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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055108/semi-quantitative-analysis-of-tramadol-dextromethorphan-and-metabolites-in-decomposed-skeletal-tissues-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-uplc-qtof-ms
#1
H M Cornthwaite, L Labine, J H Watterson
The use of filtration/pass-through extraction (FPTE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-MS) to detect tramadol (TRAM), dextromethorphan (DXM) and metabolites from skeletal remains is described. Rats (n=5) received 50 mg/kg tramadol and were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation approximately 30 min post-dose. Rats (n=4) received 75 mg/kg dextromethorphan and were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation approximately 45 min post-dose. Remains decomposed to skeleton outdoors and vertebral bones were collected...
October 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055082/supramolecular-aggregation-of-aquaporin-4-is-different-in-muscle-and-brain-correlation-with-tissue-susceptibility-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#2
Stefania Rosito, Grazia Paola Nicchia, Claudia Palazzo, Anna Lia, Cinzia Buccoliero, Francesco Pisani, Maria Svelto, Maria Trojano, Antonio Frigeri
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Though AQP4 is also expressed outside the CNS, for example in skeletal muscle, patients with NMO generally do not show clinical/diagnostic evidence of skeletal muscle damage. Here, we have evaluated whether AQP4 supramolecular organization is at the basis of the different tissue susceptibility. Using immunofluorescence we found that while the sera of our cohort of patients with NMO gave typical perivascular staining in the CNS, they were largely negative in the skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054973/chronic-femoral-artery-ligation-exaggerates-the-pressor-and-sympathetic-nerve-responses-during-dynamic-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#3
Evan A Kempf, Korynne S Rollins, Tyler D Hopkins, Alec L Butenas, Joseph M Santin, Joshua R Smith, Steven W Copp
Mechanical and metabolic signals arising during skeletal muscle contraction reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure (i.e., the exercise pressor reflex). In a rat model of simulated peripheral artery disease (PAD) in which a femoral artery is chronically (~72 hours) ligated, the mechanically-sensitive component of the exercise pressor reflex during 1 Hz dynamic contraction is exaggerated compared to that found in normal rats. Whether this is due to an enhanced acute sensitization of mechanoreceptors by metabolites produced during contraction or involves a chronic sensitization of mechanoreceptors is unknown...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054896/metastatic-melanoma-of-unknown-primary-in-the-temporalis-muscle
#4
Marco Dalle Carbonare, Mei Xien Goh, Zainab AlshiekhAli, David Howlett
Melanomas are aggressive cancers that present as cutaneous, mucosal and ocular lesions with the ability to metastasise widely. There are, however, occasions where lesions are found in distant sites such as lymph nodes, viscera and subcutaneous tissues without clinically apparent skin involvement. This is known as metastatic melanoma of unknown primary (MUP). Its presentation in skeletal muscle is rare, and the available literature is sparse. This article presents an 85-year-old woman with a MUP presenting in the right temporalis muscle, which was diagnosed with the aid of the ultrasound-guided core biopsy...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054894/mucopolysaccharidosis-type-iva-morquio-a-a-close-differential-diagnosis-of-spondylo-epiphyseal-dysplasia
#5
Sugata Narayan Biswas, Shinjan Patra, Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Himanshu Barman
Patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) have a plethora of multisystemic manifestations depending on the particular type, and atypical presentations are not uncommon. MPS type IVA (Morquio A syndrome) has predominant musculoskeletal system involvement and corneal clouding with normal intelligence and can be misdiagnosed as primary skeletal disorders in clinical practice. The absence of corneal clouding with normal urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level in a proportion of patients with MPS IVA makes the correct diagnosis even more challenging for physicians...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054807/ontogeny-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-mitochondria-oxygen-fluxes-in-two-breeds-of-chicken
#6
Sarah K G Sirsat, Edward M Dzialowski
From its earliest days of domestication, the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been selectively bred for specific traits. Decades of genetic selection have resulted in significant dissimilarities in metabolism and growth between breeds, in particular fast-growing broilers and highly productive layers. A chicken develops the capacity to elevate metabolism in response to decreases in ambient temperature upon hatching, including well-developed methods of regulating thermogenesis. However, a differential timing between incipient endothermic capacities of broiler and layer strains exists...
October 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054766/rethinking-genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-papillorenal-syndrome-a-case-report-on-an-unusual-congenital-camptodactyly-and-skeletal-deformity-with-a-heterogeneous-pax2-mutation-of-hexanucleotide-duplication
#7
Jiewei Liu, Ping Wang, Juan Huang, Zihua Yu
Papillorenal syndrome (PRS), an autosomal dominant inherited condition, is clinically featured by renal hypoplasia and optic nerve dysplasia. Based on current knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations in PRS, mutations in the Paired box 2 (PAX2) gene have been recognized as a critical pathogenesis of typical renal and optic disease manifestations. However, little information is currently available on the skeletal abnormalities of PRS and the potential contribution of PAX2 mutations. Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old female PRS patient with the typical features of chronic renal failure and severe myopia, but was unexpectedly discovered camptodactyly of her left middle finger which affects the proximal interphalangeal joint...
October 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054764/trpm8-activation-improves-energy-expenditure-in-skeletal-muscle-and-exercise-endurance-in-mice
#8
Chen Li, Jia Li, Xiujuan Xiong, Ying Liu, Yanxia Lv, Shanshan Qin, Dandan Liu, Ronghua Wei, Xuzhi Ruan, Jingxuan Zhang, Liang Xu, Xuanbin Wang, Jicheng Chen, Yonghong Zhang, Lanlan Zheng
Skeletal muscle serving as the major organ is responsible for energy expenditure and exercise endurance, which directly influence cardiometabolic risk factors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. It has been reported that TRPM8 activation enhanced the energy metabolism of adipocytes. However, the involvement of TRPM8 in the energy metabolism of skeletal muscle remains unexplored...
October 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054535/adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-aging
#9
REVIEW
Theresa Mau, Raymond Yung
Adipose tissue has traditionally been viewed as an organ of interest within studies of obesity and diet-associated metabolic disorders. However, as studies reveal the role white adipose tissue plays as an energy storage, a lipid metabolism site, and an adipokine secretor, it has become recognized as an organ of importance for metabolic health in both the young obese and the old obese. Within the realms of aging research, the pursuit of senolytics has taken the field's spotlight, where the clearance of senescent cells has shown to attenuate aspects of age-related disorders...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054406/a-novel-puromycin-decorporation-method-to-quantify-skeletal-muscle-protein-breakdown-a-proof-of-concept-study
#10
Hannah Crossland, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Daniel J Wilkinson
The precise roles that the major proteolytic pathways play in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remain incompletely understood, in part due to technical limitations associated with current techniques used to quantify muscle protein breakdown (MPB). We aimed to develop a method to assess MPB in cells, based on loss of puromycin labelling of translated polypeptide chains. Following an initial 24 h incubation period with puromycin (1 μM), loss of puromycin labelling from murine C2C12 myotubes was assessed over 48 h, both in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX)...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054344/historical-insights-on-growth-rates-of-the-reef-building-corals-pavona-gigantea-and-porites-panamensis-from-the-northeastern-tropical-pacific
#11
J J A Tortolero-Langarica, J P Carricart-Ganivet, A L Cupul-Magaña, A P Rodríguez-Troncoso
Historical coral growth assessed by sclerochronology records provides an environmental retrospective and future perspective on the maintenance of coral-reef ecosystems. Three growth parameters, extension rate, skeletal density, and calcification rate were evaluated over the past two decade's interval (1988-2013) in different gender of two massive corals Pavona gigantea and Porites panamensis. The species P. gigantea calcified two-times faster (0.84 ± 0.29 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) than P. panamensis (0.36 ± 0...
October 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054111/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-attenuates-the-decline-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Ryotaro Bouchi, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Activation of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) has been reported to be associated with impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle mass, presumably leading to loss of muscle function. This study was aimed to investigate whether the use of DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could attenuate the progressive loss of muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total 105 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 ± 12 years; 39% female) were studied in this retrospective observational study...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053994/dietary-resveratrol-confers-apoptotic-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-in-myoblasts
#13
Satoshi Haramizu, Shinichi Asano, David C Butler, David A Stanton, Ameena Hajira, Junaith S Mohamed, Stephen E Alway
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to muscle cell death in aging and disuse. We have previously found that resveratrol can reduce oxidative stress in response to aging and hindlimb unloading in rodents in vivo, but it was not known if resveratrol would protect muscle stem cells during repair or regeneration when oxidative stress is high. To test the protective role of resveratrol on muscle stem cells directly, we treated the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line with moderate (100 μM) or very high (1 mM) levels of H2O2 in the presence or absence of resveratrol...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053957/cdk4-phosphorylates-ampk%C3%AE-2-to-inhibit-its-activity-and-repress-fatty-acid-oxidation
#14
Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Sylviane Lagarrigue, Albert Giralt, Laia Martinez-Carreres, Nadège Zanou, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Judit Castillo-Armengol, Carine Chavey, Meritxell Orpinell, Brigitte Delacuisine, Anita Nasrallah, Caterina Collodet, Lianjun Zhang, Benoît Viollet, D Grahame Hardie, Lluis Fajas
The roles of CDK4 in the cell cycle have been extensively studied, but less is known about the mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation by CDK4. Here, we report that CDK4 promotes anaerobic glycolysis and represses fatty acid oxidation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by targeting the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We also show that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is specifically induced by AMPK complexes containing the α2 subunit. Moreover, we report that CDK4 represses FAO through direct phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPKα2...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053746/external-auditory-exostoses-and-hearing-loss-in-the-shanidar-1-neandertal
#15
Erik Trinkaus, Sébastien Villotte
The Late Pleistocene Shanidar 1 older adult male Neandertal is known for the crushing fracture of his left orbit with a probable reduction in vision, the loss of his right forearm and hand, and evidence of an abnormal gait, as well as probable diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. He also exhibits advanced external auditory exostoses in his left auditory meatus and larger ones with complete bridging across the porus in the right meatus (both Grade 3). These growths indicate at least unilateral conductive hearing (CHL) loss, a serious sensory deprivation for a Pleistocene hunter-gatherer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053719/total-disc-replacement-using-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-discs-in-the-canine-cervical-spine
#16
Yu Moriguchi, Jorge Mojica-Santiago, Peter Grunert, Brenton Pennicooke, Connor Berlin, Thamina Khair, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Joseph Nguyen, Roger Härtl, Lawrence J Bonassar
The most common reason that adults in the United States see their physician is lower back or neck pain secondary to degenerative disc disease. To date, approaches to treat degenerative disc disease are confined to purely mechanical devices designed to either eliminate or enable flexibility of the diseased motion segment. Tissue engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs) have been proposed as an alternative approach and have shown promise in replacing native IVD in the rodent tail spine. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of our TE-IVDs in the canine cervical spine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053688/a-millimeter-scale-flexural-testing-system-for-measuring-the-mechanical-properties-of-marine-sponge-spicules
#17
Michael A Monn, Jarod Ferreira, Jianzhe Yang, Haneesh Kesari
Many load bearing biological structures (LBBSs)-such as feather rachises and spicules-are small (<1 mm) but not microscopic. Measuring the flexural behavior of these LBBSs is important for understanding the origins of their remarkable mechanical functions. We describe a protocol for performing three-point bending tests using a custom-built mechanical testing device that can measure forces ranging from 10(-5) to 10(1) N and displacements ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-2) m. The primary advantage of this mechanical testing device is that the force and displacement capacities can be easily adjusted for different LBBSs...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053611/glucosylsphingosine-causes-hematological-and-visceral-changes-in-mice-evidence-for-a-pathophysiological-role-in-gaucher-disease
#18
Jan Lukas, Claudia Cozma, Fan Yang, Guido Kramp, Anja Meyer, Anna-Maria Neßlauer, Sabrina Eichler, Tobias Böttcher, Martin Witt, Anja U Bräuer, Peter Kropp, Arndt Rolfs
Glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine are the two major storage products in Gaucher disease (GD), an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The build-up of glucosylceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum and prominent accumulation in cell lysosomes of tissue macrophages results in decreased blood cell and platelet counts, and skeletal abnormalities. The pathological role of the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb1), a recently identified sensitive and specific biomarker for GD, is not well investigated...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#19
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053500/the-community-orthopaedic-surgeon-taking-trauma-call-pediatric-femoral-shaft-fracture-pearls-and-pitfalls
#20
J Eric Gordon, Charles T Mehlman
Pediatric femoral shaft fractures present many challenging patient care decisions. Nonoperative treatment approaches still dominate care of the youngest age groups while surgical intervention is commonplace in virtually all older children. Treatment is determined primarily by patient age as modified by clinical factors including mechanism of injury, weight, and skeletal maturity. Infants can be successfully treated by placement into a Pavlik harness, whereas children younger than 5 years are most commonly treated by early reduction and spica cast immobilization...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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