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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722106/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-role-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases. RESULTS: Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714796/effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-heart-failure
#2
Marcela Rodriguez Flores, Carlos Aguilar Salinas, Marie-Eve Piché, Audrey Auclair, Paul Poirier
Obesity increases the risk of heart failure (HF), which continues to be a significant proportion of all cardiovascular diseases and affects increasingly younger populations. The cross-talk between adipose and the heart involves insulin resistance, adipokine signaling and inflammation, with the capacity of adipose tissue to mediate hemodynamic signals, promoting progressive cardiomyopathy. Areas covered: From a therapeutic perspective, there is not yet a single obesity-related pathway that when addressed, can ameliorate cardiomyopathy in obese patients and this is a matter of ongoing research...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708941/regulation-of-the-insulin-akt-signaling-pathway-and-glycolysis-during-dehydration-stress-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#3
Cheng-Wei Wu, Shannon N Tessier, Kenneth B Storey
Estivation is an adaptive stress response utilized by some amphibians during periods of drought in the summer season. In this study, we examine the regulation of the insulin signaling cascade and glycolysis pathway in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis during dehydration stress induced state of estivation. We show that in the brain and heart of X. laevis, dehydration reduces the phosphorylation of the insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and this is followed by similar reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase...
July 14, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698617/loss-of-md1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-left-ventricular-structural-and-electrical-remodelling
#4
Jianye Peng, Yu Liu, Xiaoju Xiong, Congxin Huang, Yang Mei, Zhiqiang Wang, Yanhong Tang, Jing Ye, Bin Kong, Wanli Liu, Teng Wang, He Huang
Myeloid differentiation protein 1 (MD1) has been implicated in numerous pathophysiological processes, including immune regulation, obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. However, the role of MD1 in cardiac remodelling remains incompletely understood. We used MD1-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates to determine the functional significance of MD1 in the regulation of aortic banding (AB)-induced left ventricular (LV) structural and electrical remodelling and its underlying mechanisms. After 4 weeks of AB, MD1-KO hearts showed substantial aggravation of LV hypertrophy, fibrosis, LV dilation and dysfunction, and electrical remodelling, which resulted in overt heart failure and increased electrophysiological instability...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#5
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679623/high-but-not-low-exercise-volume-shifts-the-balance-of-renin-angiotensin-system-towards-ace2-mas-receptor-axis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-rats
#6
Eliete Dalla Corte Frantz, Isabele Gomes Giori, Marcus Vinícius Machado, D'Angelo Carlo Magliano, Fernanda Marques Freitas, Mariana Sodré Boêta Andrade, Aline Bomfim Vieira, Antonio Claudio Lucas Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Eduardo Tibirica
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic risk factors which is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia, where the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low versus high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow diet (SC) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 32 weeks...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677741/mulberry-granules-protect-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-the-ampk-nrf2-pathway
#7
Yang Liu, Yan-Bo Zhao, Si-Wang Wang, Yu Zhou, Zhi-Shu Tang, Feng Li
Mulberry granules (MLD) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that has been used in the treatment of diabetes for many years. Recently, we found that MLD protected the heart from diabetes-associated cardiomyopathy when it was used to treat diabetes. However, the beneficial effects and possible mechanism remain unknown. To elucidate these effects, an experimental myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury model in diabetes rats was used in this study. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676430/insulin-regulates-titin-pre-mrna-splicing-through-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-kinase-axis-in-a-rbm20-dependent-manner
#8
Chaoqun Zhu, Zhiyong Yin, Bihua Tan, Wei Guo
Titin, a giant sarcomeric protein, is largely responsible for the diastolic properties of the heart. It has two major isoforms, N2B and N2BA due to pre-mRNA splicing regulated mainly by a splicing factor RNA binding motif 20 (RBM20). Mis-splicing of titin pre-mRNA in response to external stimuli may lead to altered ratio of N2B to N2BA, and thus, impaired cardiac contractile function. However, little is known about titin alternative splicing in response to external stimuli. Here, we reported the detailed mechanisms of titin alternative splicing in response to insulin...
July 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673009/oleanolic-acid-protects-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-modulation-of-the-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-and-insulin-signaling-pathways
#9
Wei-Fang Li, Peng Wang, Hua Li, Tian-Yi Li, Ming Feng, Su-Fang Chen
Oleanolic acid (OL) is a pentacyclic triterpene compound used for the treatment of hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. In China, there is no published research on the effect or biological utilization of OL on liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of OL against diabetic cardiomyopathy and its possible mechanism. A rat model of diabetes was established using streptozotocin and the effect of OL on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was evaluated. The results demonstrated that OL significantly reversed the DCM-induced changes to body weight, heart rate, echocardiography and hemodynamics, phosphorylated-glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity in diabetic rats (all P<0...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659817/cobalt-chloride-upregulates-impaired-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-to-restore-sevoflurane-post-conditioning-dependent-myocardial-protection-in-diabetic-rats
#10
Jianjiang Wu, Long Yang, Peng Xie, Jin Yu, Tian Yu, Haiying Wang, Yiliyaer Maimaitili, Jiang Wang, Haiping Ma, Yining Yang, Hong Zheng
Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that sevoflurane post-conditioning (SPC) protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via elevating the intranuclear expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). However, diabetic SPC is associated with decreased myocardial protection and disruption of the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Previous studies have demonstrated that cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can upregulate HIF-1α expression under diabetic conditions, but whether myocardial protection by SPC can be restored afterward remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643218/empagliflozin-improves-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-genetic-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
Nadjib Hammoudi, Dongtak Jeong, Rajvir Singh, Ahmed Farhat, Michel Komajda, Eric Mayoux, Roger Hajjar, Djamel Lebeche
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represent an enormous burden with high mortality and morbidity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new antidiabetic class that improves glucose control, as well as body weight and blood pressure with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. The first CV outcome study terminated with empagliflozin, a specific SGLT2 inhibitor, has shown a reduction in CV mortality and in heart failure hospitalization, suggesting a beneficial impact on cardiac function which remains to be demonstrated...
June 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618996/the-influence-of-obese-insulin-resistance-on-the-outcome-of-the-ischemia-reperfusion-insult-to-the-heart
#12
Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Obese insulin-resistance is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including ischemic heart disease (IHD). Growing evidences suggest that the susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is increased in an obese insulin-resistance condition. Based on the currently available evidence from human and animal studies, this review mainly focuses on the influence of obese insulin-resistance on the outcome of the I/R insult to the heart...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601616/fructose-rich-diet-and-insulin-action-in-female-rat-heart-estradiol-friend-or-foe
#13
REVIEW
Maja Bundalo, Snjezana Romic, Snezana Tepavcevic, Mojca Stojiljkovic, Aleksandra Stankovic, Maja Zivkovic, Goran Koricanac
Increased intake of fructose in humans and laboratory animals is demonstrated to be a risk factor for development of metabolic disorders (insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, estradiol is emphasized as a cardioprotective agent. The main goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on damaging cardiac effects of fructose-rich diet in females, mostly experimental animals, and to evaluate protective capacity of estradiol. Published results of our and other research groups indicate mostly detrimental effects of fructose-rich diet on cardiac insulin signaling molecules, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, nitric oxide production and ion transport, as well as renin-angiotensin system and inflammation...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585204/insulin-resistance-obesity-and-lipotoxicity
#14
Dilek Yazıcı, Havva Sezer
Lipotoxicity , originally used to describe the destructive effects of excess fat accumulation on glucose metabolism, causes functional impairments in several metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. Lipotoxicity has roles in insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Increased circulating levels of lipids and the metabolic alterations in fatty acid utilization and intracellular signaling, have been related to insulin resistance in muscle and liver...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576832/eet-intervention-on-wnt1-nov-and-ho-1-signaling-prevents-obesity-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-obese-mice
#15
Jian Cao, Shailendra P Singh, John McClung, Gregory Joseph, Luca Vanella, Ignazio Barbagallo, Houli Jiang, John R Falck, Michael Arad, Joseph I Shapiro, Nader G Abraham
We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on vascular function, in addition to its anti-apoptotic action, it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. To uncover the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that EET infusion might ameliorate obesity-induced cardiomyopathy by improving HO-1, Wnt1, thermogenic gene levels and mitochondrial integrity in cardiac tissues and improved pericardial fat phenotype. EET reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, and pro-inflammatory adipokines including NOV signaling while increasing echocardiographic fractional shortening and O2 consumption...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573460/brain-glp-1-igf-1-signaling-and-autophagy-mediate-exendin-4-protection-against-apoptosis-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#16
Emanuel Candeias, Inês Sebastião, Susana Cardoso, Cristina Carvalho, Maria Sancha Santos, Catarina Resende Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, Ana I Duarte
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a modern socioeconomic burden, mostly due to its long-term complications affecting nearly all tissues. One of them is the brain, whose dysfunctional intracellular quality control mechanisms (namely autophagy) may upregulate apoptosis, leading to cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer disease (AD). Since impaired brain insulin signaling may constitute the crosslink between T2D and AD, its restoration may be potentially therapeutic herein. Accordingly, the insulinotropic anti-T2D drugs from glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics, namely, exendin-4 (Ex-4), could be a promising therapy...
June 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573188/a-hyper-crosslinked-carbohydrate-polymer-scaffold-facilitates-lineage-commitment-and-maintains-a-reserve-pool-of-proliferating-cardiovascular-progenitors
#17
Jonathan M Baio, Ryan C Walden, Tania I Fuentes, Charles C Lee, Nahidh W Hasaniya, Leonard L Bailey, Mary K Kearns-Jonker
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) have been cultured on various scaffolds to resolve the challenge of cell retention after transplantation and to improve functional outcome after cell-based cardiac therapy. Previous studies have reported successful culture of fully differentiated cardiomyocytes on scaffolds of various types, and ongoing efforts are focused on optimizing the mix of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells as well as on the identification of a source of progenitors capable of reversing cardiovascular damage...
May 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559659/shen-yuan-dan-capsule-inhibiting-inflammatory-reaction-by-regulating-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-apoliprotein-e-knockout-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Mingxue Zhou, Ping Li, Qunfu Kang, Lei Zhang, Juju Shang, Weihong Liu, Hongxu Liu
BACKGROUND: Shen-Yuan-Dan Capsule (SYDC), a traditional Chinese medicine, is proposed to have the capacity to prevent angina pectoris. However, the effects and the related mechanisms of SYDC on atherosclerosis (AS) are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effects of SYDC on AS and inflammatory reaction in the apoliprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed with a high-fat diet. METHODS: Thirty eight-week-old male ApoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) 6 weeks after being fed with a high-fat diet: the control group, the lipitor group, and the SYDC group...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549591/single-allele-lmbrd1-knockout-results-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#19
Linda Tzu-Ling Tseng, Chieh-Liang Lin, Kuei-Hsiang Pan, Kai-Yuan Tzen, Ming-Jai Su, Chia-Ti Tsai, Yi-Han Li, Pai-Chi Li, Fu-Tien Chiang, Shin C Chang, Ming-Fu Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: LMBD1 protein, a type IV-B plasma membrane protein possessing nine putative trans-membrane domains, was previously demonstrated at cellular level to play a critical part in the signaling cascade of insulin receptor through its involvement in regulating clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, at physiological level, the significance of LMBD1 protein in cardiac development remains unclear. METHODS: To understand the role of Lmbrd1 gene involved in the cardiac function, heterozygous knockout mice were used as an animal model system...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546469/green-tea-egcg-enhances-cardiac-function-restoration-through-expression-of-survival-signaling-in-dm-rats-with-autologous-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cell
#20
Tung-Sheng Chen, Show-Yih Liou, Chia-Hua Kuo, Lung-Fa Pan, Yu-Lan Yeh, Jeffery Liou, V Vijaya Padma, Chun-Hsu Yao, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
The present study tests a hypothesis that cardioprotective effects mediated by autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in rats afflicted with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), may be synergistically enhanced by oral treatment with green tea epigallocatechin gallat (ECCG). Wistar rats were divided into sham, DM, DM+ADSC (autologous transplanted 1x106 cells/rat) and DM+ADSC+E (E, green tea oral administration EGCG). Heart tissues were isolated for all rats and investigations were performed after 2-months treatment...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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