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Eccentric training

Arnhild Bakken, Stephen Targett, Tone Bere, Cristiano Eirale, Abdulaziz Farooq, Andrea B Mosler, Johannes L Tol, Rod Whiteley, Karim M Khan, Roald Bahr
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity muscle strength tests are commonly used to screen for injury risk in professional soccer. However, there is limited evidence on the ability of such tests in predicting future injuries. PURPOSE: To examine the association between hip and thigh muscle strength and the risk of lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Professional male soccer players from 14 teams in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment at the beginning of the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
James Steele, Andrew Butler, Zoe Comerford, Jason Dyer, Nathan Lloyd, Joshua Ward, James Fisher, Paulo Gentil, Christopher Scott, Hayao Ozaki
The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press) or 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80-100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5-10 s)...
2018: PeerJ
Mark Roe, Shane Malone, Eamonn Delahunt, Kieran Collins, Conor Gissane, Ulrik McCarthy Persson, John C Murphy, Catherine Blake
OBJECTIVE: Report eccentric knee flexor strength values of elite Gaelic football players from underage to adult level whilst examining the influence of body mass and previous hamstring injury. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Team's training facility. PARTICIPANTS: Elite Gaelic football players (n = 341) from under 14 years to senior age-grades were recruited from twelve teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute (N) and relative (N·kg-1 ) eccentric hamstring strength as well as corresponding between-limb imbalances (%) were calculated for all players...
March 1, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Toby Edwards, Tania Spiteri, Benjamin Piggott, Joshua Bonhotal, G Gregory Haff, Christopher Joyce
The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and sensitivity of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and perceptual wellness questionnaire in NCAA Division I men's basketball players. Twelve male collegiate basketball athletes completed 3 maximal CMJ's on a portable force plate and a customized perceptual wellness questionnaire prior to training on non-consecutive days. CMJ variables were derived from computer software and used in analysis. All CMJ variables expressed acceptable trial-to-trial reliability (CV < 8%) except eccentric duration (CV = 8...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sanmy Rocha Nóbrega, Renato Barroso, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Jean Lucas Fernandes da Costa, Ieda Fernanda Alvarez, Cintia Barcelos, Cleiton Augusto Libardi
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of self-selected and fixed repetition duration (RD) on resistance exercise (RE) volume, muscle activation, time under tension (TUT) per repetition and per session. Twelve resistance-trained men participated in the study. A randomized cross-over design was utilized and each participant performed two high-intensity RE protocols in a balanced order: 1) three sets of RE with self-selected RD (SELF); 2) three sets of RE with fixed RD (2 sec concentric, 2 sec eccentric [FIX])...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mellissa Harden, Alex Wolf, Mark Russell, Kirsty M Hicks, Duncan French, Glyn Howatson
High intensity eccentric exercise is a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. A greater understanding of the mechanical stimuli afforded by this exercise will aid the prescription of future eccentric training regimes. This study sought to investigate the mechanical characteristics of supramaximally loaded eccentric exercise when using a custom-built leg press machine. Using a within subject, repeated measures design, 15 strength trained subjects (age 31 ± 7 years; height 180.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass 81...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Rodney A Kennedy, David Drake
Kennedy, RA and Drake, D. Dissociated time course of recovery between strength and power after isoinertial resistance loading in rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 748-755, 2018-There is a substantial amount of research on the responses to isometric and eccentric loading. However, only a paucity of literature exists on the responses to isoinertial loading, especially in trained athletic populations using realistic loading protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute neuromuscular response to a bout of isoinertial resistance loading in elite rugby players...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marcin Lipski, Chris R Abbiss, Kazunori Nosaka
PURPOSE: This study compared cardio-pulmonary responses between incremental concentric and eccentric cycling tests, and examined factors affecting the maximal eccentric cycling capacity. METHODS: On separate days, nine men and two women (32.6 ± 9.4 years) performed an upright seated concentric (CON) and an eccentric (ECC) cycling test, which started at 75 W and increased 25 W min-1 until task failure. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR) and power output were continuously recorded during the tests...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lukas D Trachsel, Christoph P Ryffel, Stefano De Marchi, Christian Seiler, Nicolas Brugger, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Long-term endurance sport practice leads to eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We aimed to compare the new 4-tiered classification (4TC) for LVH with the established 2-tiered classification (2TC) in a cohort of normotensive non-elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Male participants of a 10-mile race were recruited and included when blood pressure (BP) was normal (<140/90 mmHg). Phenotypic characterization of LVH was based on relative wall thickness (2TC), and on LV concentricity2/3 (LV mass/end-diastolic volume [LVM/EDV]2/3) plus LVEDV index (4TC)...
2018: PloS One
Martino V Franchi, Severin Ruoss, Paola Valdivieso, Kyle W Mitchell, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marco V Narici, Martin Flück
AIMS: We assessed focal adhesion kinase (FAK) response to concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) resistance training (RT) at two vastus lateralis (VL) sites, and the relationships between FAK, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and morphological remodeling. METHODS: Six young males trained both legs unilaterally 3 times/week for 8 weeks; one leg performed CON RT, the contralateral performed ECC RT. Muscle biopsies were collected after training from VL midbelly (MID) and distal (Distal) sites at 0, 4, 8 weeks...
February 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Michelle Markowitz, Monica Daibert-Nido, Samuel N Markowitz
Reading is the most frequent clinical complaint and the primary goal for patients with macular degeneration seeking vision rehabilitation. The current prevalent methods for reading skills training across the globe are still magnification and basic scotoma awareness training. More recent studies showed that specific eccentric training, comprehension ability training, and specific oculomotor training are all beneficial to reading skills rehabilitation. In clinical practice, ophthalmologists should strive to implement reading skills methods that include assessment of cognitive skills, optimal eyewear, optimal reading material, PRL assessment, training of better oculomotor control, and efficient perceptual training...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Tsubasa Tomoto, Tomoko Imai, Shigehiko Ogoh, Seiji Maeda, Jun Sugawara
Aorta effectively buffers cardiac pulsatile fluctuation generated from the left ventricular (LV) which could be a mechanical force to high blood flow and low-resistance end-organs such as the brain. A dynamic orthostatic challenge may evoke substantial cardiac pulsatile fluctuation via the transient increases in venous return and stroke volume (SV). Particularly, this response may be greater in endurance-trained athletes (ET) who exhibit LV eccentric remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of aortic compliance to the response of cerebral blood flow fluctuation to dynamic orthostatic challenge in ET and age-matched sedentary (SED) young healthy men...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Giuseppe Coratella, Marco Beato, Chiara Milanese, Stefano Longo, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Angela Valentina Bisconti, F Schena, F Esposito
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in an off-season randomized controlled-trial. Before and after an eight-week training intervention, vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, LM, squat 1-RM, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic peak-torque, agility T-test, 10 and 30m sprint and squat-jump (SJ) were measured...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sara Olenich, Graeme Waterworth, Gary J Badger, Bruce Levy, Elliot Israel, Helene M Langevin
OBJECTIVE: Although less is known about musculoskeletal factors that may contribute to asthma symptoms, body-based treatments addressing movement restrictions of the chest and shoulders may be a useful adjunct to asthma pharmacotherapy. In this pilot study, we compared asthma symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and medication use before and after a course of resistance flexibility and strength training (RFST) treatments in human subjects with asthma. METHODS: Patients with asthma (n = 10; mean age 23 years) completed questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), Asthma Control Test (ACT)), spirometry, chest wall excursion, and shoulder range of motion (ROM) before and after a series of four RFST treatments over 47 ± 21 days...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Clarissa M Brusco, Anthony J Blazevich, Regis Radaelli, Cintia E Botton, Eduardo L Cadore, Bruno M Baroni, Gabriel S Trajano, Ronei S Pinto
Adaptations to 6 weeks of supervised hamstring stretching training and its potential impact on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) were studied in 10 young, untrained men with limited hamstrings flexibility. Participants performed unilateral flexibility training (experimental leg; EL) on an isokinetic dynamometer while the contralateral limb acted as control (CL). Hip range of motion (ROM), passive, isometric and concentric torques, active optimum angle, and biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle thickness and ultrasound echo intensity were assessed both before and after the training...
February 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Francesca Profit, Thomas Gwechenberger, Nadine Weiberg, Mario Parstorfer, Marc-Andre Weber, Nikolaus Streich, Alexander Barié
PURPOSE: Protracted quadriceps muscle atrophy is observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). The aim of this study was to assess if quadriceps strength training with eccentric overload (CON/ECC) is more efficient to induce muscle regeneration after ACL-R than conventional concentric/eccentric (CON/ECC) strength training. METHODS: Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 37 recreational athletes after 12 weeks of regular rehabilitation following ACL-R and again after 12 weeks with twice a week either conventional CON/ECC (n = 16) or CON/ECC (n = 21) one-legged supervised leg-press training...
January 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Danielle E Levitt, Nosakhare O Idemudia, Carianne M Cregar, Anthony A Duplanty, David W Hill, Jakob L Vingren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumed after heavy eccentric resistance exercise on measures of muscle power. After familiarization and an initial eccentric exercise bout to control for the "repeated-bout effect," ten recreationally resistance-trained men completed two identical heavy eccentric squat bouts (4 sets of 10 repetitions at 110% of concentric 1-repetition maximum) one week apart. Each exercise bout was followed by ingestion of a beverage containing either alcohol (1...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Timothy J Suchomel, Sophia Nimphius, Christopher R Bellon, Michael H Stone
This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules...
January 25, 2018: Sports Medicine
John R Harry, Leland A Barker, Roger James, Janet S Dufek
Harry, JR, Barker, LA, James, CR, and Dufek, JS. Performance differences among skilled soccer players of different playing positions during vertical jumping and landing. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 304-312, 2018-Both jumping and landing performance of skilled soccer players is diminished when task demands are increased. However, it is unclear if performance changes are specific to players of certain playing positions. Therefore, we assessed jumping and landing performance among skilled soccer players of different playing positions...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mark Rakobowchuk, Laurie Isacco, Ophélie Ritter, Alicia González Represas, Malika Bouhaddi, Bruno Degano, Nicolas Tordi, Laurent Mourot
Muscle deoxygenation responses provide information about the training impulse of an exercise session enabling adaptation to be predicted. Our aim was to investigate muscle oxygenation profiles during prolonged low-intensity eccentric and concentric cycling. Twelve healthy men performed two 45-min exercise sessions of concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) cycling, matched for the same heart rate at the start of each session. Mechanical power output during ECC was ~2.5 times that of CON (210±40 W vs. 82±16 W)...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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