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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728382/effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-and-its-extraction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-finishing-pigs-porcine-cell-proliferation-and-isoforms-of-myosin-heavy-chain-gene-expression-in-myocytes
#1
Qin Ping Yu, Ding Yuan Feng, Xiao Jun He, Fan Wu, Min Hao Xia, Tao Dong, Yi Hua Liu, Hui Ze Tan, Shi Geng Zou, Tao Zheng, Xian Hua Ou, Jian Jun Zou
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of MyHC gene expression in myocytes. Methods: XThe psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727929/na-h-exchanger-and-proton-channel-in-heart-failure-associated-with-becker-and-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Ghassan Bkaily, Danielle Jacques
Cardiomyopathy is found in patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies which are linked muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin defects are not limited to DMD but are also present in mild BMD. The hereditary cardiomyopathic hamster of the UM-X7.1 strain is a particular experimental model of heart failure (HF) leading to early death in muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficiency and sarcoglycan mutation) and heart disease (δ-sarcoglycan deficiency and dystrophin mutation) in human DMD...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#3
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727343/-hypophosphatasia
#4
Eleni Tsiantouli, Andrea Trombetti, Serge Ferrari
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn metabolic bone disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). The adult form can be mistaken with common osteoporosis and/or present recurrent metatarsal fractures, skeletal and muscular pain. Subtrochanteric femoral pseudofractures resembling bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fractures can also be present, and Bps are therefore contraindicated in HPP. Early tooth loss and renal calcifications can orient towards the diagnosis...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727234/kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-that-accumulates-with-age-induces-bone-loss
#5
Mona El Refaey, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Sadanand Fulzele, Eileen J Kennedy, Wendy B Bollag, Mohammed Elsalanty, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Nathaniel G Bendzunas, Xing-Ming Shi, Jianrui Xu, William D Hill, Maribeth H Johnson, Monte Hunter, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Age-dependent bone loss occurs in humans and in several animal species, including rodents. The underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, although an age-associated increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species has been frequently implicated. We previously reported that aromatic amino acids function as antioxidants and are anabolic for bone and that they may potentially play a protective role in an aging environment. We hypothesized that upon oxidation the aromatic amino acids would not only lose their anabolic effects but also potentially become a catabolic byproduct...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727179/overexpression-of-g%C3%AE-s-in-murine-osteoblasts-in-vivo-leads-to-increased-bone-mass-and-decreased-bone-quality
#6
Lucia Zhang, Kim S Sugamori, Colin Claridge, Ariana Dela Cruz, Marc D Grynpas, Jane Mitchell
GαS is a heterotrimeric G protein that transduces signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to stimulate adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP signaling. GαS plays a central role in mediating numerous growth and maintenance processes including osteogenesis and bone turnover. Decreased GαS expression or activating mutations in GαS both affect bone suggesting that modulating GαS protein levels may be important for bone health and development. To examine the effects of increased osteoblastic GαS expression on bone development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with GαS over-expression in osteoblasts (HOM-Gs mice) driven by the 3...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727174/alkaline-phosphatase-discovery-and-naming-of-our-favorite-enzyme
#7
Alejandro F Siller, Michael P Whyte
Alkaline phosphatase can be considered "our favorite enzyme" for reasons apparent to those who diagnose and treat metabolic bone diseases or who study skeletal biology. Few might know, however, that alkaline phosphatase likely represents the most frequently assayed enzyme in all of Medicine. Elevated activity in the circulation is universally recognized as a marker for skeletal or hepatobiliary disease. Nevertheless, the assay conditions in many ways are non-physiological. The term alkaline phosphatase emerged when it became necessary to distinguish "bone phosphatase" from the phosphatase in the prostate that features an acidic pH optimum...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727109/national-beef-quality-audit-2016-in-plant-survey-of-carcass-characteristics-related-to-quality-quantity-and-value-of-fed-steers-and-heifers
#8
C A Boykin, L C Eastwood, M K Harris, D S Hale, C R Kerth, D B Griffin, A N Arnold, J D Hasty, K E Belk, D R Woerner, R J Delmore, J N Martin, D L VanOverbeke, G G Mafi, M M Pfeiffer, T E Lawrence, T J McEvers, T B Schmidt, R J Maddock, D D Johnson, C C Carr, J M Scheffler, T D Pringle, A M Stelzleni, J Gottlieb, J W Savell
The National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA)-2016 used in-plant cooler assessments to benchmark the current status of the fed steer and heifer beef industry in the United States. In-plant cooler assessments ( = 9,106 carcasses) were conducted at 30 facilities, where approximately 10% of a single day's production were evaluated for USDA quality grade (QG) and yield grade (YG) factors. Frequencies of evaluated traits were 66.5% steer and 33.4% heifer sex classes and 82.9% native, 15.9% dairy-type, and 1.2% estimated breed types...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#9
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#10
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#11
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726977/added-value-of-spect-spiral-ct-versus-spect-or-ct-alone-in-diagnosing-solitary-skeletal-lesions
#12
Yiqiu Zhang, Beilei Li, Hongcheng Shi, Haojun Yu, Yushen Gu, Yan Xiu
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of SPECT/spiral CT versus SPECT or CT alone in the differential diagnosis of solitary skeletal lesions. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on a total of 69 patients who had a solitary skeletal "hot spot" that could not be definitively diagnosed using planar scintigraphy. Thus, SPECT/spiral CT was performed on the indeterminate lesions. SPECT, CT and SPECT/spiral CT images were independently interpreted by two experienced doctors who have both identification of CT and nuclear medicine...
July 20, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726959/association-of-cultured-myotubes-and-fasting-plasma-metabolite-profiles-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#13
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi
Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726802/strain-induced-skeletal-rearrangement-of-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-on-a-copper-surface
#14
Akitoshi Shiotari, Takahiro Nakae, Kota Iwata, Shigeki Mori, Tetsuo Okujima, Hidemitsu Uno, Hiroshi Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Sugimoto
Controlling the structural deformation of organic molecules can drive unique reactions that cannot be induced only by thermal, optical or electrochemical procedures. However, in conventional organic synthesis, including mechanochemical procedures, it is difficult to control skeletal rearrangement in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Here, we demonstrate a reaction scheme for the skeletal rearrangement of PAHs on a metal surface using high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy. By a combination of organic synthesis and on-surface cyclodehydrogenation, we produce a well-designed PAH-diazuleno[1,2,3-cd:1',2',3'-fg]pyrene-adsorbed flatly onto Cu(001), in which two azuleno moieties are highly strained by their mutual proximity...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726633/bmal1-function-in-skeletal-muscle-regulates-sleep
#15
J Christopher Ehlen, Allison J Brager, Julie Baggs, Lennisha Pinckney, Cloe L Gray, Jason P DeBruyne, Karyn A Esser, Joseph S Takahashi, Ketema N Paul
Sleep loss can severely impair the ability to perform, yet the ability to recover from sleep loss is not well understood. Sleep regulatory processes are assumed to lie exclusively within the brain mainly due to the strong behavioral manifestations of sleep. Whole-body knockout of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in mice affects several aspects of sleep, however, the cells/tissues responsible are unknown. We found that restoring Bmal1 expression in the brains of Bmal1-knockout mice did not rescue Bmal1-dependent sleep phenotypes...
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726574/rise-of-the-pigs-utilization-of-the-porcine-model-to-study-musculoskeletal-biomechanics-and-tissue-engineering-during-skeletal-growth
#16
Stephanie G Cone, Paul B Warren, Matthew B Fisher
Large animal models play an essential role in the study of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as biomechanics.  The porcine model has been increasingly used to study the musculoskeletal system, including specific joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joints, and tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and ligaments. In particular, pigs have been utilized to evaluate the role of skeletal growth on the biomechanics and engineered replacements of these joints and tissues. In this review, we explore the publication history of the use of pig models in biomechanics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine studies, discuss inter-species comparative studies, highlight studies on the effect of skeletal growth and other biological considerations in the porcine model, and present challenges and emerging opportunities for using this model to study functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726419/hitoyol-a-and-b-two-norsesquiterpenoids-from-the-basidiomycete-coprinopsis-cinerea
#17
Junnosuke Otaka, Daisuke Hashizume, Yui Masumoto, Atsuya Muranaka, Masanobu Uchiyama, Hiroyuki Koshino, Yushi Futamura, Hiroyuki Osada
Hitoyol A (1), an unprecedented norsesquiterpenoid with an exo-tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane skeleton, was isolated from the culture broth of Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea along with a novel skeletal hitoyol B (2) containing 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione. Their structures and absolute configurations were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 is possibly biosynthesized through decarboxylation-induced cyclization of lagopodin B, a known cuparene-type sesquiterpenoid...
July 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726081/psoas-muscle-volume-as-a-predictor-of-peripheral-neurotoxicity-induced-by-primary-chemotherapy-in-ovarian-cancers
#18
Tomoyuki Yoshikawa, Masashi Takano, Morikazu Miyamoto, Isao Yajima, Yukihiro Shimizu, Yusuke Aizawa, Yuki Suguchi, Miki Moriiwa, Tadashi Aoyama, Hiroaki Soyama, Tomoko Goto, Junko Hirata, Ayako Suzuki, Hidenori Sasa, Isao Nagaoka, Hitoshi Tsuda, Kenichi Furuya
PURPOSE: Low skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) has been reported to have an influence on survival and toxicities of chemotherapy in several solid tumors. The impact of sarcopenia on the treatment of ovarian cancers has not been determined. The present study aimed to evaluate correlation between sarcopenia and toxicities of chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. METHODS: Medical charts of the ovarian cancer patients that received chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin at our hospital between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726035/evaluation-of-physical-activity-in-sarcopenic-conditions-of-kidney-transplantation-recipients
#19
Masaaki Yanishi, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Yutaka Kimura, Yuya Koito, Kenji Yoshida, Maiko Seo, Eri Jino, Motohiko Sugi, Hidefumi Kinoshita, Tadashi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is an involuntary decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that normally proceed with aging but may develop faster under some chronic disease conditions. In this study, we compared the physical activity between sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia subgroups in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Fifty-eight recipients (42 males and 16 females) were enrolled in this study. Mean age of the recipients was 46.6 ± 12.7 years. Mean duration of dialysis was 2...
July 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725909/skeletal-fluorosis-due-to-fluorocarbon-inhalation-from-an-air-dust-cleaner
#20
Katherine Peicher, Naim M Maalouf
Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is an osteosclerotic metabolic bone disorder caused by excessive ingestion or inhalation of fluoride. SF is extremely rare in developed countries. We report a case of SF due to inhalational abuse from a fluoride-containing air dust cleaner. A 33-year-old man with no past medical history presented with progressively worsening low back pain for 2 years. Physical examination was notable for loss of lumbar lordosis and tenderness over the lumbar spine. Radiographs were notable for uniform generalized osteosclerosis in the long bones, entire spine, rib cage, and pelvic bones, and loss of the normal lumbar curvature...
July 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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