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Metabolism, food quality, food safety, food nutrition

Om Parkash Dhankher, Christine H Foyer
Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products...
May 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Dongqiang Hu, Yingying Fan, Yanglan Tan, Ye Tian, Na Liu, Lan Wang, Duoyong Zhao, Cheng Wang, Aibo Wu
Xinjiang jujubes (Zizyphus rhamnaceae) are important agro-economical foods with the highest planting area and yields in China; however, black spot disease and contaminated Alternaria toxins have unfortunately caused a decline or loss of jujube nutritional quality in recent years. In this study, we used ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry to profile both Alternaria toxins and components in three representative Xinjiang jujubes, Hami Huang, Hetian Jun, and Ruoqiang Hui...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chase M Fredrick, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia, is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation is not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation were affected by arginine and glucose in Clostridium botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine and glucose and of three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline, and ornithine...
July 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jean-Louis Sébédio
Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
J Brignardello, E Holmes, I Garcia-Perez
Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Mingzhi Zhu, Ting Liu, Mingquan Guo
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria R C de Godoy, Marta Hervera, Kelly S Swanson, George C Fahey
Pet owners have increasing concerns about the nutrition of their pets, and they desire foods and treats that are safe, traceable, and of high nutritive value. To meet these high expectations, detailed chemical composition characterization of ingredients well beyond that provided by proximate analysis will be required, as will information about host physiology and metabolism. Use of faster and more precise analytical methodology and novel technologies that have the potential to improve pet food safety and quality will be implemented...
2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Raquel Pérez-Míguez, María Luisa Marina, María Castro-Puyana
Non-protein amino acids mainly exist in food as products formed during food processing, as metabolic intermediates or as additives to increase nutritional and functional properties of food. This fact makes their analysis and determination an attractive field in food science since they can give interesting information on the quality and safety of foods. This article presents a comprehensive review devoted to describe the latest advances in the development of (achiral and chiral) analytical methodologies by capillary electrophoresis and microchip capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of non-protein amino acids in a variety of food samples...
January 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Joyce Faber, Madeleen J Uitdehaag, Manon Spaander, Sabine van Steenbergen-Langeveld, Paul Vos, Marloes Berkhout, Cor Lamers, Hans Rümke, Hugo Tilanus, Peter Siersema, Ardy van Helvoort, Ate van der Gaast
BACKGROUND: The majority of cancer patients loses weight and becomes malnourished during the course of their disease. Metabolic alterations and reduced immune competence lead to wasting and an increased risk of infectious complications. In the present study, the effect of a nutritionally complete medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides, was investigated on immune function, nutritional status, and inflammation in patients with esophageal cancer and compared with routine care...
March 2015: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Bimal Prasanna Mohanty, Tandrima Mitra, Sudeshna Banerjee, Soma Bhattacharjee, Arabinda Mahanty, Satabdi Ganguly, Gopal Krishna Purohit, Dhanasekar Karunakaran, Sasmita Mohanty
Muscle tissues contribute 34-48 % of the total body mass in fish. Proteomic analysis enables better understanding of the skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism. A proteome map reflects the general fingerprinting of the fish species and has the potential to identify novel proteins which could serve as biomarkers for many aspects of aquaculture including fish physiology and growth, flesh quality, food safety and aquatic environmental monitoring. The freshwater catfish Rita rita of the family Bagridae inhabiting the tropical rivers and estuaries is an important food fish with high nutritive value and is also considered a species of choice in riverine pollution monitoring...
June 2015: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
N V Kirbaeva, N É Sharanova, S S Pertsov
At present biochemistry of nutrition involves the use of OMICs to investigate food quality, safety, bioactivity and nutrition mechanisms. In this context, nutrimetabolomics is one of the latest directions of nutrition development and provides a better understanding of the influence of nutritional factors on the metabolic pathways of the organism. Proteomic methods play an important role in nutrimetabolomics and allow to detect, identify and quantify proteins under different conditions. Variety of technical and methodological advances, improvements in bioinformatics and possibility of tandem use of different methods helps to solve a number of basic and applied science's problems...
2014: Voprosy Pitaniia
Richard L Doty, Vidyulata Kamath
Decreased olfactory function is very common in the older population, being present in over half of those between the ages of 65 and 80 years and in over three quarters of those over the age of 80 years. Such dysfunction significantly influences physical well-being and quality of life, nutrition, the enjoyment of food, as well as everyday safety. Indeed a disproportionate number of the elderly die in accident gas poisonings each year. As described in this review, multiple factors contribute to such age-related loss, including altered nasal engorgement, increased propensity for nasal disease, cumulative damage to the olfactory epithelium from viral and other environmental insults, decrements in mucosal metabolizing enzymes, ossification of cribriform plate foramina, loss of selectivity of receptor cells to odorants, changes in neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and neuronal expression of aberrant proteins associated with neurodegenerative disease...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Helen W Lane, Charles Bourland, Ann Barrett, Martina Heer, Scott M Smith
The United States has had human space flight programs for >50 y and has had a continued presence in space since 2000. Providing nutritious and safe food is imperative for astronauts because space travelers are totally dependent on launched food. Space flight research topics have included energy, protein, nutritional aspects of bone and muscle health, and vision issues related to 1-carbon metabolism. Research has shown that energy needs during flight are similar to energy needs on Earth. Low energy intakes affect protein turnover...
2013: Advances in Nutrition
Yang Zhu, Johannes Tramper
Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of these traditional processes, in particular since the 19th century, stimulated and influenced the development of modern biotechnological processes. In return, the development of modern biotechnology and related advanced techniques will no doubt improve the process, the product quality and the safety of our favourite fermented foods and beverages...
December 2013: Biotechnology Advances
J F Young, M Therkildsen, B Ekstrand, B N Che, M K Larsen, N Oksbjerg, J Stagsted
Meat is an integral part of the human diet. Besides essential amino acids and nutritive factors of high quality and availability, meat provides often overlooked components of importance for human health. These are amino acids and bioactive compounds that may be very important in i) preventing muscle wasting diseases, such as in sarcopenia, ii) reducing food and caloric intake to prevent metabolic syndrome, iii) blood pressure homeostasis via ACE-inhibitory components from connective tissue, and iv) maintaining functional gut environment through meat-derived nucleotides and nucleosides...
December 2013: Meat Science
S A Sheveleva, S Iu Batishcheva
It is still essential to search for new, available food ingredients with bifidogenic effect, to study their safety, efficacy and production effectiveness upon the creation of functional foods. The review considers protein products such as collagens and their hydrolyzates, which are used in culture mediums as growth factor. They are treated, besides carbohydrate prebiotics, as potential bifidogenic nutrients. Collagen hydralyzates contain all amino acids, required for bifidobacteria growth. That is why it is considered essential to provide control over its biosafety...
2012: Voprosy Pitaniia
Y Heyman, P Chavatte-Palmer, G Fromentin, V Berthelot, C Jurie, P Bas, M Dubarry, J P Mialot, D Remy, C Richard, L Martignat, X Vignon, J P Renard
A multidisciplinary research programme was developed to get a scientific expertise for the quality assessment of products obtained from cloned livestock. Thirty-seven bovine Holstein female clones of five different genotypes and their products were analysed in comparison with 38 control animals obtained by conventional artificial insemination and raised under the same conditions at the same experimental farm. Animal evaluation included over 150 criteria and more than 10 000 measurements to check the physiological status and health over a 3-year period...
August 2007: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Emilio Ros
Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation...
July 2010: Nutrients
M Giovannetti, L Avio, R Barale, N Ceccarelli, R Cristofani, A Iezzi, F Mignolli, P Picciarelli, B Pinto, D Reali, C Sbrana, R Scarpato
Tomato fruit has assumed the status of 'functional food' due to the association between its consumption and a reduced likelihood of certain types of cancers and CVD. The nutraceutical value of tomatoes can be affected by the cultivation conditions, e.g. the phytochemical content of the fruits may increase with the establishment of beneficial mycorrhizal symbioses in the plants. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to gain knowledge on the antioxidant, oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic and genotoxic activity of tomato fruits produced by mycorrhizal plants...
January 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
Miyako Kusano, Henning Redestig, Tadayoshi Hirai, Akira Oikawa, Fumio Matsuda, Atsushi Fukushima, Masanori Arita, Shin Watanabe, Megumu Yano, Kyoko Hiwasa-Tanase, Hiroshi Ezura, Kazuki Saito
As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin...
2011: PloS One
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