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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231652/fibrous-dysplasia-in-the-epiphysis-of-the-distal-femur
#1
Jung Ho Noh, Jae Woo Lee
Fibrous dysplasia is a common benign skeletal lesion that may involve a single bone or multiple bones. Although fibrous dysplasia can affect any bone, monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the long bone typically occurs in the diaphysis or metaphysis. We report a very rare case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia involving the epiphysis of the distal femur in a young man.
March 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231611/leg-vascular-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-adaptations-to-aerobic-high-intensity-exercise-training-are-enhanced-in-the-early-postmenopausal-phase
#2
Michael Nyberg, Jon Egelund, Camilla M Mandrup, Caroline B Andersen, Karen M B E Hansen, Ida-Marie F Hergel, Nicholai Valbak-Andersen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Bente Stallknecht, Jens Bangsbo, Ylva Hellsten
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230714/assessment-of-skeletal-tumour-burden-on-18f-naf-pet-ct-using-a-new-quantitative-method
#3
Paula Lapa, Margarida Marques, Gracinda Costa, Andrei Iagaru, João Pedroso de Lima
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test a method of quantifying skeletal tumour burden with F-NaF PET/CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 117 patients who underwent F-NaF PET/CT for the detection of bone metastases, 68 women and 49 men, 16-82 years old (mean±SD: 62.9±10.7 years). Mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) were measured in five anatomic sites to evaluate normal skeleton activity. The influence of sex and age was investigated...
February 22, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#4
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230213/knock-in-human-fgfr3-achondroplasia-mutation-as-a-mouse-model-for-human-skeletal-dysplasia
#5
Yi-Ching Lee, I-Wen Song, Ya-Ju Pai, Sheng-De Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen
Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common genetic dwarfism in human, is caused by a gain-of function mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Currently, there is no effective treatment for ACH. The development of an appropriate human-relevant model is important for testing potential therapeutic interventions before human clinical trials. Here, we have generated an ACH mouse model in which the endogenous mouse Fgfr3 gene was replaced with human FGFR3(G380R) (FGFR3(ACH)) cDNA, the most common mutation in human ACH...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230173/a-novel-physiological-role-for-cardiac-myoglobin-in-lipid-metabolism
#6
Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Sonja Esfeld, Cristina Coman, Robert Ahrends, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Ulrich Flögel, Tienush Rassaf, Matthias Totzeck
Continuous contractile activity of the heart is essential and the required energy is mostly provided by fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Myocardial lipid accumulation can lead to pathological responses, however the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The role of myoglobin in dioxygen binding in cardiomyocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle has widely been appreciated. Our recent work established myoglobin as a protector of cardiac function in hypoxia and disease states. We here unravel a novel role of cardiac myoglobin in governing FA metabolism to ensure the physiological energy production through β-oxidation, preventing myocardial lipid accumulation and preserving cardiac functions...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230061/neurofibromatosis-type-1
#7
REVIEW
David H Gutmann, Rosalie E Ferner, Robert H Listernick, Bruce R Korf, Pamela L Wolters, Kimberly J Johnson
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. Nearly all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop pigmentary lesions (café-au-lait macules, skinfold freckling and Lisch nodules) and dermal neurofibromas. Some individuals develop skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, tibial pseudarthrosis and orbital dysplasia), brain tumours (optic pathway gliomas and glioblastoma), peripheral nerve tumours (spinal neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours), learning disabilities, attention deficits, and social and behavioural problems, which can negatively affect quality of life...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229851/-skeletal-anchorage-in-the-past-today-and-tomorrow
#8
Birte Melsen, Michel Dalstra
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal anchorage was not introduced as an alternative to conventional anchorage modalities. The first skeletal anchorage was a ligature through a hole in the infrazygomatic crest. This was replaced by surgical screws and finally the TADs, which were optimized with respect to the material and morphology, were developed. A bracket-like head allows for the use of the mini-implant as indirect anchorage, but should not be a tool for lost control resulting from badly planned biomechanics or failing compliance...
March 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229646/special-nutrition-intervention-is-required-for-muscle-protective-efficacy-of-physical-exercise-in-elderly-people-at-highest-risk-of-sarcopenia
#9
A Molnár, I Jónásné Sztruhár, Á A Csontos, Cs Ferencz, Sz Várbíró, B Székács
Progressive loss of muscle mass and strength is a physiological consequence of aging, and without interventions, it usually deteriorates into sarcopenia. In this study, the hypothesis that combined special nutritional-physiotherapeutical intervention to prevent or reverse this biological deterioration in elderly people was tested. The effects of the regular resistance muscle training (PT, n = 17) alone and the combined exercise + special nutrition therapy containing whey protein and vitamin D (PT + NT, n = 17) were monitored for 3 months in 34 elderly patients (12 men and 22 women; mean age: 66...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229639/muscle-plasticity-related-to-changes-in-tubulin-and-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-levels-induced-by-eccentric-contraction-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#10
H Jee, E Ochi, T Sakurai, J-Y Lim, K Nakazato, H Hatta
We used the model of eccentric contraction of the hindlimb muscle by Ochi et al. to examine the role of eccentric contraction in muscle plasticity. This model aims to focus on stimulated skeletal muscle responses by measuring tissue weights and tracing the quantities of αB-crystallin and tubulin. The medial gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) responded to electrically induced eccentric contraction (EIEC) with significant increases in tissue weight (p < 0.01) and the ratio of tissue weight to body weight (p < 0...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229414/isolation-and-culture-of-satellite-cells-from-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#11
Antonio Musarò, Silvia Carosio
Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by a population of quiescent mononucleated myoblasts, localized between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers, known as satellite cells. Satellite cells play a pivotal role in muscle homeostasis and are the major source of myogenic precursors in mammalian muscle regeneration.This chapter describes protocols for isolation and culturing satellite cells isolated from mouse skeletal muscles. The classical procedure, which will be discussed extensively in this chapter, involves the enzymatic dissociation of skeletal muscles, while the alternative method involves isolation of satellite cells from isolated myofibers in which the satellite cells remain in their in situ position underneath the myofiber basal lamina...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#12
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229285/topics-on-vitamin-d-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-analysis-of-evidence-and-critical-literature-review
#13
António Marinho, Mariana Taveira, Carlos Vasconcelos
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiorgan inflammation, linked to the loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and the production of a diversity of autoantibodies. The phenotype and progression of SLE have been linked to a combination of environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. One such environmental factor is vitamin D, a vital hormone with well-established effects on mineral metabolism, skeletal health, and effects on cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to make the analysis of evidence and literature review of the pleomorphic effects of Vitamin D in SLE...
February 22, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229243/correlation-of-insulin-resistance-and-motor-function-in-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy
#14
Hideaki Nakatsuji, Amane Araki, Atsushi Hashizume, Yasuhiro Hijikata, Shinichiro Yamada, Tomonori Inagaki, Keisuke Suzuki, Haruhiko Banno, Noriaki Suga, Yohei Okada, Manabu Ohyama, Tohru Nakagawa, Ken Kishida, Tohru Funahashi, Iichiro Shimomura, Hideyuki Okano, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
This study aimed to evaluate various metabolic parameters in patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), to investigate the association between those indices and disease severity, and to explore the underlying molecular pathogenesis. We compared the degree of obesity, metabolic parameters, and blood pressure in 55 genetically confirmed SBMA patients against those in 483 age- and sex-matched healthy control. In SBMA patients, we investigated the correlation between these factors and motor functional indices...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228784/atypical-periprosthetic-acetabular-fracture-in-long-term-alendronate-therapy
#15
Giuseppe Marongiu, Antonio Capone
Bisphosphonates have been commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis, demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction. However, even if are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about atypical fractures related to its prolonged use. Although atypical femoral fracture are more common, case reports demonstrated that even other skeletal areas can be involved by unusual pattern of fracture. We report a atypical acetabular periprosthetic fracture in a 83-year-old female patient after prolonged alendronate treatment for osteoporosis and isolated acetabular revision surgery...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228723/presynaptic-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-trkb-receptor-cooperate-in-the-elimination-of-redundant-motor-nerve-terminals-during-development
#16
Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A Lanuza, Victor Cilleros, Josep Tomàs
The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228415/reduced-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-following-caloric-restriction-is-associated-with-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-and-attenuation-of-igf-1-signaling
#17
Yue Lu, Jennifer S Bradley, Sarah R McCoski, John M Gonzalez, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Caloric restriction decreases skeletal muscle mass in mammals, principally due to a reduction in fiber size. The effect of suboptimal nutrient intake on skeletal muscle metabolic properties in neonatal calves was examined. The longissimus muscle (LM) was collected after 8 wks consuming a control (CON) or caloric restricted (CR) diet and muscle fiber size, gene expression and metabolic signal transduction activity was measured. Results revealed that CR animals had smaller (P < 0.05) LM fiber cross-sectional area than CON, as expected...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228103/disease-manifestations-and-burden-of-illness-in-patients-with-acid-sphingomyelinase-deficiency-asmd
#18
REVIEW
Margaret M McGovern, Ruzan Avetisyan, Bernd-Jan Sanson, Olivier Lidove
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD), a rare lysosomal storage disease, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by different SMPD1 mutations. Historically, ASMD has been classified as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A (NPD A) and B (NPD B). NPD A is associated with a uniformly devastating disease course, with rapidly progressing psychomotor degeneration, leading to death typically by the age of 3 years, most often from respiratory failure. In contrast, the clinical phenotype and life expectancy of patients with NPD B may vary widely...
February 23, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228070/nanoscale-delivery-systems-actual-and-potential-applications-in-the-natural-products-industry
#19
Antal Diana Simona, Ardelean Florina, Chis Aimée Rodica, Ollivier Evelyne, Serban Maria-Corina
BACKGROUND: Compounds and extracts derived from natural sources continue to stand in the spotlight of drug design owing to their versatile interaction with enzymes, receptors and metabolic pathways. Nanomedicine offers an operative tool for the efficient delivery of natural products, in terms of increased bioavailability, targeting, and controlled release while protecting active constituents against physico-chemical alterations. The interest of the scientific community in the field of nanosized delivery of natural compounds is demonstrated by the exponential growth of the publications in this field...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228000/c60-fullerene-as-promising-therapeutic-agent-for-the-prevention-and-correction-of-skeletal-muscle-functioning-at-ischemic-injury
#20
D M Nozdrenko, D O Zavodovskyi, T Yu Matvienko, S Yu Zay, K I Bogutska, Yu I Prylutskyy, U Ritter, P Scharff
The therapeutic effect of pristine C60 fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS) on the functioning of the rat soleus muscle at ischemic injury depending on the time of the general pathogenesis of muscular system and method of administration C60FAS in vivo was investigated. It was found that intravenous administration of C60FAS is the optimal for correction of speed macroparameters of contraction for ischemic muscle damage. At the same time, intramuscular administration of C60FAS shows pronounced protective effect in movements associated with the generation of maximum force responses or prolonged contractions, which increase the muscle fatigue level...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
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