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Eccentric training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165731/effects-of-the-actn3-r577x-genotype-on-the-muscular-strength-and-range-of-motion-before-and-after-eccentric-contractions-of-the-elbow-flexors
#1
Naoki Kikuchi, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii, Eisuke Ochi
The purpose of present study was to examine the association between ACTN3 R577X genotype and functional characteristics of elbow flexors before and after isokinetic eccentric contractions (ECCs). Fifty-two men (age: 20.8±3.8 years, height: 172.5±5.9 cm, body mass: 64.7±6.5 kg, BMI: 21.7±1.7) who had not participated in any regular resistance training for at least 1 year prior to this study were recruited. ECCs consisted of five sets of six maximal voluntary isokinetic (30°/s) ECCs of the elbow flexors with a range of motion (ROM) from 90° flexion to 0° (full extension)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163473/treadmill-slope-modulates-inflammation-fiber-type-composition-androgen-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-overtrained-mice
#2
Alisson L da Rocha, Bruno C Pereira, Giovana R Teixeira, Ana P Pinto, Fabiani G Frantz, Lucila L K Elias, Fábio S Lira, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, Adelino S R da Silva
Overtraining (OT) may be defined as an imbalance between excessive training and adequate recovery period. Recently, a downhill running-based overtraining (OTR/down) protocol induced the nonfunctional overreaching state, which is defined as a performance decrement that may be associated with psychological and hormonal disruptions and promoted intramuscular and systemic inflammation. To discriminate the eccentric contraction effects on interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, and SOCS-3, we compared the release of these cytokines in OTR/down with other two OT protocols with the same external load (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143267/hamstring-injury-prevention-practices-in-elite-sport-evidence-for-eccentric-strength-vs-lumbo-pelvic-training
#3
REVIEW
Anthony J Shield, Matthew N Bourne
Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes...
November 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140178/infraspinatus-cross-sectional-area-and-shoulder-range-of-motion-change-following-live-game-baseball-pitching
#4
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Following a baseball pitching bout, changes can occur to glenohumeral range of motion that could be linked to injury. These effects are in part due to the posterior shoulder's eccentric muscle activity, which can disrupt muscle contractile elements and lead to changes in muscle cross sectional area (CSA), as measured by ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in muscle CSA, and range of motion immediately before and after pitching, and days 1-5 following pitching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128872/prenatal-kynurenine-treatment-in-rats-causes-schizophrenia-like-broad-monitoring-deficits-in-adulthood
#5
Britta Hahn, Carolyn H Reneski, Ana Pocivavsek, Robert Schwarcz
RATIONALE: Elevated brain kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels are implicated in the pathology and neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In rats, embryonic treatment with kynurenine (EKyn) causes elevated brain KYNA levels in adulthood and cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia have a narrowed attentional focus, and we aimed at establishing whether these abnormalities may be related to KYNA dysregulation...
November 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116573/an-evidence-based-framework-for-strengthening-exercises-to-prevent-hamstring-injury
#6
REVIEW
Matthew N Bourne, Ryan G Timmins, David A Opar, Tania Pizzari, Joshua D Ruddy, Casey Sims, Morgan D Williams, Anthony J Shield
Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury...
November 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113570/a-novel-downhill-gait-training-program-following-a-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-report-highlighting-the-impacts-of-self-selected-speed-on-gait-symmetry
#7
Cody Blue, Sara Coomes, Yuri Yoshida
Study Design Case report. Background Walking plays an essential role in activities of daily living that lead to varied health benefits. Studies report gait speed and symmetry are impacted in individuals following TKA. Unfortunately, abnormal gait patterns persistently exist in individuals after TKA. Downhill walking may provide a simple and feasible exercise regimen to improve gait patterns. The purpose of this case report is to describe the application of a downhill treadmill training program and the subsequent changes in gait patterns in an individual following a unilateral TKA...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112054/lower-extremity-stiffness-considerations-for-testing-performance-enhancement-and-injury-risk
#8
Jon Brazier, Sean Maloney, Chris Bishop, Paul J Read, Anthony N Turner
Brazier, J, Maloney, S, Bishop, C, Read, PJ, and Turner, AN. Lower extremity stiffness: considerations for testing, performance enhancement, and injury risk. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Force-deformation characteristics of the lower limb have been associated with athletic performance and may modulate the risk of injury. Despite these known associations, measurements of lower extremity stiffness are not commonly administered by strength and conditioning coaches. This review provides an overview of the available literature pertaining to the effects of lower extremity stiffness on physical performance and injury risk...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#9
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078827/insertional-tendinopathy-of-the-achilles-debridement-primary-repair-and-when-to-augment
#10
REVIEW
Rachel J Shakked, Steven M Raikin
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative enthesopathy associated with pain and dysfunction. Nonsurgical management is first attempted for a period of 3 to 6 months and may consist of physical therapy with eccentric training and other modalities. Surgical treatment can be successful with a variety of approaches. A thorough debridement through a midline tendon-splitting approach is associated with high satisfaction rates. Flexor hallucis longus transfer to augment the repair is considered in older, heavier patients or if more than 50% of the tendon was debrided...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077639/short-trail-running-race-beyond-the-classic-model-for-endurance-running-performance
#11
Sabine Ehrström, Marcus P Tartaruga, Christopher S Easthope, Jeanick Brisswalter, Jean-Benoit Morin, Fabrice Vercruyssen
PURPOSE: To examine the extent to which the classical physiological variables of endurance running performance [VO2max, %VO2max at ventilatory threshold (VT), and running economy (RE)], but also muscle strength factors contribute to short trail running (TR) performance. METHODS: A homogeneous group of nine highly-trained trail runners performed an official TR race (27-km) and laboratory-based sessions to determine VO2max, %VO2max at VT, level RE (RE0%) and RE on a +10% slope (RE+10%), voluntary concentric and eccentric knee extension torques (MVCCon and MVCEcc, respectively), local endurance assessed by a fatigue index (FI) and a time to exhaustion at 87...
October 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074713/effects-of-contraction-mode-and-stimulation-frequency-on-electrical-stimulation-induced-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#12
Yuki Ashida, Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Ryotaro Yamada, Riki Ogasawara, Takashi Yamada
We compared the skeletal muscle hypertrophy resulting from isometric (Iso) or eccentric (Ecc) electrical stimulation (ES) training with different stimulation frequencies. Male Wistar rats were assigned to the Iso and Ecc groups. These were divided into three further sub-groups that were stimulated at 10 Hz (Iso-10 and Ecc-10), 30 Hz (Iso-30 and Ecc-30), or 100 Hz (Iso-100 and Ecc-100). In experiment 1, the left plantarflexor muscles were stimulated every other day for 3 weeks. In experiment 2, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was investigated 6 hours after one bout of ES...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072027/effect-of-stretching-based-rehabilitation-on-pain-flexibility-and-muscle-strength-in-dancers-with-hamstring-injury-a-single-blind-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Giwon Kim, Hyangsun Kim, Woo K Kim, Junesun Kim
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries commonly occur in mainstream sports and occupations that involve physical activity. We evaluated the effect of a stretching-based rehabilitation program on pain, flexibility, and strength in dancers with hamstring injuries. METHODS: Sixteen Korean traditional dancers with unilateral hamstring injuries were included and randomly assigned to a rehabilitation or control group. The rehabilitation group received stretching-based rehabilitation for 8 weeks, which comprised simple static stretches and basic range of motion (ROM) exercises, such as static and active stretching, concentric and eccentric ROM training, and trunk stabilization exercises...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068866/does-flywheel-paradigm-training-improve-muscle-volume-and-force-a-meta-analysis
#14
Francisco J Nuñez Sanchez, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal
Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training...
November 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067219/driving-with-hemianopia-v-do-individuals-with-hemianopia-spontaneously-adapt-their-gaze-scanning-to-differing-hazard-detection-demands
#15
Concetta F Alberti, Robert B Goldstein, Eli Peli, Alex R Bowers
PURPOSE: We investigated whether people with homonymous hemianopia (HH) were able to spontaneously (without training or instructions) adapt their blind-side scan magnitudes in response to differing scanning requirements for detection of pedestrians in a driving simulator when differing cues about pedestrian eccentricities and movement behaviors were available in the seeing hemifield. METHODS: Twelve HH participants completed two sessions in a driving simulator pressing the horn when they detected a pedestrian...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065278/the-effects-of-low-and-moderate-dose-caffeine-supplementation-on-upper-and-lower-body-maximal-voluntary-concentric-and-eccentric-muscle-force
#16
Jason Tallis, Harley C M Yavuz
Despite the growing quantity of literature exploring the effect of caffeine on muscular strength, there is a dearth of data that directly explores differences in erogenicity between upper and lower body musculature and the dose response effect. The present study sought to investigate the effects of low and moderate dose caffeine on the maximal voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Ten non-specifically strength trained, recreationally active participants (21 ± 0.3 yrs) completed the study...
October 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060911/virtual-proprioception-for-eccentric-training
#17
Robert LeMoyne, Timothy Mastroianni
Wireless inertial sensors enable quantified feedback, which can be applied to evaluate the efficacy of therapy and rehabilitation. In particular eccentric training promotes a beneficial rehabilitation and strength training strategy. Virtual Proprioception for eccentric training applies real-time feedback from a wireless gyroscope platform enabled through a software application for a smartphone. Virtual Proprioception for eccentric training is applied to the eccentric phase of a biceps brachii strength training and contrasted to a biceps brachii strength training scenario without feedback...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046631/development-of-a-bayesian-estimator-for-audio-visual-integration-a-neurocomputational-study
#18
Mauro Ursino, Andrea Crisafulli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Magosso, Cristiano Cuppini
The brain integrates information from different sensory modalities to generate a coherent and accurate percept of external events. Several experimental studies suggest that this integration follows the principle of Bayesian estimate. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its development in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. We recently presented a neural network model of audio-visual integration (Neural Computation, 2017) to investigate how a Bayesian estimator can spontaneously develop from the statistics of external stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038027/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-soluble-tnf-alpha-receptor-responses-in-young-vs-middle-aged-males-following-eccentric-exercise
#19
Eliott Arroyo, Adam J Wells, Joseph A Gordon, Alyssa N Varanoske, Yftach Gepner, Nicholas A Coker, David D Church, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been shown to be implicated in both muscle regeneration and muscle wasting. However, it remains unclear whether TNF-α is responsible for the age-related losses in muscle size and function. Also, due to the high clearance rate of TNF-α from circulation, analyzing the circulating levels of soluble TNF-α receptors 1 and 2 (STNFR1 and STNFR2) may provide a better indication of inflammatory events. The aim of this study was to examine changes in circulating concentrations of TNF-α, STNFR1, and STNFR2 following acute eccentric exercise in young (YA) and middle-aged (MA) men...
October 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035982/comparison-of-the-effect-of-5-different-treatment-options-for-managing-patellar-tendinopathy-a-secondary-analysis
#20
Dafne van Rijn, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Mirjam Steunebrink, Ron L Diercks, Johannes Zwerver, Henk van der Worp
OBJECTIVE: Currently, no treatments exist for patellar tendinopathy (PT) that guarantee quick and full recovery. Our objective was to assess which treatment option provides the best chance of clinical improvement and to assess the influence of patient and injury characteristics on the clinical effect of these treatments. DESIGN: A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 3 previously performed double-blind randomized controlled trials. PATIENTS: In total, 138 patients with PT were included in the analysis...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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