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Advanced Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146952/migrainomics-identifying-brain-and-genetic-markers-of-migraine
#1
REVIEW
Dale R Nyholt, David Borsook, Lyn R Griffiths
Migraine is one of the world's most prevalent and disabling disorders and imposes an enormous socioeconomic burden. The exact causes of migraine are unknown, and no recognizable diagnostic pathological changes have been identified. Specific identifiable markers of migraine would aid diagnosis and could provide insight into the pathogenesis of the condition, with the potential to direct development of new therapeutics. In the past few years, advances in neuroimaging and genetic studies have provided the most substantial progress towards the identification of markers...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143217/fluid-biomarker-agreement-and-interrelation-in-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Jennifer Roesler, Lukas Werle, Nathalie Thierjung, Iliana Lentzari, Marion Ortner, Timo Grimmer, Nikolaos Laskaris, Antonios Politis, Philippos Gourzis, Alexander Kurz, Robert Perneczky
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau 181 are supposed to be all continuously abnormal in dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), being the most advanced disease stage. The aim of the present study, which included a monocentric and a multicentric sample (N = 119 and 178, respectively), was to investigate the degree of CSF biomarker agreement and interrelation in AD dementia. Based on previously published cut-off values, biomarker values were categorized as positive or negative for AD (dichotomization strategy) and as either positive, negative, or borderline (trichotomization strategy)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140815/neuroimaging-diagnostic-and-monitoring-approaches-in-ophthalmology
#3
Bart K Chwalisz, Marc A Bouffard, Sashank Prasad, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136123/amyloid-network-topology-characterizes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-the-predementia-stages
#4
Joana B Pereira, Tor Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Giovanni Volpe, Danielle van Westen, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+)...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135640/neuromechanical-considerations-for-postconcussion-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-management
#5
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin R Grooms, Shellie N Acocello
Recent epidemiological studies have documented increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury after sport-related concussion, which raises questions about the adequacy of current clinical practices to ensure safe return to sport. A growing body of evidence derived from advanced neuroimaging and neurological assessment methods strongly suggests that mild traumatic brain injury has long-lasting adverse effects that persist beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. Plausible interrelationships among postconcussion changes in brain structure and function support the rationale for specific methods of clinical assessment and training to target the interaction of cognitive and motor function for reduction of musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133954/exogenous-ghrelin-administration-increases-alcohol-self-administration-and-modulates-brain-functional-activity-in-heavy-drinking-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#6
M Farokhnia, E N Grodin, M R Lee, E N Oot, A N Blackburn, B L Stangl, M L Schwandt, L A Farinelli, R Momenan, V A Ramchandani, L Leggio
Preclinical evidence suggests that ghrelin, a peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the stomach and a key component of the gut-brain axis, is involved in alcohol seeking as it modulates both central reward and stress pathways. However, whether and how ghrelin administration may impact alcohol intake in humans is not clear. For, we believe, the first time, this was investigated in the present randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, human laboratory study. Participants were non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent heavy-drinking individuals...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132273/neuropsychiatric-factors-linked-to-adherence-and-short-term-outcome-in-a-u-s-functional-neurological-disorders-clinic-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Sean P Glass, Nassim Matin, Benjamin Williams, Julie Mello, Christopher D Stephen, Sigrid S Young, Janet Callahan, W Curt LaFrance, David L Perez
Despite advancements in the assessment and management of functional neurological disorder (FND), the feasibility of implementing a new standard of care remains unclear. Chart reviews were performed for 100 patients with motor FND to investigate factors related to treatment adherence and clinical improvement over an average follow-up of 7 months. Of 81 patients who returned for follow-up, a history of chronic pain disorder inversely correlated with improvement. Of the 50 individuals newly referred for treatment, adherence correlated with improvement, while having abnormal neuroimaging inversely correlated with improvement...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129671/the-semantic-system-is-involved-in-mathematical-problem-solving
#8
Xinlin Zhou, Mengyi Li, Leinian Li, Yiyun Zhang, Jiaxin Cui, Jie Liu, Chuansheng Chen
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation...
November 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120916/impulsivity-in-personality-disorders-current-views-and-future-directions
#9
Catherine McHugh, Sivasankaran Balaratnasingam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impulsivity is considered a trans-diagnostic feature of many mental disorders, yet our understanding of the concept and approaches to measurement have evolved significantly with advances in neuroimaging. This review will provide an overview of impulsivity as it is currently understood, its association with personality disorder and implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Impulsivity is now considered to involve failure of inhibitory control, either motor or cognitive, and deficits of the reward valuation system...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117023/legal-evidence-of-subjective-states-a-brain-based-model-of-chronic-pain-increases-accuracy-and-fairness-in-law
#10
Amanda C Pustilnik
Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging offer new ways to conceptualize chronic pain disorders and to prevent, diagnose, and treat chronic pain. Advances in pain science, though, do not entail changes in the concepts of chronic pain in law and culture. Authoritative legal and cultural conceptions of chronic pain continue to promote abstruse theories, characterizing these disorders as arising out of everything from a person's unmet need for love to resistance to "patriarchy." These constructs have consequences, impeding treatment and affecting whether individuals with chronic pain can obtain legal redress...
November 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108106/measurement-tools-for-assessment-of-older-age-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-recent-global-literature
#11
Soham Rej, William Quayle, Brent P Forester, Annemiek Dols, Jennifer Gatchel, Peijun Chen, Sarah Gough, Rebecca Fox, Martha Sajatovic, Sergio A Strejilevich, Lisa T Eyler
OBJECTIVES: More than 50% of people with bipolar disorder will be age 60 years or older by 2030. There is a need for more data to guide assessment and treatment in older age bipolar disorder (OABD); however, interpretation of findings from small, single-site studies may not be generalizable and there are few large trials. As a step in the direction of coordinated large-scale OABD data collection, it is critical to identify which measurements are currently used and identify potential gaps in domains typically assessed...
November 6, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100727/operative-and-therapeutic-advancements-in-breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Rahul Jandial, Reid Hoshide, J Dawn Waters, George Somlo
Patients with breast cancer are surviving longer as the state of the art for care advances. Because patients are surviving longer with primary breast cancer, the incidence of secondary metastatic disease has risen. Metastatic breast cancer to the brain was once thought to be universally fatal. While it is still quite lethal, its treatment after diagnosis is increasingly safe and effective. Critical progress has been made in understanding the interaction between breast metastases and the neural niche, neuroimaging of functional anatomy, minimally invasive image-guided brain surgery, characterizing subtypes of breast cancer based on molecular and genetic profiles, and individualized pharmaceuticals and immunotherapies...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095836/mapping-longitudinal-scientific-progress-collaboration-and-impact-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#13
Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Michael Ginda, Katy Börner, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091582/multivariate-association-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-alzgene-linkage-regions-and-structural-changes-in-the-brain-discovery-refinement-and-validation
#14
Elena Szefer, Donghuan Lu, Farouk Nathoo, Mirza Faisal Beg, Jinko Graham
Using publicly-available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we investigate the joint association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in previously established linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and rates of decline in brain structure. In an initial, discovery stage of analysis, we applied a weighted RV test to assess the association between 75,845 SNPs in the Alzgene linkage regions and rates of change in structural MRI measurements for 56 brain regions affected by AD, in 632 subjects...
November 1, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089921/the-neurological-wake-up-test-a-role-in-neurocritical-care-monitoring-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#15
REVIEW
Niklas Marklund
The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084064/new-insights-into-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-from-mri
#16
Eric E Smith, Andrew E Beaudin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent MRI research that addresses two important challenges in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) research: early diagnosis, and linking SVD with cognitive impairment. First, we review studies of MRI measurements of blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Second, we review MRI studies identifying neuroimaging correlates of SVD-related cognitive dysfunction, focusing on brain connectivity and white matter microarchitecture. This research is placed in context through discussion of recent recommendations for management of incidentally discovered SVD, and neuroimaging biomarker use in clinical trials...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081259/brain-activation-associated-with-eccentric-movement-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#17
Stéphane Perrey
The movement occurring when a muscle exerts tension while lengthening is known as eccentric muscle action. Literature contains limited evidence on how our brain controls eccentric movement. However, how the cortical regions in the motor network are activated during eccentric muscle actions may be critical for understanding the underlying control mechanism of eccentric movements encountered in daily tasks. This is a novel topic that has only recently begun to be investigated through advancements in neuroimaging methods (electroencephalography, EEG; functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)...
October 29, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076800/neurodegeneration-of-brain-networks-in-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-als-ftld-continuum-evidence-from-mri-and-meg-studies
#18
Francesca Trojsi, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Brain imaging techniques, especially those based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have been increasingly applied to study multiple large-scale distributed brain networks in healthy people and neurological patients. With regard to neurodegenerative disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), clinically characterized by the predominant loss of motor neurons and progressive weakness of voluntary muscles, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the second most common early-onset dementia, have been proven to share several clinical, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging features...
October 27, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076399/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-blood-biomarkers-for-neurodegenerative-dementias-an-update-of-the-consensus-of-the-task-force-on-biological-markers-in-psychiatry-of-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-biological-psychiatry
#19
Piotr Lewczuk, Peter Riederer, Sid E O'Bryant, Marcel M Verbeek, Bruno Dubois, Pieter Jelle Visser, Kurt A Jellinger, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Alfredo Ramirez, Lucilla Parnetti, Clifford R Jack, Charlotte E Teunissen, Harald Hampel, Alberto Lleó, Frank Jessen, Lidia Glodzik, Mony J de Leon, Anne M Fagan, José Luis Molinuevo, Willemijn J Jansen, Bengt Winblad, Leslie M Shaw, Ulf Andreasson, Markus Otto, Brit Mollenhauer, Jens Wiltfang, Martin R Turner, Inga Zerr, Ron Handels, Alexander G Thompson, Gunilla Johansson, Natalia Ermann, John Q Trojanowski, Ilker Karaca, Holger Wagner, Patrick Oeckl, Linda van Waalwijk van Doorn, Maria Bjerke, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, H Bea Kuiperij, Lucia Farotti, Yi Li, Brian A Gordon, Stéphane Epelbaum, Stephanie J B Vos, Catharina J M Klijn, William E Van Nostrand, Carolina Minguillon, Matthias Schmitz, Carla Gallo, Andrea Lopez Mato, Florence Thibaut, Simone Lista, Daniel Alcolea, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Johannes Kornhuber
In the 12 years since the publication of the first Consensus Paper of the WFSBP on biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias, enormous advancement has taken place in the field, and the Task Force takes now the opportunity to extend and update the original paper. New concepts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the conceptual interactions between AD and dementia due to AD were developed, resulting in two sets for diagnostic/research criteria. Procedures for pre-analytical sample handling, biobanking, analyses and post-analytical interpretation of the results were intensively studied and optimised...
October 27, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074032/predicting-age-using-neuroimaging-innovative-brain-ageing-biomarkers
#20
REVIEW
James H Cole, Katja Franke
The brain changes as we age and these changes are associated with functional deterioration and neurodegenerative disease. It is vital that we better understand individual differences in the brain ageing process; hence, techniques for making individualised predictions of brain ageing have been developed. We present evidence supporting the use of neuroimaging-based 'brain age' as a biomarker of an individual's brain health. Increasingly, research is showing how brain disease or poor physical health negatively impacts brain age...
October 23, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
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