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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684943/the-diagnostic-implications-of-two-cases-of-known-rheumatoid-arthritis-from-the-cal-milano-cemetery-skeletal-collection
#1
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Cristina Cattaneo
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common erosive arthropathy and is of particular interest to forensic sciences. However, its diagnosis on bones remains challenging. We examined two skeletons from the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection diagnosed with the pathology during life, to test the validity of the diagnostic criteria on bones. The first showed typical lesions of RA described in the literature. The second exhibited secondary osteoarthrosis, suggesting long-standing RA. A differential diagnosis including all four seronegative spondyloarthropathies, erosive osteoarthritis, gout and neuropathic arthropathy was also considered...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684936/the-relationship-between-hard-tissue-and-soft-tissue-dimensions-of-the-nose-in-children-a-3d-cone-beam-computed-tomography-study
#2
Eman Allam, Philani Mpofu, Ahmed Ghoneima, Mihran Tuceryan, Katherine Kula
This study using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of children determined relationships between nasal skeletal and soft tissue measurements and assessed the association with sex, age, and skeletal maturation stage. Following reliability studies, skeletal and soft tissue parameters were measured on coded CBCTs of 73 children (28M:45F;6-13 yoa). Pearson and Mantel correlations were used to analyze associations between skeletal and soft tissues. Partial Mantel correlations were used to study the associations between skeletal and soft tissue, adjusting for sex, age, and skeletal maturation...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684477/assessment-of-myoblast-circular-rna-dynamics-and-its-correlation-with-mirna-during-myogenic-differentiation
#3
Pengpeng Zhang, Haixia Xu, Rui Li, Wei Wu, Zhe Chao, Cencen Li, Wei Xia, Lei Wang, Jinzeng Yang, Yongjie Xu
Myoblast differentiation is a highly complex process that is regulated by proteins as well as by non-coding RNAs. Circular RNAs have been identified as an emerging new class of non-coding RNA in the modulation of skeletal muscle development, whereas their expression profiles and functional regulation in myoblast differentiation remain unknown. In the present study, we performed deep RNA-sequencing of C2C12 myoblasts during cell differentiation and uncovered 37,751 unique circular RNAs derived from 6,943 hosting genes...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684379/effect-of-a-long-term-treatment-with-metformin-in-dystrophic-mdx-mice-a-reconsideration-of-its-potential-clinical-interest-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Paola Mantuano, Francesca Sanarica, Elena Conte, Maria Grazia Morgese, Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Anna Cozzoli, Adriano Fonzino, Angelo Quaranta, Jean-Francois Rolland, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Luigia Trabace, Annamaria De Luca
The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684108/pituitary-diseases-and-bone
#5
Gherardo Mazziotti, Stefano Frara, Andrea Giustina
Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684104/maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#6
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma...
April 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684058/bioaccumulation-of-trace-metals-in-octocorals-depends-on-age-and-tissue-compartmentalization
#7
Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Ke Li Huang, Mu-Yeh Huang, Xue-Jun Liu, Jong Seong Khim, Chong Kim Wong
Trace metal dynamics have not been studied with respect to growth increments in octocorals. It is particularly unknown whether ontogenetic compartmentalization of trace metal accumulation is species-specific. We studied here for the first time the intracolonial distribution and concentrations of 18 trace metals in the octocorals Subergorgia suberosa, Echinogorgia complexa and E. reticulata that were retrieved from the northern coast of Taiwan. Levels of trace metals were considerably elevated in corals collected at these particular coral habitats as a result of diverse anthropogenic inputs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684031/computationally-identified-novel-agonists-for-gprc6a
#8
Min Pi, Karan Kapoor, Ruisong Ye, Dong-Jin Hwang, Duane D Miller, Jeremy C Smith, Jerome Baudry, L Darryl Quarles
New insights into G protein coupled receptor regulation of glucose metabolism by β-cells, skeletal muscle and liver hepatocytes identify GPRC6A as a potential therapeutic target for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Activating GPRC6A with a small molecule drug represents a potential paradigm-shifting opportunity to make significant strides in regulating glucose homeostasis by simultaneously correcting multiple metabolic derangements that underlie T2D, including abnormalities in β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683466/anatomy-of-triply-periodic-network-assemblies-characterizing-skeletal-and-inter-domain-surface-geometry-of-block-copolymer-gyroids
#9
Ishan Prasad, Hiroshi Jinnai, Rong-Ming Ho, Edwin L Thomas, Gregory M Grason
Triply-periodic networks (TPNs), like the well-known gyroid and diamond network phases, abound in soft matter assemblies, from block copolymers (BCPs), lyotropic liquid crystals and surfactants to functional architectures in biology. While TPNs are, in reality, volume-filling patterns of spatially-varying molecular composition, physical and structural models most often reduce their structure to lower-dimensional geometric objects: the 2D interfaces between chemical domains; and the 1D skeletons that thread through inter-connected, tubular domains...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683334/long-term-evaluation-of-rapid-maxillary-expansion-and-bite-block-therapy-in-open-bite-growing-subjects-a-controlled-clinical-study
#10
Manuela Mucedero, Dimitri Fusaroli, Lorenzo Franchi, Chiara Pavoni, Paola Cozza, Roberta Lione
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and posterior bite block (BB) in prepubertal subjects with dentoskeletal open bite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment group (TG) comprised 16 subjects (14 girls, 2 boys) with dentoskeletal open bite with a mean age of 8.1 ± 1.1 years treated with RME and BB. Three consecutive lateral cephalograms were available before treatment (T1), at the end of the active treatment with the RME and BB (T2), and at a follow-up observation at least 4 years after the completion of treatment (T3)...
April 23, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683271/piperine-promotes-glucose-uptake-through-ros-dependent-activation-of-the-camkk-ampk-signaling-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Ayumi Maeda, Takeshi Shirao, Daishi Shirasaya, Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Mitsugu Akagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
SCOPE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing yearly worldwide. Glycemic control is the basis for the treatment of T2DM, as it can prevent the progress of associated complications. Spices possess various health beneficial effects on humans. The aim of this study was to search for spices that can promote glucose uptake and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism(s). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 24 spice extracts, the extracts from black and white pepper significantly increased glucose uptake in L6 myotubes...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683099/identifying-potential-therapeutics-for-osteoporosis-by-exploiting-the-relationship-between-mevalonate-pathway-and-bone-metabolism
#12
Wan Nuraini Wan Hasan, Kok-Yong Chin, James Jam Jolly, Norzana Abd Ghafar, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a silent skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and destruction of skeletal microarchitecture, leading to an increased fracture risk. This occurs due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, whereby the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation. Mevalonate pathway, previously known to involve in cholesterol synthesis, is an important regulatory pathway for bone remodelling. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between mevalonate pathway and bone metabolism, as well as agents which act through this pathway to achieve their therapeutic potential...
April 23, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682884/durable-engraftment-of-genetically-modified-fviii-secreting-autologous-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-the-intramedullary-microenvironment
#13
Sze Sing Lee, Jaichandran Sivalingam, Ajit J Nirmal, Wai Har Ng, Irene Kee, In Chin Song, Chin Yong Kiong, Kristoffer A Gales, Frederic Chua, Edgar M Pena, Bryan E Ogden, Oi Lian Kon
Genetically modified FVIII-expressing autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) could cure haemophilia A. However, culture-expanded BMSCs engraft poorly in extramedullary sites. Here, we compared the intramedullary cavity, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous tissue and systemic circulation as tissue microenvironments that could support durable engraftment of FVIII-secreting BMSC in vivo. A zinc finger nuclease integrated human FVIII transgene into PPP1R12C (intron 1) of culture-expanded primary canine BMSCs...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682760/protective-role-of-parkin-in-skeletal-muscle-contractile-and-mitochondrial-function
#14
Gilles Gouspillou, Richard Godin, Jérome Piquereau, Martin Picard, Mahroo Mofarrahi, Jasmin Mathew, Fennigje M Purves-Smith, Nicolas Sgarioto, Russell T Hepple, Yan Burelle, Sabah Na Hussain
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase encoded by the Park2 gene, has been implicated in the regulation of mitophagy, a quality control process whereby defective mitochondria are degraded. The exact physiological significance of Parkin in regulating mitochondrial function and contractility in skeletal muscle remains largely unexplored. Using Park2-/- mice, we show that Parkin ablation causes a decrease in muscle specific force, a severe decrease in mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial uncoupling and an increased susceptibility to opening of the permeability transition pore...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682681/patellar-instability-in-the-skeletally-immature
#15
REVIEW
Charles A Popkin, Ahmad F Bayomy, Evan P Trupia, Charles M Chan, Lauren H Redler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the evaluation and management of patellar instability in the developing patient. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of surgical techniques have been described to prevent recurrent patellofemoral instability in the pediatric population, including both proximal and distal realignment procedures. The wide variety of treatment options highlights the lack of agreement as to the best surgical approach. However, when a comprehensive exam and workup are paired with a surgical plan to address each of the identified abnormalities, outcomes are predictably good...
April 23, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682553/maxillary-bone-regeneration-based-on-nanoreservoirs-functionalized-%C3%AE%C2%B5-polycaprolactone-biomembranes-in-a-mouse-model-of-jaw-bone-lesion
#16
Marion Strub, Xavier Van Bellinghen, Florence Fioretti, Fabien Bornert, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Ysia Idoux-Gillet, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, François Clauss
Current approaches of regenerative therapies constitute strategies for bone tissue reparation and engineering, especially in the context of genetical diseases with skeletal defects. Bone regeneration using electrospun nanofibers' implant has the following objectives: bone neoformation induction with rapid healing, reduced postoperative complications, and improvement of bone tissue quality. In vivo implantation of polycaprolactone (PCL) biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in mouse maxillary defects was followed by bone neoformation kinetics evaluation using microcomputed tomography...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682451/cerebro-facio-thoracic-dysplasia-pascual-castroviejo-syndrome-identification-of-a-novel-mutation-use-of-facial-recognition-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Jennifer A F Tender, Carlos R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia (CFTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment and distinct skeletal anomalies and has been linked to the TMCO1 defect syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To describe two siblings with features consistent with CFTD with a novel homozygous p.Arg114* pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene. METHODS: We conducted a literature review and summarized the clinical features and laboratory results of two siblings with a novel pathogenic variant in the TMCO1 gene...
April 13, 2018: Translational Science of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682414/three-dimensional-architecture-of-the-whole-human-soleus-muscle-in-vivo
#18
Bart Bolsterlee, Taija Finni, Arkiev D'Souza, Junya Eguchi, Elizabeth C Clarke, Robert D Herbert
Background: Most data on the architecture of the human soleus muscle have been obtained from cadaveric dissection or two-dimensional ultrasound imaging. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative study on the three-dimensional anatomy of the human soleus muscle in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques. Methods: We report three-dimensional fascicle lengths, pennation angles, fascicle curvatures, physiological cross-sectional areas and volumes in four compartments of the soleus at ankle joint angles of 69 ± 12° (plantarflexion, short muscle length; average ± SD across subjects) and 108 ± 7° (dorsiflexion, long muscle length) of six healthy young adults...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682378/simultaneous-bilateral-quadriceps-tendon-rupture-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-after-minimal-trauma-eight-year-follow-up
#19
Sevan Sıvacıoğlu, Ahmet Salduz, Ufuk Öztürk, Serkan Bayram, Fevzi Birişik
Introduction: The purpose of this report was to describe a very rare case of simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture seen in a patient who was diagnosed as having diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Case Presentation: A man aged 64 years presented to the emergency department with bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture. Surgical repair was performed with suture anchors and a stainless steel cable. His legs were immobilized in casts for six weeks. After removal of the casts, physiotherapy was started...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682313/systematic-assessment-of-the-growth-plates-of-the-wrist-in-young-gymnasts-development-and-validation-of-the-amsterdam-mri-assessment-of-the-physis-amphys-protocol
#20
Laura S Kox, Rik B J Kraan, Kees F van Dijke, Robert Hemke, Sjoerd Jens, Milko C de Jonge, Edwin H G Oei, Frank F Smithuis, Maaike P Terra, Mario Maas
Objectives: To develop and validate a protocol for MRI assessment of the distal radial and ulnar periphyseal area in gymnasts and non-gymnasts. Methods: Twenty-four gymnasts with wrist pain, 18 asymptomatic gymnasts and 24 non-gymnastic controls (33 girls) underwent MRI of the wrist on a 3T scanner. Sequences included coronal proton density-weighted images with and without fat saturation, and three-dimensional water-selective cartilage scan and T2 Dixon series. Skeletal age was determined using hand radiographs...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
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