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Copd exacerbation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934249/variability-in-objective-and-subjective-measures-affects-baseline-values-in-studies-of-patients-with-copd
#1
Wayne H Anderson, Jae Wook Ha, David J Couper, Wanda K O'Neal, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Elizabeth E Carretta, Christopher B Cooper, Claire M Doerschuk, M Bradley Drummond, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Victor Kim, Eric C Kleerup, Fernando J Martinez, Stephen I Rennard, Donald Tashkin, Prescott G Woodruff, Robert Paine, Jeffrey L Curtis, Richard E Kanner
RATIONALE: Understanding the reliability and repeatability of clinical measurements used in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease progression is of critical importance across all disciplines of clinical practice and in clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to understand normal variability for assessing true changes in health status and to more accurately utilize this data to differentiate disease characteristics and outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933581/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-implications-for-dry-powder-inhalers
#2
Sohini Ghosh, Jill A Ohar, M Bradley Drummond
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with a significant economic burden related to hospital admissions for exacerbations. One of the primary treatment modalities for COPD is medications delivered through breath-actuated dry powdered inhalers (DPIs). For users to successfully receive inhaled medication, they must inhale with enough flow to overcome the internal resistance of the device, leading to deaggregation of the medication powder. Peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) is the maximal flow rate obtained during an inspiratory maneuver...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932112/acute-exacerbations-of-copd-risk-factors-for-failure-and-relapse
#3
REVIEW
Marco Mantero, Paola Rogliani, Marta Di Pasquale, Eva Polverino, Ernesto Crisafulli, Monica Guerrero, Andrea Gramegna, Mario Cazzola, Francesco Blasi
Acute exacerbations are a leading cause of worsening COPD in terms of lung function decline, quality of life, and survival. They also have a relevant economic burden on the health care system. Determining the risk factors for acute exacerbation and early relapse could be a crucial element for a better management of COPD patients. This review analyzes the current knowledge and underlines the main risk factors for recurrent acute exacerbations. Comprehensive evaluation of COPD patients during stable phase and exacerbation could contribute to prevent treatment failure and relapses...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927683/influenza-vaccination-and-risk-of-respiratory-failure-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-case-cohort-study
#4
Hsin-Hui Huang, Su-Jung Chen, Tze-Fan Chao, Chia-Jen Liu, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Pesus Chou, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease which causes a considerable disease burden. Patients with COPD are at a higher risk for influenza infection and influenza vaccination are recommended at this high risk patient group. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the association between influenza vaccination and the risk of respiratory failure (RF) in COPD patients. METHODS: From 2001 to 2005, patients with newly diagnosed COPD were identified from the NHIRD, and were followed until 2010...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926214/diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Van Holden, Donald Slack III, Michael T. McCurdy, Nirav G. Shah
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical diagnosis that is based on changes in dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production in a COPD patient; however, patients presenting with an acute exacerbation may be undiagnosed or have a variety of comorbid conditions that can complicate diagnosis. This issue presents strategies and algorithms for the early use of evidence-based interventions, including appropriate use of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids, along with noninvasive ventilation with capnography, to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with this disease...
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925861/perioperative-pulmonary-medication-management
#6
Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions that warrant special consideration in the perioperative period. When these patients undergo surgical interventions, they have risk of complications such as bronchospasm, hypoxia, and even postoperative respiratory failure that warrants unplanned intensive care unit admission. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with pulmonary medication regimens that are critical for maintaining stable homeostasis of these chronic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925473/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-exacerbation-impact-of-comorbidities-on-length-and-costs-during-hospitalization
#7
C Terzano, V Colamesta, B Unim, S Romani, A Meneghini, G Volpe, G La Torre
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective cohort study was performed, using administrative database of the Local Health Unit Roma-A (LHU RM-A). The included subjects were residing in one of the four districts and were hospitalized for COPD exacerbation in healthcare facilities of the LHU during years 2010-2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of comorbidities, length and costs of hospital stay in patients with COPD exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with other diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, depression) that can increase risk of mortality and hospitalization...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923760/commonly-used-patient-reported-outcomes-do-not-improve-prediction-of-copd-exacerbations-a-multicenter-4-5-year-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Alexandra Strassmann, Anja Frei, Sarah R Haile, Gerben Ter Riet, Milo A Puhan
BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional and short-term studies suggest that patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may be useful to (help) predict COPD exacerbations but evidence from long-term prospective cohort studies is missing. Our aim was to assess if PROs add to the prediction of exacerbations. METHODS: 408 primary care COPD patients participated in the multicenter prospective ICE COLD ERIC cohort. PROs included the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Feeling Thermometer and the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire (LAPAQ)...
September 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919143/long-term-safety-of-glycopyrrolate-eflow-%C3%A2-cs-in-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-results-from-the-glycopyrrolate-for-obstructive-lung-disease-via-electronic-nebulizer-golden-5-randomized-study
#10
Gary T Ferguson, Thomas Goodin, Robert Tosiello, Alistair Wheeler, Edward Kerwin
BACKGROUND: The use of long-acting bronchodilators is an essential component of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLDEN 5 Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of a nebulized glycopyrrolate formulation (SUN-101) delivered via the investigational eFlow(®) Closed System (eFlow(®) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: Subjects were randomized in a 4:3 ratio to nebulized glycopyrrolate 50 μg twice daily (BID) or tiotropium 18 μg once daily (OD) and treated for 48 weeks...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905537/the-relationship-between-airway-inflammation-and-exacerbation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
REVIEW
Diahn Warng Perng, Pei Ku Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory response and airflow limitation. Acute exacerbation involves increased inflammatory burden leading to worsening respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea and sputum production. Some COPD patients have frequent exacerbations (two or more exacerbations per year). A substantial proportion of COPD patients may remain stable without exacerbation. Bacterial and viral infections are the most common causative factors that breach airway stability and lead to exacerbation...
September 4, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905464/urinary-desmosine-is-associated-with-emphysema-severity-and-frequent-exacerbation-in-patients-with-copd
#12
Changhwan Kim, Yousang Ko, Su Hee Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Jae Seung Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Jin Hwa Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong Yong Lim, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joon Beom Seo, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Yong Bum Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Matrix degradation is a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Desmosine and isodesmosine (desmosines) are excreted in urine following matrix degradation. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the association between computed tomography (CT) emphysema indices and urinary desmosines in patients with COPD. METHODS: A total of 152 subjects were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Their urine samples were assayed for desmosines using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods...
September 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894361/effects-of-daily-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-respiratory-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance-in-vitamin-d-deficient-copd-patients-a-pilot-trial
#13
Rachida Rafiq, Hendrik J Prins, Wim G Boersma, Johannes Ma Daniels, Martin den Heijer, Paul Lips, Renate T de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, several studies have shown positive effects on muscle strength and physical function. In addition, vitamin D has been associated with pulmonary function and the incidence of airway infections. As vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, supplementation might have a beneficial effect in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894360/the-evaluation-of-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-blocking-agents-in-patients-with-copd-and-congestive-heart-failure-a-nationwide-study
#14
Kuang-Ming Liao, Tien-Yu Lin, Yaw-Bin Huang, Chen-Chun Kuo, Chung-Yu Chen
OBJECTIVE: β-Blockers are safe and improve survival in patients with both congestive heart failure (CHF) and COPD. However, the superiority of different types of β-blockers is still unclear among patients with CHF and COPD. The association between β-blockers and CHF exacerbation as well as COPD exacerbation remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of different β-blockers in patients with concurrent CHF and COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to conduct a retrospective cohort study...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893369/virulence-determinants-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-distribution-and-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#15
Luke V Blakeway, Aimee Tan, Ian R A Peak, Kate L Seib
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893134/mepolizumab-for-eosinophilic-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Ian D Pavord, Pascal Chanez, Gerard J Criner, Huib A M Kerstjens, Stephanie Korn, Njira Lugogo, Jean-Benoit Martinot, Hironori Sagara, Frank C Albers, Eric S Bradford, Stephanie S Harris, Bhabita Mayer, David B Rubin, Steven W Yancey, Frank C Sciurba
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with an eosinophilic phenotype may benefit from treatment with mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against interleukin-5. Methods We performed two phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trials comparing mepolizumab (100 mg in METREX, 100 or 300 mg in METREO) with placebo, given as a subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks for 52 weeks in patients with COPD who had a history of moderate or severe exacerbations while taking inhaled glucocorticoid-based triple maintenance therapy...
September 11, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889106/prevention-of-copd-exacerbations-a-european-respiratory-society-american-thoracic-society-guideline
#17
Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Peter M A Calverley, Richard K Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J Criner, John R Hurst, Marc Miravitlles, Alberto Papi, Klaus F Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C Wilson, Jerry A Krishnan
This document provides clinical recommendations for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. It represents a collaborative effort between the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society.Comprehensive evidence syntheses were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884423/electronic-cigarette-use-in-us-adults-at-risk-for-or-with-copd-analysis-from-two-observational-cohorts
#18
Russell P Bowler, Nadia N Hansel, Sean Jacobson, R Graham Barr, Barry J Make, MeiLan K Han, Wanda K O'Neal, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Richard Casaburi, Igor Barjaktarevic, Chris Cooper, Marilyn Foreman, Robert A Wise, Dawn L DeMeo, Edwin K Silverman, William Bailey, Kathleen F Harrington, Prescott G Woodruff, M Bradley Drummond
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated nicotine-delivery devices used by some smokers as a cessation tool as well as by never smokers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the usage of e-cigarettes in older adults at risk for or with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Prospective cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: COPDGene (N = 3536) and SPIROMICS (N = 1060) subjects who were current or former smokers aged 45-80...
September 7, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883930/breathing-swallowing-discoordination-is-associated-with-frequent-exacerbations-of-copd
#19
Shinsuke Nagami, Yoshitaka Oku, Naomi Yagi, Susumu Sato, Ryuji Uozumi, Satoshi Morita, Yoshie Yamagata, Jun Kayashita, Kazuya Tanimura, Atsuyasu Sato, Ryosuke Takahashi, Shigeo Muro
INTRODUCTION: Impaired coordination between breathing and swallowing (breathing-swallowing discoordination) may be a significant risk factor for the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examined breathing-swallowing discoordination in patients with COPD using a non-invasive and quantitative technique and determined its association with COPD exacerbation. METHODS: We recruited 65 stable outpatients with COPD who were enrolled in our prospective observational cohort study and did not manifest an apparent swallowing disorder...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883720/effect-of-a-rehabilitation-based-chronic-disease-management-program-targeting-severe-copd-exacerbations-on-readmission-patterns
#20
C Lalmolda, R Coll-Fernández, N Martínez, M Baré, M Teixidó Colet, F Epelde, E Monsó
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is recommended after a severe COPD exacerbation, but its short- and long-term effects on health care utilization have not been fully established. AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate patient compliance with a chronic disease management (CDM) program incorporating home-based exercise training as the main component after a severe COPD exacerbation and to determine its effects on health care utilization in the following year...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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