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Synchrony, music

Katrien Foubert, Tom Collins, Jos De Backer
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious and complex mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 5.9%, characterized by pervasive difficulties with emotion regulation, impulse control, and instability in interpersonal relationships and self-image. Impairments in interpersonal functioning have always been a prominent characteristic of BPD, indicating a need for research to identify the specific interpersonal processes that are problematic for diagnosed individuals. Previous research has concentrated on self-report questionnaires, unidirectional tests, and experimental paradigms wherein the exchange of social signals between individuals was not the focus...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Catherine Elizabeth Carr, Julian O'Kelly, Stephen Sandford, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Depression is of significant global concern. Despite a range of effective treatment options it is estimated that around one in five diagnosed with an acute depressive episode continue to experience enduring symptoms for more than 2 years. There is evidence for effectiveness of individual music therapy for depression. However, no studies have as yet looked at a group intervention within an NHS context. This study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial of group music therapy for patients with long-term depression (symptom durations of 1 year or longer) within the community...
March 29, 2017: Trials
Hugo Merchant, Bruno B Averbeck
The neural underpinnings of rhythmic behavior, including music and dance, have been studied using the synchronization-continuation task (SCT), where subjects initially tap in synchrony with an isochronous metronome and then keep tapping at a similar rate via an internal beat mechanism. Here, we provide behavioral and neural evidence that supports a resetting drift-diffusion model (DDM) during SCT. Behaviorally, we show the model replicates the linear relation between the mean and standard-deviation of the intervals produced by monkeys in SCT...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Erin E Hannon, Adena Schachner, Jessica E Nave-Blodgett
Movement to music is a universal human behavior, yet little is known about how observers perceive audiovisual synchrony in complex musical displays such as a person dancing to music, particularly during infancy and childhood. In the current study, we investigated how perception of musical audiovisual synchrony develops over the first year of life. We habituated infants to a video of a person dancing to music and subsequently presented videos in which the visual track was matched (synchronous) or mismatched (asynchronous) with the audio track...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alexander P Demos, Daniel J Carter, Marcelo M Wanderley, Caroline Palmer
We examined temporal synchronization in joint music performance to determine how social status, auditory feedback, and animacy influence interpersonal coordination. A partner's coordination can be bidirectional (partners adapt to the actions of one another) or unidirectional (one partner adapts). According to the dynamical systems framework, bidirectional coordination should be the optimal (preferred) state during live performance. To test this, 24 skilled pianists each performed with a confederate while their coordination was measured by the asynchrony in their tone onsets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Christine Beauchene, Nicole Abaid, Rosalyn Moran, Rachel A Diana, Alexander Leonessa
OBJECTIVE: Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations...
April 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Magdalena Wojtczak, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
In modern Western music, melody is commonly conveyed by pitch changes in the highest-register voice, whereas meter or rhythm is often carried by instruments with lower pitches. An intriguing and recently suggested possibility is that the custom of assigning rhythmic functions to lower-pitch instruments may have emerged because of fundamental properties of the auditory system that result in superior time encoding for low pitches. Here we compare rhythm and synchrony perception between low- and high-frequency tones, using both behavioral and EEG techniques...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gareth W Young, Dave Murphy, Jeffrey Weeter
We present an experiment that investigated the effect of vibrotactile stimulation in auditory pitch discrimination tasks. Extra-auditory information was expected to have some influence upon the frequency discrimination of auditory Just Noticeable Difference (JND) detection levels at 160 Hz. To measure this, the potential to correctly identified positive and negative frequency changes for two randomly divided groups was measured and then compared. The first group was given an audio only JND test and the second group was given the same test, but with additional vibrotactile stimulus delivered via a vibrating glove device...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Bahar Tunçgenç, Emma Cohen
The emergence of pro-social behaviors and social interaction skills is a major focus of research on children's development. Here, we consider one important feature of human social interactions, interpersonal movement synchrony, and explore its effects on pro-sociality among young children. Coordinated movements are a crucial part of mother-infant interactions, with important social effects extending well into childhood. Musical interactions are also known to facilitate bonding between infants and caretakers and pro-sociality among peers...
December 18, 2016: Developmental Science
Ulrika Aasa, Johan Paulin, Guy Madison
Aasa, U, Paulin, J, and Madison, G. Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, biweekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 451-461, 2017-The aims of the study were (a) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (b) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation...
February 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Melissa Ellamil, Joshua Berson, Jen Wong, Louis Buckley, Daniel S Margulies
Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music...
2016: PloS One
Bronwyn Tarr, Jacques Launay, Robin I M Dunbar
Moving in synchrony leads to cooperative behaviour and feelings of social closeness, and dance (involving synchronisation to others and music) may cause social bonding, possibly as a consequence of released endorphins. This study uses an experimental paradigm to determine which aspects of synchrony in dance are associated with changes in pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin release) and social bonding between strangers. Those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects...
September 2016: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
Akito Miura, Shinya Fujii, Masahiro Okano, Kazutoshi Kudo, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The coordination of body movements to a musical beat is a common feature of many dance styles. However, the auditory-motor coordination skills of dancers remain largely uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the auditory-motor coordination skills of non-dancers, street dancers, and the winner of a celebrated international street dance competition, while coordinating their rhythmic finger movements to a beat. The beat rate of a metronome increased from 1.0 to 3.7 Hz. The participants were asked to either flex or extend their index fingers on the beat in each condition...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Lorraine Chuen, Michael Schutz
An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm...
July 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alwina Stein, Robert Wunderlich, Pia Lau, Alva Engell, Andreas Wollbrink, Alex Shaykevich, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Heinz Holling, Claudia Rudack, Christo Pantev
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a result of hyper-activity/hyper-synchrony of auditory neurons coding the tinnitus frequency, which has developed due to synchronous mass activity owing to the lack of inhibition. We assume that removal of exactly these frequencies from a complex auditory stimulus will cause the brain to reorganize around tonotopic regions coding the tinnitus frequency through inhibition-induced plasticity. Based on this assumption, a novel treatment for tonal tinnitus--tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT)--has been introduced and was tested in this clinical trial...
2016: BMC Neurology
Matthew H Woolhouse, Dan Tidhar, Ian Cross
We report an experiment investigating whether dancing to the same music enhances recall of person-related memory targets. The experiment used 40 dancers (all of whom were unaware of the experiment's aim), two-channel silent-disco radio headphones, a marked-up dance floor, two types of music, and memory targets (sash colors and symbols). In each trial, 10 dancers wore radio headphones and one of four different colored sashes, half of which carried cat symbols. Using silent-disco technology, one type of music was surreptitiously transmitted to half the dancers, while music at a different tempo was transmitted to the remaining dancers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna Zamm, Chelsea Wellman, Caroline Palmer
Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Paulo Barraza, Mario Chavez, Eugenio Rodríguez
Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity...
January 2016: Brain and Language
Yen-Hsuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Responsive parenting style and synchronous parent-child interactions have a positive impact on children in terms of language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Despite widely documented benefits of music therapy on parent-child interactions, empirical evidence for the effects of music therapy on parent-child synchrony is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of parent-child dyads' participation in a six-week home-based music therapy program on parent response, child initiation, and parent-child synchrony, as well as parents' daily use of musical activities with their child...
2016: Journal of Music Therapy
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