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economic evaluation

David L Tirschwell, Mark Turner, David Thaler, James Choulerton, David Marks, John Carroll, Lee MacDonald, Richard W Smalling, Maria Koullick, Ning Yan Gu, Jeffrey L Saver
OBJECTIVE: Compared to medical therapy alone, percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) further reduces risk of recurrent ischemic strokes in carefully selected young to middle-aged patients with a recent cryptogenic ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this therapy in the context of the United Kingdom (UK) healthcare system. METHODS: A Markov cohort model consisting of 4 health states (Stable after index stroke, Post-Minor Recurrent Stroke, Post-Moderate Recurrent Stroke, and Death) was developed to simulate the economic outcomes of device-based PFO closure compared to medical therapy...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Jane L Wolstenholme, Danielle Bargo, Kay Wang, Anthony Harnden, Ulla Räisänen, Lucy Abel
BACKGROUND: No current guidance is available in the UK on the choice of preference-based measure (PBM) that should be used in obtaining health-related quality of life from children. The aim of this study is to review the current usage of PBMs for obtaining health state utility values in child and adolescent populations, and to obtain information on patient and parent-proxy respondent preferences in completing PBMs in the UK. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to determine which instrument is most frequently used for child-based economic evaluations and whether child or proxy responses are used...
March 21, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Lesli Hokanson, Michael Gerhardt Quinn, Natalie Schüz, Kristy de Salas, Jenn Scott
PURPOSE: There is a global increase in chronic, degenerative illnesses that require long-term intervention and support as a result of the aging population. The majority of support needs are met by informal family caregivers. While there have been three decades of research focusing on caregivers in general, the extent to which research has focused on Indigenous caregivers is unclear. Worldwide, Indigenous peoples face severe economic and health disadvantages that may make them even more vulnerable to the negative aspects of informal caregiving...
March 21, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Victoria Martínez-Sernández, María J Perteguer, Ana Hernández-González, Mercedes Mezo, Marta González-Warleta, Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Fernanda Romarís, Esperanza Paniagua, Teresa Gárate, Florencio M Ubeira
Infections caused by Fasciola hepatica are of great importance in the veterinary field, as they cause important economic losses to livestock producers. Serodiagnostic methods, typically ELISA (with either native or recombinant antigens), are often used for early diagnosis. The use of native antigens, as in the MM3-SERO ELISA (commercialized as BIO K 211, BIO-X Diagnostics), continues to be beneficial in terms of sensitivity and specificity; however, there is interest in developing ELISA tests based on recombinant antigens to avoid the need to culture parasites...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
Valentin Jossen, Christian van den Bos, Regine Eibl, Dieter Eibl
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-based therapies are of increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine. As economic considerations have shown, allogeneic therapy seems to be the most cost-effective method. Standardized procedures based on instrumented single-use bioreactors have been shown to provide billion of cells with consistent product quality and to be superior to traditional expansions in planar cultivation systems. Furthermore, under consideration of the complex nature and requirements of allogeneic hMSC-therapeutics, a new equipment for downstream processing (DSP) was successfully evaluated...
March 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sylvia L Ranjeva, Benjamin C Warf, Steven J Schiff
Background and significance: The third Sustainable Development Goal for child health, which aims to end preventable deaths of newborns and children less than 5 years of age by 2030, cannot be met without substantial reduction of infection-specific neonatal mortality in the developing world. Neonatal infections are estimated to account for 26% of annual neonatal deaths, with mortality rates highest in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Reliable and comprehensive estimates of the incidence and aetiology surrounding neonatal sepsis in SSA remain incompletely available...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Laura Juguera Rodriguez, Manuel Pardo Rios, César Leal Costa, Matilde Castillo Hermoso, Nuria Perez Alonso, Jose Luis Diaz Agea
STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study. OBJECTIVE: To detect the major challenges and needs reported by family member caregivers of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Family member caregivers of people with SCI and expert professionals were evaluated. This study was conducted in Spain, and most of the participants attended the National Paraplegics Hospital of Toledo. METHODS: We performed 25 semi-structured interviews...
March 21, 2018: Spinal Cord
Victoria Briggs, Ivonne Solis-Trapala, Allan Wailloo, Keith McCulloch, Mark Lambie, Fergus Caskey, James Fotheringham, Simon Davies, Martin Wilkie
BACKGROUND: High-quality peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion pathways are essential for optimal access to the therapy. Dialysis outcomes are influenced by a range of patient and center-related factors, and there is a need to better understand these so that catheter insertion pathways can be better matched to individual circumstances. OBJECTIVES: To examine how patient- and center-related factors influence the choice of catheter insertion pathways for a PD patient, and the impact of such factors and pathways on patient outcomes, and specifically, to compare the occurrence of and recovery from PD catheter-related adverse events and mortality in individuals who had surgical catheter insertion with those who had medical catheter insertion, and evaluate health economics...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Xue-Juan Bai, You-Rong Yang, Jian-Qin Liang, Hui-Ru An, Jie Wang, Yan-Bo Ling, Zhong-Yuan Wang, Xue-Qiong Wu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bacterium-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB is challenging clinically. The detection of the anti-TB antibody has an important, auxiliary, clinical diagnostic value. Therefore, TB antibody detection kits should be screened and evaluated, and the reagents with the highest sensitivity and specificity should be chosen and used clinically. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of 7 commercially available TB antibody detection kits (kits A, B, C, D, E, F and G) based on the gold immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM antibodies were simultaneously evaluated and compared in 62 TB cases and 56 non-TB cases in a laboratory...
March 22, 2018: Military Medical Research
Grażyna Janikowska, Tomasz Janikowski, Alina Pyka-Paj K, Urszula Mazurek, Marcin Janikowski, Maciej Gonciarz, Zbigniew Lorenc
BACKGROUNDS: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries. Molecular studies and, in particular, gene expression have contributed to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers. Genes can be molecular and therapeutic markers, but because of the large molecular diversity in colorectal cancer the knowledge is not yet fully established. Probably one of the most crucial processes during early cancer development is inflammation. The inflammatory response in the tumor is an important indicator of molecular etiology and later of cancer progression...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Wanda Cristina Sawicki, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Dayana Souza Fram, Angélica Gonçalves Silva Belasco
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing university students' alcohol consumption patterns, Brief Intervention and Quality of Life (QoL). METHOD: This is a prospective and longitudinal study containing sociodemographic, economic information concerning alcoholic beverages, BI and QoL evaluation among 281 nursing university students. Since surveys have been applied, seminars have been given and consumption patterns have been discussed, an educational material was delivered after university students' revaluation and BI reinforcement...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hong Dong, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, novel antiviral therapeutics combating PRRSV infection is essential to be considered. In the present study, the antiviral effect in vitro of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) against PRRSV was investigated. METHODS: Cell viability assay was performed to examine the impact of 25HC on the cell viability...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Nikhil Jain, Frank M Phillips, Tristan Weaver, Safdar N Khan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, economic analysis. OBJECTIVE: To study patient profile associated with preoperative chronic opioid therapy (COT), and study COT as a risk factor for 90-day complications, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission after primary one- to two-level posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) for degenerative spine disease. We also evaluated associated costs, risk factors, and adverse events related to long-term postoperative opioid use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic opioid use is associated with poor outcomes and dependence after spine surgery...
March 20, 2018: Spine
A D Barth
Efficient and economical herd management depends a great deal on maintaining a short, well-defined calving season. This requires highly fertile females and bulls. Low pregnancy rates are very noticeable, however; potentially greater economic loss may be due to delayed conception. Many studies showed that approximately one of every five bulls had inadequate semen quality, physical soundness, or both, but when evaluation of serving capacity is included about one in four bulls is unsatisfactory. Due mainly to the time and expense that the market will bear, usually only physical soundness and semen quality are evaluated...
March 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Paloma Ruiz-Rodríguez, Antonio Cano-Vindel, Roger Muñoz-Navarro, Cristina M Wood, Leonardo A Medrano, Luciana Sofía Moretti
Introduction: In the primary care (PC) setting in Spain, the prevalence of emotional disorders (EDs) such as anxiety, depression and somatoform disorder is high. In PC patients, these disorders are not always managed in accordance with the recommendations provided by clinical practice guidelines, resulting in major direct and indirect economic costs and suboptimal treatment outcomes. The aim is to analyze and compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of group-based psychological therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
H Nathues, P Alarcon, J Rushton, R Jolie, K Fiebig, M Jimenez, V Geurts, C Nathues
PRRS is among the diseases with the highest economic impact in pig production worldwide. Different strategies have been developed and applied to combat PRRS at farm level. The broad variety of available intervention strategies makes it difficult to decide on the most cost-efficient strategy for a given farm situation, as it depends on many farm-individual factors like disease severity, prices or farm structure. Aim of this study was to create a simulation tool to estimate the cost-efficiency of different control strategies at individual farm level...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Maria Puerto-Parada, Juan Carlos Arango-Sabogal, Julie Paré, Elizabeth Doré, Geneviève Côté, Vincent Wellemans, Sébastien Buczinski, Jean-Philippe Roy, Olivia Labrecque, Gilles Fecteau
Paratuberculosis is a chronic and contagious enteric disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Control of paratuberculosis is justified given the associated economic losses and the potential role of MAP in Crohn's disease in humans. Management practices that limit exposure of susceptible animals to MAP are more effective at reducing disease prevalence than testing and culling infected cows. The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to study the association between management practices and MAP status in dairy herds in Québec, Canada...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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