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Colistin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340602/emergence-of-blactx-m-55-associated-with-fosa-rmtb-and-mcr-gene-variants-in-escherichia-coli-from-various-animal-species-in-france
#1
Agnese Lupo, Estelle Saras, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Objectives: In Asian countries, blaCTX-M-55 is the second most common ESBL-encoding gene. blaCTX-M-55 frequently co-localizes with fosA and rmtB genes on epidemic plasmids, which remain sporadic outside Asia. During 2010-13, we investigated CTX-M-55-producing Escherichia coli isolates and their co-resistance to fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and colistin as part of a global survey of ESBLs in animals in France. Methods: blaCTX-M-55, fosA, rmtB and plasmidic quinolone and colistin resistance genes were characterized by PCR, sequencing and hybridization experiments...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339296/silent-transmission-of-an-is1294b-deactivated-mcr-1-gene-with-inducible-colistin-resistance
#2
Kai Zhou, Qixia Luo, Qin Wang, Chen Huang, Haifeng Lu, Rossen W A John, Yonghong Xiao, Lanjuan Li
The global dissemination of the mobile colistin resistance mcr-1 is of special concern, as colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we characterized an inactive form of mcr-1 in a fluoroquinolone-resistant and colistin-susceptible uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate (ECO3347). The mcr-1 gene was deactivated by the insertion of a 1.7-Kb IS1294b element flanked by two tetramers (GTTC), and located on a 62-Kb pHNSHP45-like plasmid (p3347-mcr-1)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334366/modified-colistin-regimen-for-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-renal-impairment-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#3
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Alessia Mattei, Dario Cappiello, Giorgio Minotti, Massimiliano Carassiti
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients...
December 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#4
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331006/outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-burn-unit
#5
Usman Ali, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Fatima Kaleem, Irum Aftab, Tariq Butt
Stenotrophomonas maltophiliais an emerging cause of nosocomial infections. We report an outbreak of XDR-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection from burn unit of a tertiary care hospital in July 2016. The strain isolated was resistant to all antimicrobials tested but colistin. Outbreak investigation was carried out which subsided after timely intervention. Patients were treated adequately by Colistin.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325326/-investigation-of-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-in-gut-bacteria-from-patients-with-acute-diarrheal
#6
Y Li, W J Yan, S Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the presence of colistin resistance gene mcr in gut bacteria from patients with acute diarrhea. Methods: Fresh stool samples were collected from 150 outpatients with acute diarrhea in the intestinal clinic of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, and were directly detected for the presence of mcr by PCR after enrichment in the broth.The mcr-producing bacteria were further isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Biotyper). Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was conducted by micro-broth dilution method...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#7
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305957/isolation-of-an-incp-1-plasmid-with-mcr-1-from-a-chicken-isolate-of-citrobacter-braakii-in-china
#8
Jinxin Liu, Yanxian Yang, Yunxia Li, Dan Liu, Hongmei Tuo, Hongning Wang, Douglas R Call, Margaret Davis, Anyun Zhang
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harboring this gene is unknown. In this study, twelve colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug resistance phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant to ten tested antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin was >4 µg/mL...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#9
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302147/current-trends-of-drug-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-in-blood-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-patients
#10
Suhail Ahmed Almani, Ali Naseer, Sanjay Kumar Maheshwari, Pir Maroof, Raza Naseer, Haji Khan Khoharo
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Subjects and Methods: Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301193/antibiotic-resistance-of-acinetobacter-spp-isolates-from-the-river-danube-susceptibility-stays-high
#11
Clemens Kittinger, Alexander Kirschner, Michaela Lipp, Rita Baumert, Franz Mascher, Andreas H Farnleitner, Gernot E Zarfel
Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well documented but the extent to how widely they are distributed within the Acinetobacter population is unknown. In this study, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from water samples at 14 sites of the whole course of the river Danube...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296190/expression-characteristics-of-the-plasmid-borne-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene
#12
Haifang Zhang, Minhui Miao, Jieting Yan, Min Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Xia Zhang, Liang Chen, Hong Du
The plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) has recently been reported in various Gram-negative species. However, the expression profile of mcr-1 remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of mcr-1 in various plasmids and bacteria. The mcr-1 expression levels in pMCR1_IncX4 varied from 1.81 × 10-5 to 1.05 × 10-4 (pmol per μg total RNA) in the two K. pneumoniae strains SZ03 and SZ04 (ST25) and the two E. coli strains SZ01 and CDA6 (ST2448 and ST167, respectively). The mcr-1 expression levels of pMCR1_IncI2 in E...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286009/efficacy-of-loading-dose-of-colistin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#13
Emine Alp, Esma Eren, Gülseren Elay, Fatma Cevahir, Aliye Esmaoğlu, Jordi Rello
Colistin loading dose (LD) has been postulated as an advance in therapy. The clinical, microbiological effectiveness and nephrotoxicity of adding an LD to systemic colistin in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii remain unknown. In this quasi experimental study, the efficacy, outcomes and nephrotoxicity in 30 adults who received intravenous colistin with LD for MDR A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia were compared with 22 in absence of LD...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285477/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-producing-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-vim-imp-sme-and-aim-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-intensive-care-units-a-university-hospital-in-isfahan-iran
#14
Farzin Khorvash, Mohammadreza Yazdani, Shiva Shabani, Aliasghar Soudi
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe challenge for antimicrobial therapy, due to the chromosomal mutations or exhibition of intrinsic resistance to various antimicrobial agents such as most β-lactams. We undertook this study to evaluate the existence of SME, IMP, AIM, and VIM metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) encoding genes among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted between March 2012 and April 2013, a total of 48 strains of P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279590/distribution-of-adeb-and-ndm-1-genes-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-infected-wound-of-patients-admitted-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bangladesh
#15
M J Hasan, S M Shamsuzzaman
BACKGROUND: The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272983/sub-inhibitory-concentration-of-essential-oils-induces-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Barbara Turchi, Simone Mancini, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar, Filippo Fratini
Fourteen Staphylococcus aureus wild strains were stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of five essential oils: Leptospermum scoparium (manuka), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Satureja montana (winter savoury) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). Antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the strains were determined by agar disk diffusion method before and after EOs treatment. The following antibiotics were employed: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cephalexin, neomycin, piperacillin, rifampin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and tobramycin...
December 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251486/branched-high-molecular-weight-glyco-polypeptide-with-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-activity-for-the-treatment-of-biofilm-related-infections
#17
Nicolò Mauro, Domenico Schillaci, Paola Varvarà, Maria Grazia Cusimano, Daniela Maria Geraci, Mario Giuffrè, Gennara Cavallaro, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Gaetano Giammona
There are few therapeutic options to simultaneously tackle Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two of the most relevant nosocomial and antibiotic-resistant pathogens responsible for implant, catheters and wound severe infections. The design and synthesis of polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity have gained increasing attention as a safe strategy to treat multidrug-resistant microbes. Here, we tested the activity of a new polymeric derivative with glyco-polypeptide architecture (PAA-VC) bearing L-arginine, vancomycin and colistin as side chains acting against multiple targets, which give rise to a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity favorably combining specific and nonspecific perturbation of the bacterial membrane...
December 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250670/an-overview-of-resistance-profiles-eskape-pathogens-from-2010-2015-in-a-tertiary-respiratory-center-in-romania
#18
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Andrei Alexandru Muntean, Adriana Moisoiu, Mădălina Maria Muntean, Alexandru Chirca, Miron Alexandru Bogdan, Mircea Ioan Popa
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is an umbrella term that covers a wide spectrum of diseases, comprising mild and severe, acute and chronic conditions. A wide spectrum of pathogens can be implicated, from viruses to pyogenic and atypical bacteria. A special place should be reserved for slow growing bacteria (Mycobacteria spp., Nocardia spp.) and parasites (i.e., hydatic cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to observe, analyze and establish the drug susceptibility patterns for Enterococcus spp...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250039/molecular-epidemiology-and-colistin-resistant-mechanism-of-mcr-positive-and-mcr-negative-clinical-isolated-escherichia-coli
#19
Qixia Luo, Wei Yu, Kai Zhou, Lihua Guo, Ping Shen, Haifeng Lu, Chen Huang, Hao Xu, Shaoyan Xu, Yonghong Xiao, Lanjuan Li
Transmissible colistin resistance mediated by the mcr gene has been reported worldwide, but clinical isolates of mcr-negative colistin-resistant Escherichia coli are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of colistin resistance among mcr-positive and mcr-negative E. coli clinical isolates by performing a molecular epidemiological surveillance. For the first time ever, we show nearly the same isolation ratio for mcr-negative and mcr-positive colistin-resistant clinical isolates (47...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248504/rapid-emergence-of-colistin-resistance-and-its-impact-on-mortality-in-healthcare-associated-infections
#20
Mehtap Aydin, Önder Ergönül, Alpay Azap, Hüseyin Bilgin, Güle Aydın, Sema Alp Çavuş, Yusuf Ziya Demiroğlu, Hikmet Eda Çalışkan, Osman Memikoğlu, Şirin Menekşe, Şafak Kaya, Nazlım Aktuğ Demir, İlkay Karaoğlan, Seniha Başaran, Çiğdem Hatipoğlu, Şebnem Erdinç, Emel Yılmaz, Ayhanım Tümtürk, Yasemin Tezer, Hamiyet Demirkaya, Şule Eren Çakar, Şiran Keske, SudaTekin, Cem Yardımcı, Çağla Karakoç, Pınar Ergen, Özlem Azap, Lütfiye Mülazımoğlu, Onur Ural, Füsun Can, Halis Akalın
We describe the emergence of resistance and predictors of fatality for 1556 cases of healthcare-associated Gram-negative bloodstream infections in 2014 and 2015. The colistin resistance rate in Klebsiella pneumoniae was 16.1%, compared with 6% in 2013. 660 (42.4%) cases were fatal. The highest fatality rate was among patients with Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia (58%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (41%), Enterobacter cloacae (32%), and Escherichia coli (28%). In multivariate analysis, MIC for carbapenem (OR:1...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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