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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735441/pathology-of-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-female-genital-tract
#1
REVIEW
Brooke E Howitt, Paul Kelly, W Glenn McCluggage
Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014...
September 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734146/diagnostic-value-of-whole-body-diffusion-weighted-mri-compared-to-computed-tomography-for-pre-operative-assessment-of-patients-suspected-for-ovarian-cancer
#2
Katrijn Michielsen, Raphaëla Dresen, Ragna Vanslembrouck, Frederik De Keyzer, Frédéric Amant, Elvier Mussen, Karin Leunen, Patrick Berteloot, Philippe Moerman, Ignace Vergote, Vincent Vandecaveye
BACKGROUND: Despite excellent per-lesion performance for peritoneal staging, the additional clinical value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI/MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) remains to be established in ovarian cancer. Our purpose was to evaluate whole body (WB)-DWI/MRI for diagnosis, staging and operability assessment of patients suspected for ovarian cancer compared to CT. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients suspected for ovarian carcinoma underwent 3 T WB-DWI/MRI and contrast-enhanced CT...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733544/identification-of-lefty-as-a-molecular-marker-for-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#3
Masashi Akiya, Masaaki Yamazaki, Toshihide Matsumoto, Yusuke Kawashima, Yasuko Oguri, Sabine Kajita, Daiki Kijima, Risako Chiba, Ako Yokoi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshio Kodera, Makoto Saegusa
To identify proteins involved in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCCa), shotgun proteomics analysis was applied using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of ovarian carcinoma. Analysis of 1521 proteins revealed that 52 were differentially expressed between four OCCCa and 12 non-OCCCa samples. Of the highly expressed proteins in OCCCa, we focused on left-right determination factor (LEFTY), a novel member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In 143 cases of ovarian epithelial carcinoma including 99 OCCCas and 44 non-OCCCas, LEFTY expression at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in OCCCas compared with non-OCCCas, with the mRNA expression of LEFTY1 being predominant compared to that of LEFTY2...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730785/pdcd1-strengthens-the-sensitivity-of-ovarian-cancer-to-cisplatin-chemotherapy-by-promoting-apoptosis
#4
Qian Li, Jie-Fan Gao, Bing-Li Qi
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to make clear the role of PDCD1 in the occurrence and progression of ovarian cancer, and explain its mechanism. METHODS: RT-PCR, westem blot, MTT and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression levels of PDCD1 mRNA and protein in human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, 3AO, CAOV3 and OVCAR3), human normal ovary, serous cystadenoma, and serous cystadenocarcinoma tissue. SKOV3, SKOV3-MOCK, and SKOV3-PDCD1 cells were subcutaneously injected into the armpit of nude mice to observe the effect of PDCD1 expression on tumorigenic ability...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728166/whole-genome-sequencing-revealed-novel-prognostic-biomarkers-and-promising-targets-for-therapy-of-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#5
Hiroaki Itamochi, Tetsuro Oishi, Nao Oumi, Satoshi Takeuchi, Kosuke Yoshihara, Mikio Mikami, Nobuo Yaegashi, Yasuhisa Terao, Kazuhiro Takehara, Kimio Ushijima, Hidemichi Watari, Daisuke Aoki, Tadashi Kimura, Toshiaki Nakamura, Yoshihito Yokoyama, Junzo Kigawa, Toru Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is mostly resistant to standard chemotherapy that results in poor patient survival. To understand the genetic background of these tumours, we performed whole-genome sequencing of OCCC tumours. METHODS: Tumour tissue samples and matched blood samples were obtained from 55 Japanese women diagnosed with OCCC. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform according to standard protocols. RESULTS: Alterations to the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) subunit, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway, and the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signalling pathway were found in 51%, 42%, and 29% of OCCC tumours, respectively...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725636/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-from-normal-functioning-to-disease-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Olena Bilyk, Mackenzie Coatham, Michael Jewer, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721103/identifying-features-of-primary-fallopian-tube-carcinoma-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Hariyono Winarto, Darrell Fernando
Definitively diagnosing primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) prior to surgery is difficult. In the first working diagnosis, PFTC is often misdiagnosed as ovarian cancer. Preoperative workups using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are capable of differentiating PFTC from epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). Both the sensitivity and the specificity of MRI for identifying PFTC are high. The presence of a hydrosalpinx is a hallmark of PFTC. On MRI, hydrosalpinges have characteristic sausage-shaped appearances due to intrauterine fluid accumulation and fallopian tube distention...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720017/obesity-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review
#8
Ke Wei Foong, Helen Bolton
The association between obesity and ovarian cancer risk has been extensively investigated, but studies have yielded inconsistent findings. This review aims to summarise and discuss the evidence generated to date. Articles published in English prior to August 2016 were retrieved from PubMed. Keywords included obesity, overweight, body size, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, body weight, ovarian cancer, ovarian carcinoma, ovarian neoplasm, and ovarian tumour. Eligible studies compared two or more groups of women, with at least one group in the overweight or obese category and one comprising normal weight controls...
January 1, 2017: Post Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719746/structure-activity-study-of-ghrelin-1-8-resulting-in-high-affinity-fluorine-bearing-ligands-for-the-ghrelin-receptor
#9
Carlie L Charron, Jin-Qiang Hou, Mark S McFarland, Savita Dhanvantari, Michael S Kovacs, Leonard G Luyt
The ghrelin receptor, also known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), is a G-protein coupled receptor that is differentially expressed in healthy tissue and several cancers, including prostate, testicular, and ovarian. Selectively targeting the ghrelin receptor using fluorine-18 tagged entities would allow localization and visualization of ghrelin receptor expressing carcinomas using PET imaging. The endogenous ligand ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide with 3.1 nM affinity, has poor in vivo stability...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716307/should-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-metastatic-to-the-inguinal-lymph-nodes-be-assigned-stage-ivb
#10
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Melissa K Frey, Thomas A Caputo, Steven S Witkin, Kevin Holcomb
OBJECTIVE: According to the revised FIGO staging system women with ovarian carcinoma and inguinal lymph node (LN) metastases, formerly stage III, are now considered stage IVB. In this study we compare their survival to that of women with stage III and stage IV disease. METHODS: Women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2013). Four groups were formed: group 1 (stage IV due to positive inguinal nodes), group 2 (stage III with positive para-aortic/pelvic nodes), group 3 (stage IV with positive distant nodes) and group 4 (stage IV with distant metastases)...
July 14, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716151/predictive-factors-of-ovarian-carcinoma-for-women-with-ovarian-endometrioma-aged-45%C3%A2-years-and-older-in-china
#11
Zheng-Xing He, Hong-Hui Shi, Qing-Bo Fan, Lan Zhu, Jin-Hua Leng, Da-Wei Sun, Zhan-Fei Li, Keng Shen, Shu Wang, Jing-He Lang
BACKGROUND: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis (OEM) aged 45 years and above in China. METHODS: This study reviewed the medical records of 1038 women in total who were aged 45 years and above, surgical-pathologically diagnosed with ovarian endometriosis, and were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between December 1996 and December 2016. Histology evaluation was used to determine whether the ovarian endometriosis specimen was with (n = 30) or without (n = 1008) ovarian cancer...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714011/mangiferin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-ovarian-adenocarcinoma-ovcar3-cells-via-the-regulation-of-notch3
#12
Bingyu Zou, Hailian Wang, Yilong Liu, Ping Qi, Tiantian Lei, Minghan Sun, Yi Wang
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the world. Our previous studies showed that mangiferin, purified from plant source, possessed anti-neoplasm effect on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. This study aimed to determine the apoptosis-inducing effect of mangiferin on human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR3 cells. By in vitro studies, we found mangiferin significantly inhibited viability of OVCAR3 cells, and remarkably increased the sensitivity of OVCAR3 cells to cisplatin. In addition, the activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis was observed in mangiferin treated ovarian cancer cells...
July 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711162/actin-cytoskeleton-stiffness-grades-metastatic-potential-of-ovarian-carcinoma-hey-a8-cells-via-nanoindentation-mapping
#13
Z L Zhou, X X Sun, J Ma, M H Tong, S K Y To, A S T Wong, A H W Ngan
Recent studies have indicated that the nanoindentation measured stiffness of carcinoma adherent cells is in general lower than normal cells, thus suggesting that cell stiffness may serve as a bio-marker for carcinoma. However, the proper establishment of such a conclusion would require biophysical understanding of the underlying mechanism of the cell stiffness. In this work, we compared the elastic moduli of the actin cytoskeletons of Hey A8 ovarian carcinoma cells with and without metastasis (HM and NM), as measured by 2D atomic force microscopy (AFM) with low-depth nanoindentation via a rate-jump method...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709830/pathologic-findings-in-breast-fallopian-tube-and-ovary-specimens-in-non-brca-hereditary-breast-and-or-ovarian-cancer-syndromes-a-study-of-18-patients-with-deleterious-germline-mutations-in-rad51c-bard1-brip1-palb2-mutyh-or-chek2
#14
J Kenneth Schoolmeester, Ann M Moyer, McKinsey L Goodenberger, Gary L Keeney, Jodi M Carter, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
Germline BRCA mutations account for a significant proportion of genetic/familial risk of breast and ovarian cancer (GBOC) susceptibility, but a broader spectrum of GBOC susceptibility genes has emerged in recent years. Genotype to phenotype correlations are known for some established forms of GBOC, however whether such correlations exist for less common GBOC variants is unclear. We reviewed our institution's experience with non-BRCA GBOC, looking specifically for trends in pathologic and clinical features. Eighteen women with deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C (5 patients), BARD1 (1 patient), BRIP1 (2 patients), PALB2 (3 patients), MUTYH (2 patients) or CHEK2 (5 patients) were identified between January 2011 and December 2016...
July 11, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708790/trends-of-gynecological-cancers-in-turkey-towards-europe-or-asia
#15
Murat Gultekin, Irem Kucukyildiz, Mujdegul Zayifoglu Karaca, Selin Dundar, Guledal Boztas, Semra Hatice Turan, Ezgi Hacikamiloglu, Bekir Keskinkilic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate nationwide gynecological cancer trends in Turkey. METHODS: National cancer registry data (2009-2013) of Turkish Ministry of Health were evaluated. Ovarian, cervical, endometrial, vulvar, vaginal, and tubal cancers are evaluated with respect to age of diagnosis, incidence rates within years, stage, histological distributions, and mortality rates. Data were collected from active cancer registry centers, which increased from 23% in 2009 to 47...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707573/synthesis-radiosynthesis-and-metabolism-of-131i-y-c-cgrraggsc
#16
Jilai Xie, Donghui Pan, Mudan Lu, Xuan Chen, Yu Chen, Ting Zhang, Yan Xie, Huan Zhou, Lu Liu, Min Yang, Jiajun Wang, Daozhen Chen
BACKGROUND: The formation of the complex interleukin-11(IL-11) and IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) is closely related with tumor progression. Binding of IL-11 to the IL-11 receptor α-chain (IL-11Rα) has been suggested as a target for human cancer. The cyclic peptide c(CGRRAGGSC) is a mimic of IL-11. OBJECTIVE: To explore 131I-Y-c(CGRRAGGSC) synthesis and radiosynthesis, and metabolism in SKOV3 tumor-bearing mice. METHOD: In this study, 131I labeled c(CGRRAGGSC) was designed and characterized...
July 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706410/coexisting-brenner-tumor-and-endometrial-carcinoma
#17
Mitakshara Sharma, Babita Khangar, Varuna Mallya, Nita Khurana, Sangeeta Gupta
Brenner tumor is a rare ovarian neoplasm that is seen in women of the fifth to sixth decade. Classified as benign, borderline, and malignant, these tumors may be associated with estrogen production, thus altering the estrogen-progesterone ratio. High estrogen stimulates the endometrium and this is responsible for producing various pathologies, namely, hyperplasia, atypia, and carcinoma. Very few case reports have been published highlighting the same. A case report is being presented here of a coexisting Brenner tumor and well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma in a 55-year-old nulliparous postmenopausal woman...
April 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706361/opportunistic-salpingectomy-as-an-ovarian-cancer-primary-prevention-strategy
#18
Geetha Balsarkar
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal form of all gynecologic malignancies. The presenting clinical symptoms of ovarian cancer are very vague and often appear late in the course of disease. Hence, most patients are diagnosed at later stages. At present, there is no effective screening of ovarian cancer. Primary prevention could be considered a strategy to decrease the mortality from ovarian cancer, not only in women at high risk but also in those at low risk. Most "ovarian cancers," and more specifically the high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) subtype of ovarian cancer, actually could originate in the fallopian tube...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705408/superior-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-trastuzumab-emtansine-t-dm1-in-comparison-to-trastuzumab-pertuzumab-and-their-combination-in-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-with-high-her2-neu-expression
#19
Gulden Menderes, Elena Bonazzoli, Stefania Bellone, Gary Altwerger, Jonathan D Black, Katherine Dugan, Francesca Pettinella, Alice Masserdotti, Francesco Riccio, Anna Bianchi, Luca Zammataro, Christopher de Haydu, Natalia Buza, Pei Hui, Serena Wong, Gloria S Huang, Babak Litkouhi, Elena Ratner, Dan-Arin Silasi, Masoud Azodi, Peter E Schwartz, Alessandro D Santin
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The objective of this study was to compare the anti-tumor activity of HER2/neu-targeting monoclonal antibodies, trastuzumab (T), pertuzumab (P), combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab (T+P) and trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in EOC with high HER2/neu expression. METHODS: Primary EOC cell lines were established and cell blocks were analyzed for HER2/neu expression. Cytostatic, apoptotic and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities of T, P, T+P and T-DM1 were evaluated in vitro...
July 10, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705370/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-gynecological-malignancies-role-in-personalized-management
#20
Abhishek Mahajan, Nilesh P Sable, Palak B Popat, Puneet Bhargava, Kiran Gangadhar, Meenakshi H Thakur, Supreeta Arya
Gynecological malignancies are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women and pose a significant health problem around the world. Currently used staging systems for management of gynecological malignancies have unresolved issues, the most important being recommendations on the use of imaging. Although not mandatory as per the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommendations, preoperative cross-sectional imaging is strongly recommended for adequate and optimal management of patients with gynecological malignancies...
June 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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