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Progressive multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241141/plasma-exchange-in-severe-acute-relapses-of-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-a-portuguese-cohort
#1
Inês Correia, Joana Jesus Ribeiro, Luís Isidoro, Sónia Batista, Carla Nunes, Carmo Macário, Catarina Borges, Jorge Tomaz, Lívia Sousa
BACKGROUND: Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are often associated with significant disability impairment which is resultant from poor response to corticosteroids. In such severe cases, plasma exchange (PLEX) may be used, although only a few studies with MS patients have been reported. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEX in severe relapses of MS. METHODS: Retrospective study of MS patients treated with PLEX in acute relapses. Data regarding EDSS, annualized relapse rate (ARR), treatment with corticosteroids, number of PLEX sessions, adverse events, and gadolinium enhancement in brain MRI were analysed...
December 7, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235194/dual-sensitivity-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-and-csf-segmentation-for-multichannel-3t-brain-mri
#2
Dominik S Meier, Charles R G Guttmann, Subhash Tummala, Nicola Moscufo, Michele Cavallari, Shahamat Tauhid, Rohit Bakshi, Howard L Weiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A pipeline for fully automated segmentation of 3T brain MRI scans in multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented. This 3T morphometry (3TM) pipeline provides indicators of MS disease progression from multichannel datasets with high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) contrast. 3TM segments white (WM) and gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to assess atrophy and provides WM lesion (WML) volume. METHODS: To address nonuniform distribution of noise/contrast (eg, posterior fossa in 3D-FLAIR) of 3T magnetic resonance imaging, the method employs dual sensitivity (different sensitivities for lesion detection in predefined regions)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234305/functional-components-of-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-cross-sectional-investigation
#3
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Ana Cortés-Martínez, María Valles-Salgado, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Vanesa Pytel, Paloma Montero, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, Jorge Matias-Guiu
Background: Cognitive impairment is frequent and disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS). Changes in information processing speed constitute the most important cognitive deficit in MS. However, given the clinical and topographical variability of the disease, cognitive impairment may vary greatly and appear in other forms in addition to slower information processing speed. Our aim was to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment, the principal cognitive domains, and components involved in MS and to identify factors associated with presence of cognitive impairment in these patients in a large series of patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232960/ocrelizumab-a-new-b-cell-therapy-for-relapsing-remitting-and-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Amanda M Stahnke, Kathryn M Holt
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of ocrelizumab, a new B-cell-targeted therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search of PubMed and OVID/MEDLINE was conducted using search terms ocrelizumab and multiple sclerosis using the date range of 1946 through October 2017. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language, human-subject articles related to ocrelizumab and MS were evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229891/cost-effectiveness-of-oral-agents-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-compared-to-interferon-based-therapy-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Mai F Alsaqa'aby, Varun Vaidya, Noura Khreis, Thamer Al Khairallah, Ahmed H Al-Jedai
BACKGROUND: Promising clinical and humanistic outcomes are associated with the use of new oral agents in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This is the first cost-effectiveness study comparing these medications in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and interferon (IFN)-b1a products (Avonex and Rebif) as first-line therapies in the treatment of patients with RRMS from a Saudi payer perspective...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226779/increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-albumin-and-immunoglobulin-a-fractions-forecast-cortical-atrophy-and-longitudinal-functional-deterioration-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Julia Kroth, Dumitru Ciolac, Vinzenz Fleischer, Nabin Koirala, Julia Krämer, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Felix Luessi, Stefan Bittner, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Frauke Zipp, Sven G Meuth, Sergiu Groppa
BACKGROUND: Currently, no unequivocal predictors of disease evolution exist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cortical atrophy measurements are, however, closely associated with cumulative disability. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aim to forecast longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-driven cortical atrophy and clinical disability from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. METHODS: We analyzed CSF fractions of albumin and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G, and M and their CSF to serum quotients...
December 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224960/persons-with-secondary-progressive-and-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-reveal-different-responses-of-tryptophan-metabolism-to-acute-endurance-exercise-and-training
#7
Jens Bansi, Christina Koliamitra, Wilhelm Bloch, Niklas Joisten, Alexander Schenk, Matthew Watson, Jan Kool, Dawn Langdon, Ulrik Dalgas, Jürg Kesselring, Philipp Zimmer
Disturbances in Tryptophan metabolism play a crucial role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise is suspected to counteract the progress of MS and its side effects. Current research suggests alterations of Tryptophan metabolism in healthy individuals in response to exercise. We investigated the influence of acute aerobic exercise and training on Tryptophan metabolism in 57 inpatients with relapsing remitting ((RRMS) n=33) and secondary progressive ((SPMS) n=24) MS. Serotonin increased after training, whereas the kynurenine pathway was only activated in persons with RRMS...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224261/-current-situation-and-prospect-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-tuberous-sclerosis-related-renal-angiomyolipoma
#8
H Z Li, Y S Zhang
Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disease involving multiple organs and multiple systems. The main manifestation is renal angiomyolipoma in the kidney. It is the most common cause of death in adults, because of its high incidence, rapid growth and bleeding. The incidence of this disease is low and the cognition is not enough, so the diagnosis and treatment are lack of standardization. Recently, the expert consensus of the diagnosis and treatment of tuberous sclerosis related renal angiomyolipoma has been established in China...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222419/probenecid-arrests-the-progression-of-pronounced-clinical-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Nadine Hainz, Sandra Wolf, Artjom Beck, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thomas Tschernig, Carola Meier
While it has been established that Probenecid (PBN) prevents the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, it is not clear whether it has any effect on already manifest EAE. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the therapeutic effect of PBN in pronounced EAE. Mice with manifest clinical symptoms of EAE were either treated with PBN or solvent for 20 days, or they were left untreated. The clinical symptoms were monitored daily. Inflammation, demyelination and oligodendrocyte numbers were determined in the spinal cord...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216540/longitudinal-study-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-changes-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-patients-cohort-a-long-term-5-year-follow-up
#10
J M Abalo-Lojo, A Treus, M Arias, F Gómez-Ulla, F Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To analyze the changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with and without prior history of optic neuritis (ON) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) after a 5-year time period (2010-2015) using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: The RNFL thickness of 114 eyes of 57 MS patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy subjects were measured in year 2010 and year 2015. Measurements were made separately in twelve sectors around the optic nerve head. Statistical comparisons were made with the obtained data...
November 22, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215409/imaging-of-acquired-demyelinating-syndrome-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#11
Caroline Malo-Pion, Raymond Lambert, Jean-Claude Décarie, Sophie Turpin
Acquired demyelinating syndromes include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and may progress to multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is characterized by impairment of level of consciousness and multifocal neurological deficits and transverse myelitis by back pain, weakness and sphincter dysfunction. Only a few cases of acquired demyelinating syndrome have been imaged with F-FDG PET/CT. We present two such cases.
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#12
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#13
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212866/acquired-haemophilia-a-complicating-alemtuzumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Georgia McCaughan, Jennifer Massey, Ian Sutton, Jennifer Curnow
Alemtuzumab is a highly efficacious therapy used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), but uncoupling of T and B cell repopulation during immune reconstitution associates with an increasing range of secondary B cell-mediated autoimmune complications. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves' disease 11 months following an initial course of alemtuzumab treatment for MS. Nine months following the second treatment with alemtuzumab, the patient presented with spontaneous intramuscular and subcutaneous haemorrhage due to development of an inhibitory autoantibody to coagulation factor VIII...
December 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212830/multicenter-evaluation-of-neurofilaments-in-early-symptom-onset-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Emily Feneberg, Patrick Oeckl, Petra Steinacker, Federico Verde, Christian Barro, Philip Van Damme, Elizabeth Gray, Julian Grosskreutz, Claude Jardel, Jens Kuhle, Sonja Koerner, Foudil Lamari, Maria Del Mar Amador, Benjamin Mayer, Claudia Morelli, Petra Muckova, Susanne Petri, Koen Poesen, Joost Raaphorst, François Salachas, Vincenzo Silani, Beatrice Stubendorff, Martin R Turner, Marcel M Verbeek, Jochen H Weishaupt, Patrick Weydt, Albert C Ludolph, Markus Otto
OBJECTIVE: To examine neurofilament (Nf) concentrations according to symptom onset and clinical diagnostic certainty categories of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We measured Nf light chain (NfL) and phosphorylated Nf heavy chain (pNfH) CSF and NfL serum levels in patients with ALS with first symptom onset ≤6 months (n = 54) or >6 months (n = 135) from sampling, and patients with other neurologic diseases, differential diagnoses of a motor neuron disease (MND mimics), and other MND variants to determine the diagnostic accuracy in patients with ALS with early symptom onset...
December 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209434/vitamin-d-in-the-prevention-prediction-and-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Priscilla Koduah, Friedemann Paul, Jan-Markus Dörr
Vitamin D research has gained increased attention in recent times due to its roles beyond bone health and calcium homeostasis, such as immunomodulation. In some parts of the brain and on immune cells, vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes and its receptors are located. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that deficiency of Vitamin D is relevant for disease risk and course in multiple sclerosis (MS) and presumably also in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209169/amyloid-%C3%AE-homeostasis-bridges-inflammation-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Sara Garofalo, Girolama A Marfia, Luana Gilio, Ilaria Simonelli, Annamaria Finardi, Roberto Furlan, Giulia M Sancesario, Jonny Di Giandomenico, Marianna Storto, Francesco Mori, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207954/the-turkish-validation-of-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-bicams-battery
#18
Serkan Ozakbas, Pinar Yigit, Bilge Piri Cinar, Hatice Limoncu, Turhan Kahraman, Görkem Kösehasanoğulları
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment may be seen in as many as 43-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be observed in all MS subtypes. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) battery may be used to evaluate cognition status. The purpose of the current study is to validate the BICAMS battery in Turkish. METHODS: Patients with MS attending our clinic between September 2014 and April 2015 were invited to participate. Healthy control participants were matched in terms of age, gender and years of education...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204963/the-brain-test-a-keyboard-tapping-test-to-assess-disability-and-clinical-features-of-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Samuel Shribman, Hasan Hasan, Shahrzad Hadavi, Gavin Giovannoni, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: The BRadykinesia Akinesia INcordination (BRAIN) test is an online keyboard-tapping test previously validated as a sensitive tool for detecting signs of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the BRAIN test can measure disability in MS and identify the presence of pyramidal or cerebellar dysfunction. METHODS: Kinesia scores (KS, number of key taps in 30 s), akinesia times (AT, mean dwell time on each key) and incoordination scores (IS, variance of travelling time between keys) were calculated in 39 MS patients...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202449/clonal-relationships-of-csf-b-cells-in-treatment-naive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#20
Erica L Eggers, Brady A Michel, Hao Wu, Sheng-Zhi Wang, Carolyn J Bevan, Aya Abounasr, Natalie S Pierson, Antje Bischof, Max Kazer, Elizabeth Leitner, Ariele L Greenfield, Stanislas Demuth, Michael R Wilson, Roland G Henry, Bruce Ac Cree, Stephen L Hauser, H-Christian von Büdingen
A role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established, but there is limited understanding of their involvement during active disease. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) B cells in treatment-naive patients with MS or high-risk clinically isolated syndrome. Using flow cytometry, we found increased CSF lymphocytes with a disproportionate increase of B cells compared with T cells in patients with gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions on brain MRI. Ig gene heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) repertoire sequencing of CSF and PB B cells revealed clonal relationships between intrathecal and peripheral B cell populations, which could be consistent with migration of B cells to and activation in the CNS in active MS...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
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