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Heat activation bleaching

Tommy Norin, Suzanne C Mills, Amélie Crespel, Daphne Cortese, Shaun S Killen, Ricardo Beldade
Increased ocean temperatures are causing mass bleaching of anemones and corals in the tropics worldwide. While such heat-induced loss of algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) directly affects anemones and corals physiologically, this damage may also cascade on to other animal symbionts. Metabolic rate is an integrative physiological trait shown to relate to various aspects of organismal performance, behaviour and locomotor capacity, and also shows plasticity during exposure to acute and chronic stressors. As climate warming is expected to affect the physiology, behaviour and life history of animals, including ectotherms such as fish, we measured if residing in bleached versus unbleached sea anemones ( Heteractis magnifica ) affected the standard (i...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mahalaxmi Pradhananga, Pratibha Manandhar
DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity was performed to find out the antioxidant activity (AA) of all the antioxidants used at a concentration of 5, 10, and 15 μl/ml. Effect of spice oleoresins (clove, black pepper, and ginger) (200 ppm) and TBHQ (200 ppm) were incorporated in stabilizing refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) sunflower oil heating at frying temperature (170°C) and during accelerated oxidation storage (70°C) was studied in comparison to Tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
P Bouschon, A-C Bursztejn, J Waton, F Brault, J-L Schmutz
BACKGROUND: Hair bleaching is increasingly being carried out in hairdressing salons. The products used are a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and persulfates, both active chemical agents. Scalp burns secondary to hair bleaching are a traumatic adverse effect rarely discussed in publications that continue to be little known among healthcare professionals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a plaque of scarring alopecia on the vertex. This lesion resulted from a deep burn following a hair-bleaching procedure...
May 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Jing Hou, Tao Xu, Dingjia Su, Ying Wu, Li Cheng, Jun Wang, Zhi Zhou, Yan Wang
Galaxea fascicularis , a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Yidan Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Lingui Wang, Bo Huang
Coral bleaching occurs worldwide with increasing frequencies and intensities, which is caused by the stress response of stony coral to environmental change, especially increased sea surface temperature. In the present study, transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses were employed to illustrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the stress response of coral to environmental changes. The domain analyses of assembled transcripts revealed 30 HSP70 gene contigs in stony coral Pocillopora damicornis...
February 12, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Marta Gallego, Leticia Mora, Milagro Reig, Fidel Toldrá
Antioxidant peptides positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body as well as delay, retard or prevent protein and lipid oxidation in food products. Spanish dry-cured ham has been reported as a good source of bioactive peptides, being SNAAC the most active antioxidant peptide identified to date. In this work, the stability of this peptide against in vitro digestion, heat treatments and different salt concentrations was evaluated using three methods for measuring antioxidant activity: β-carotene bleaching assay, ABTS radical scavenging capacity and ORAC assay...
March 2018: Food Research International
Madeha Shah, Zahida Parveen, Muhammad Rashid Khan
BACKGROUND: Saponins are the main constituents of genus Sapindus and have the therapeutic potential for inflammatory disorders. In this study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of the stem bark of soap nut (Sapindus mukorossi) methanol extract and its derived fractions has been investigated. METHODS: Powder of stem bark of the S. mukorossi was extracted with methanol (SMM) and fractionated in order of n-hexane (SMH), chloroform (SMC), ethyl acetate (SME), n-butanol (SMB) and the remaining as aqueous fraction (SMA)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Katelyn M Mansfield, Nicole M Carter, Linda Nguyen, Phillip A Cleves, Anar Alshanbayeva, Leah M Williams, Camerron Crowder, Ashley R Penvose, John R Finnerty, Virginia M Weis, Trevor W Siggers, Thomas D Gilmore
Transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in immunity from fruit flies to humans, and NF-κB activity is altered in many human diseases. To investigate a role for NF-κB in immunity and disease on a broader evolutionary scale we have characterized NF-κB in a sea anemone (Exaiptasia pallida; called Aiptasia herein) model for cnidarian symbiosis and dysbiosis (i.e., "bleaching"). We show that the DNA-binding site specificity of Aiptasia NF-κB is similar to NF-κB proteins from a broad expanse of organisms...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrea Cossu, Yang Si, Gang Sun, Nitin Nitin
Bacterial biofilm formation is linked to several infections and foodborne disease outbreaks. To address this challenge, there is an unmet need to develop rechargeable antimicrobial materials that can provide continuous sanitation of contact surfaces especially in the food industry. This study was aimed at evaluating a novel rechargeable antimicrobial polymer formed using PVA-co-PE with halamine functionality to prevent biofilm formation with repeated exposure to high loads of bacteria and organic content and also aid in inactivation of pre-formed biofilms upon contact with this novel material...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Katewadee Boonyapakron, Aritsara Jaruwat, Benjamas Liwnaree, Thidarat Nimchua, Verawat Champreda, Penchit Chitnumsub
In the pulp bleaching industry, enzymes with robust activity at high pH and temperatures are desirable for facilitating the pre-bleaching process with simplified processing and minimal use of chlorinated compounds. To engineer an enzyme for this purpose, we determined the crystal structure of the Xyn12.2 xylanase, a xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme derived from the termite gut symbiont metagenome, as the basis for structure-based protein engineering to improve Xyn12.2 stability in high heat and alkaline conditions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
E Iriboz, B A Öztürk, S Körklü, B Tarcin, Y G Berker, H S Öveçoğlu
AIM: To compare the bleaching efficacy of sodium perborate with different activation methods on crowns discolored by two different antibiotic pastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five extracted human incisors were prepared to size #30 using ProTaper rotary instruments. After chemomechanical preparation and irrigation procedures, the specimens received triple antibiotic paste (TAP, n = 40), minocycline paste (MP, n = 40), or calcium hydroxide (n = 5, control group) and coronally sealed with temporary filling material...
June 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Zhi Zhou, Yibo Wu, Chengkai Zhang, Can Li, Guangmei Chen, Xiaopeng Yu, Xiaowei Shi, Yanlai Xu, Lingui Wang, Bo Huang
Heat stress is the most common factor for coral bleaching, which has increased both in frequency and severity due to global warming. In the present study, the stony coral Acropora aculeus was subjected to acute heat stress and entire transcriptomes were sequenced via the next generation sequencing platform. Four paired-end libraries were constructed and sequenced in two groups, including a control and a heat stress group. A total of 120,319,751 paired-end reads with lengths of 2 × 100 bp were assembled and 55,021 coral-derived genes were obtained...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Surya Sujathan, Ann-Kathrin Kniggendorf, Arun Kumar, Bernhard Roth, Karl-Heinz Rosenwinkel, Regina Nogueira
The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS)...
November 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lupita J Ruiz-Jones, Stephen R Palumbi
For reef-building corals, extreme stress exposure can result in loss of endosymbionts, leaving colonies bleached. However, corals in some habitats are commonly exposed to natural cycles of sub-bleaching stress, often leading to higher stress tolerance. We monitored transcription in the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus daily for 17 days over a strong tidal cycle that included extreme temperature spikes, and show that increases in temperature above 30.5°C triggered a strong transcriptional response. The transcriptomic time series data allowed us to identify a set of genes with coordinated expression that were activated only on days with strong tides, high temperature, and large diel pH and oxygen changes...
March 2017: Science Advances
Thomas D Hawkins, Mark E Warner
Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine whether such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for >7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yao-Pin Lin, Meng-Chen Wu, Yee-Yung Charng
Chlorophyll turns over in green organs during photosystem repair and is salvaged via de- and rephytylation, but the enzyme involved in dephytylation is unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid protein with a putative hydrolase domain that can dephytylate chlorophyll in vitro and in vivo. The corresponding locus, CHLOROPHYLL DEPHYTYLASE1 (CLD1), was identified by mapping a semidominant, heat-sensitive, missense allele (cld1-1). CLD1 is conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, sharing structural similarity with pheophytinase, which functions in chlorophyll breakdown during leaf senescence...
December 2016: Plant Cell
Stefanie Pontasch, Paul L Fisher, Thomas Krueger, Sophie Dove, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, William Leggat, Simon K Davy
Corals at the world's southernmost coral reef of Lord Howe Island (LHI) experience large temperature and light fluctuations and need to deal with periods of cold temperature (<18°C), but few studies have investigated how corals are able to cope with these conditions. Our study characterized the response of key photophysiological parameters, as well as photoacclimatory and photoprotective pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls, and β-carotene), to short-term (5-d) cold stress (~15°C; 7°C below control) in three LHI coral species hosting distinct Symbiodinium ITS2 types, and compared the coral-symbiont response to that under elevated temperature (~29°C; 7°C above control)...
April 2017: Journal of Phycology
C Schmidt, D Titelboim, J Brandt, B Herut, S Abramovich, A Almogi-Labin, M Kucera
Bleaching, the loss of algal symbionts, occurs in marine photosymbiotic organisms at water temperatures minimally exceeding average summer SST (sea surface temperatures). Pre-adaptation allows organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata. This species occurs at a thermally polluted site in the Mediterranean, where water temperatures reach a maxima daily average of 36 °C during the summer...
August 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hagit Kvitt, Hanna Rosenfeld, Dan Tchernov
Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70's mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6-24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts...
July 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Keren Maor-Landaw, Oren Levy
It is well-established that there is a hierarchy of susceptibilities amongst coral genera during heat-stress. However, molecular mechanisms governing these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored if specific corals possessing different morphologies and different susceptibilities to heat stress may manifest varied gene expression patterns. We examined expression patterns of seven genes in the branching corals Stylophora pistillata and Acropora eurystoma and additionally in the massive robust coral, Porites sp...
2016: PeerJ
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