, but a higher-loop generalization of the monodromy construction was lacking. In this Letter, we extend the monodromy relations to higher loops in open string theory. Our construction, based on a contour deformation argument of the open string diagram integrands, leads to new identities that relate planar and nonplanar topologies in string theory...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911524/nanobubble-fragmentation-and-bubble-free-channel-shear-localization-in-helium-irradiated-submicron-sized-copper
#10
Ming-Shuai Ding, Lin Tian, Wei-Zhong Han, Ju Li, Evan Ma, Zhi-Wei Shan
Helium bubbles are one of the typical radiation microstructures in metals and alloys, significantly influencing their deformation behavior. However, the dynamic evolution of helium bubbles under straining is less explored so far. Here, by using in situ micromechanical testing inside a transmission electron microscope, we discover that the helium bubble not only can coalesce with adjacent bubbles, but also can split into several nanoscale bubbles under tension. Alignment of the splittings along a slip line can create a bubble-free channel, which appears softer, promotes shear localization, and accelerates the failure in the shearing-off mode...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911372/quantitative-hardness-measurement-by-instrumented-afm-indentation
#11
Arnaud Caron
In this work, a combination of amplitude-modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy is applied for instrumented hardness measurements on an Au(111) surface with atomistic resolution of single plasticity events. A careful experimental procedure is described that includes the force sensor selection, its calibration, the calibration of the cantilever deflection detection system, and the minimization of instrumental drift for accurate and reproducible force-distance measurements...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911345/computing-the-influences-of-different-intraocular-pressures-on-the-human-eye-components-using-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-model
#12
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Mahdi Navidbakhsh, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
BACKGROUND: Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is defined as the pressure of aqueous in the eye. It has been reported that the normal range of IOP should be within the 10-20 mmHg with an average of 15.50 mmHg among the ophthalmologists. Keratoconus is an anti-inflammatory eye disorder that debilitated cornea unable to reserve the normal structure contrary to the IOP in the eye. Consequently, the cornea would bulge outward and invoke a conical shape following by distorted vision. In addition, it is known that any alterations in the structure and composition of the lens and cornea would exceed a change of the eye ball as well as the mechanical and optical properties of the eye...
November 25, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911332/type-0-spinal-muscular-atrophy-further%C3%A2-delineation-of-prenatal-and%C3%A2-postnatal-features-in-16-patients
#13
Sarah Grotto, Jean-Marie Cuisset, Stéphane Marret, Séverine Drunat, Patricia Faure, Séverine Audebert-Bellanger, Isabelle Desguerre, Vincent Flurin, Anne-Gaëlle Grebille, Anne-Marie Guerrot, Hubert Journel, Gilles Morin, Ghislaine Plessis, Sylvain Renolleau, Joëlle Roume, Brigitte Simon-Bouy, Renaud Touraine, Marjolaine Willems, Thierry Frébourg, Eric Verspyck, Pascale Saugier-Veber
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by homozygous inactivation of the SMN1 gene. The SMN2 copy number modulates the severity of SMA. The 0SMN1/1SMN2 genotype, the most severe genotype compatible with life, is expected to be associated with the most severe form of the disease, called type 0 SMA, defined by prenatal onset. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review clinical features and prenatal manifestations in this rare SMA subtype. METHODS: SMA patients with the 0SMN1/1SMN2 genotype were retrospectively collected using the UMD-SMN1 France database...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911282/role-of-rehabilitation-in-hurler-s-syndrome
#14
Sudhir Ramkishore Mishra, Mona Shastri, Jaishree Ramesh
Hurler syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of lysosomal accumulation of un-degraded glucosaminoglycan secondary to deficiency of a-L-Iduronidase enzyme. It is most severe form of Mucopolysaccharidosis with incidence of 1:100 000. It has multisystemic involvement leading to multiple deformity, disability and death within 10th years of life. A 2 year old boy presented with umbilical hernia, gross developmental delay and a progressive spinal deformity. On detailed clinical, radiological and laboratory investigation he was diagnosed as Hurler's syndrome...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911226/letter-to-the-editor-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-is-it-always-worthwhile
#15
Enrico Tessitore, Oliver P Gautschi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910991/structural-fingerprints-of-yielding-mechanisms-in-attractive-colloidal-gels
#16
Arman Boromand, Safa Jamali, João M Maia
Core-Modified Dissipative Particle Dynamics (CM-DPD) with a modified depletion potential and full hydrodynamics description is used to study non-equilibrium properties of colloidal gels with short range attraction potentials at an intermediate volume fraction (ϕ = 0.2) under start-up shear deformation. Full structural and rheological analysis using the stress fabric tensor complemented by bond number and bond distribution evolution under flow reveals that similarly to dilute colloidal gels, flow-induced anisotropy and strain-induced stretching of bonds are present during the first yielding transition...
December 2, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910889/direct-imaging-of-defect-formation-in-strained-organic-flexible-electronics-by-scanning-kelvin-probe-microscopy
#17
Tobias Cramer, Lorenzo Travaglini, Stefano Lai, Luca Patruno, Stefano de Miranda, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Piero Cosseddu, Beatrice Fraboni
The development of new materials and devices for flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. Scanning Kelvin-Probe Microscopy (SKPM) is a unique technique for nanoelectronic investigations as it combines non-invasive measurement of surface topography and surface electrical potential. Here we show that SKPM in non-contact mode is feasible on deformed flexible samples and allows to identify strain induced electronic defects...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910869/multiparameter-mechanical-and-morphometric-screening-of-cells
#18
Mahdokht Masaeli, Dewal Gupta, Sean O'Byrne, Henry T K Tse, Daniel R Gossett, Peter Tseng, Andrew S Utada, Hea-Jin Jung, Stephen Young, Amander T Clark, Dino Di Carlo
We introduce a label-free method to rapidly phenotype and classify cells purely based on physical properties. We extract 15 biophysical parameters from cells as they deform in a microfluidic stretching flow field via high-speed microscopy and apply machine-learning approaches to discriminate different cell types and states. When employing the full 15 dimensional dataset, the technique robustly classifies individual cells based on their pluripotency, with accuracy above 95%. Rheological and morphological properties of cells while deforming were critical for this classification...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910852/kaleidoscopic-imaging-patterns-of-complex-structures-fabricated-by-laser-induced-deformation
#19
Haoran Zhang, Fengyou Yang, Jianjie Dong, Lena Du, Chuang Wang, Jianming Zhang, Chuan Fei Guo, Qian Liu
Complex surface structures have stimulated a great deal of interests due to many potential applications in surface devices. However, in the fabrication of complex surface micro-/nanostructures, there are always great challenges in precise design, or good controllability, or low cost, or high throughput. Here, we present a route for the accurate design and highly controllable fabrication of surface quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) structures based on a thermal deformation of simple two-dimensional laser-induced patterns...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910765/gene-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
Shuang Liu, Kazutaka Maeyama
With the aim of controlling disease relapse and bone deformation of individual joints, the application of gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has slowly progressed on a trial-and-error basis. Several new therapeutic targets have been identified in preclinical studies in animal models, although a limited number of gene-based clinical trials have been conducted. In this article, we summarize the status of gene therapy for RA by addressing issues related to innovating drug development. More disease- and target-specific preclinical tests are required to overcome the insufficient information regarding pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics, which are related to safety issues in the field of RA gene therapy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
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