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Advanced Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786463/hybrid-diffusion-imaging-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Yu-Chien Wu, Sourajit Mitra Mustafi, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Chandana Kodiweera, Laura A Flashman, Thomas McAllister
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an important public health problem. Although conventional medical imaging techniques can detect moderate-to-severe injuries, they are relatively insensitive to mTBI. In this study, we used hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) to detect white-matter alterations in nineteen patients with mTBI and 23 other trauma-control patients. Within 15 days (SD=10) of brain injury, all subjects underwent magnetic-resonance HYDI and were assessed with battery of neuropsychological tests of sustained attention, memory, and executive function...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785932/cortical-thickness-correlates-of-minor-neurological-signs-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780873/advances-in-alzheimer-s-imaging-are-changing-the-experience-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Shana D Stites, Richard Milne, Jason Karlawish
Neuroimaging is advancing a new definition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using imaging biomarkers, clinicians may begin to diagnose the disease by identifying pathology and neurodegeneration in either cognitively impaired or unimpaired adults. This "biomarker-based" diagnosis may allow clinicians novel opportunities to use interventions that either delay the onset or slow the progression of cognitive decline, but it will also bring novel challenges. How will changing the definition of AD from a clinical to a biomarker construct change the experience of living with the disease? Knowledge of AD biomarker status can affect how individuals feel about themselves (internalized stigma) and how others judge them (public stigma)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779582/animal-models-of-endocrine-disruption
#4
REVIEW
Heather B Patisaul, Suzanne E Fenton, David Aylor
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that alter the structure and function of the endocrine system and may be contributing to disorders of the reproductive, metabolic, neuroendocrine and other complex systems. Typically, these outcomes cannot be modeled in cell-based or other simple systems necessitating the use of animal testing. Appropriate animal model selection is required to effectively recapitulate the human experience, including relevant dosing and windows of exposure, and ensure translational utility and reproducibility...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770530/accurate-nonlinear-mapping-between-mni-volumetric-and-freesurfer-surface-coordinate-systems
#5
Jianxiao Wu, Gia H Ngo, Douglas Greve, Jingwei Li, Tong He, Bruce Fischl, Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo
The results of most neuroimaging studies are reported in volumetric (e.g., MNI152) or surface (e.g., fsaverage) coordinate systems. Accurate mappings between volumetric and surface coordinate systems can facilitate many applications, such as projecting fMRI group analyses from MNI152/Colin27 to fsaverage for visualization or projecting resting-state fMRI parcellations from fsaverage to MNI152/Colin27 for volumetric analysis of new data. However, there has been surprisingly little research on this topic. Here, we evaluated three approaches for mapping data between MNI152/Colin27 and fsaverage coordinate systems by simulating the above applications: projection of group-average data from MNI152/Colin27 to fsaverage and projection of fsaverage parcellations to MNI152/Colin27...
May 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766766/recent-advances-in-objectifying-pain-using-neuroimaging-techniques
#6
Jessica Archibald, Freda M Warner, Oscar Ortiz, Madeson Todd, Catherine R Jutzeler
The pursuit of a physiological indicator of noxious stimulation is desirable as it has the potential to provide mechanistic information regarding acute pain, and may ultimately improve pain management strategies. Currently, there are no specific neurophysiological markers of pain to evaluate treatments. Recent attempts to identify neural correlates of pain have focused on different neuroimaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to discuss common neuroimaging techniques and findings thus far.
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#7
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765024/diffusion-markers-of-dendritic-density-and-arborization-in-gray-matter-predict-differences-in-intelligence
#8
Erhan Genç, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Patrick Friedrich, Rüdiger Hossiep, Manuel C Voelkle, Josef M Ling, Onur Güntürkün, Rex E Jung
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to have larger gray matter volume in brain areas predominantly located in parieto-frontal regions. These findings were usually interpreted to mean that individuals with more cortical brain volume possess more neurons and thus exhibit more computational capacity during reasoning. In addition, neuroimaging studies have shown that intelligent individuals, despite their larger brains, tend to exhibit lower rates of brain activity during reasoning...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763635/cortical-thickness-and-gyrification-patterns-in-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#9
Marco Mcsweeney, Markus Reuber, Nigel Hoggard, Liat Levita
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are often viewed as manifestations of altered motor and sensory function resulting from psychological responses to adverse experiences. Yet many patients and non-expert healthcare professionals find it difficult to understand how severe disturbances in normal neurological functioning can solely result from underlying psychological mechanisms to the exclusion of other physical causes. Perhaps importantly, recent advances using neuroimaging techniques point to possible structural and functional correlates in PNES...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760644/an-algorithm-for-preclinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Tapan K Khan
Almost all Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials have failed in recent years. One of the main reasons for failure is due to designing the disease-modifying clinical trials at the advanced stage of the disease when irreversible brain damage has already occurred. Diagnosis of the preclinical stage of AD and therapeutic intervention at this phase, with a perfect target, are key points to slowing the progression of the disease. Various AD biomarkers hold enormous promise for identifying individuals with preclinical AD and predicting the development of AD dementia in the future, but no single AD biomarker has the capability to distinguish the AD preclinical stage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757724/neuroimaging-findings-of-organic-acidemias-and-aminoacidopathies
#11
Nihaal Reddy, Sonia F Calloni, Hilary J Vernon, Eugen Boltshauser, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
Although individual cases of inherited metabolic disorders are rare, overall they account for a substantial number of disorders affecting the central nervous system. Organic acidemias and aminoacidopathies include a variety of inborn errors of metabolism that are caused by defects in the intermediary metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acid oxidation. These defects can lead to the abnormal accumulation of organic acids and amino acids in multiple organs, including the brain. Early diagnosis is mandatory to initiate therapy and prevent permanent long-term neurologic impairments or death...
May 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753942/magnetic-resonance-imaging-technology-bridging-the-gap-between-noninvasive-human-imaging-and-optical-microscopy
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan R Polimeni, Lawrence L Wald
Technological advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have provided substantial gains in the sensitivity and specificity of functional neuroimaging. Mounting evidence demonstrates that the hemodynamic changes utilized in functional MRI can be far more spatially and thus neuronally specific than previously believed. This has motivated a push toward novel, high-resolution MR imaging strategies that can match this biological resolution limit while recording from the entire human brain. Although sensitivity increases are a necessary component, new MR encoding technologies are required to convert improved sensitivity into higher resolution...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750732/the-patchy-tremor-landscape-recent-advances-in-pathophysiology
#13
Freek Nieuwhof, Pattamon Panyakaew, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Cecile Gallea, Rick C Helmich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on new insights in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease tremor, essential tremor, tremor in dystonia, and orthostatic tremor. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging findings suggest that Parkinson's disease resting tremor is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction, serotonergic dysfunction, or both. Not all tremors in Parkinson's disease have the same pathophysiology: postural tremor in Parkinson's disease can be subdivided into pure postural tremor, which involves nondopaminergic mechanisms, and re-emergent tremor, which has a dopaminergic basis...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750730/the-changing-landscape-of-motor-neuron-disease-imaging-the-transition-from-descriptive-studies-to-precision-clinical-tools
#14
Peter Bede, Giorgia Querin, Pierre-François Pradat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging in motor neuron disease (MND) has traditionally been seen as an academic tool with limited direct relevance to individualized patient care. This has changed radically in recent years as computational imaging has emerged as a viable clinical tool with true biomarker potential. This transition is not only fuelled by technological advances but also by important conceptual developments. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural history of MND is now evaluated by presymptomatic, postmortem and multi-timepoint longitudinal imaging studies...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741663/statistical-model-of-dynamic-markers-of-the-alzheimer-s-pathological-cascade
#15
Steve Balsis, Lisa Geraci, Jared Benge, Deborah A Lowe, Tabina K Choudhury, Robert Tirso, Rachelle S Doody
Objectives: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease reflected in markers across assessment modalities, including neuroimaging, cognitive testing, and evaluation of adaptive function. Identifying a single continuum of decline across assessment modalities in a single sample is statistically challenging because of the multivariate nature of the data. To address this challenge, we implemented advanced statistical analyses designed specifically to model complex data across a single continuum...
May 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736781/combination-of-rs-fmri-and-smri-data-to-discriminate-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-young-children-using-deep-belief-network
#16
Maryam Akhavan Aghdam, Arash Sharifi, Mir Mohsen Pedram
In recent years, the use of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has recorded a great increase in neuropsychiatric disorders. Deep learning is a branch of machine learning that is increasingly being used for applications of medical image analysis such as computer-aided diagnosis. In a bid to classify and represent learning tasks, this study utilized one of the most powerful deep learning algorithms (deep belief network (DBN)) for the combination of data from Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange I and II (ABIDE I and ABIDE II) datasets...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730491/default-mode-network-abnormalities-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-novel-network-restricted-topology-approach
#17
Teddy J Akiki, Christopher L Averill, Kristen M Wrocklage, J Cobb Scott, Lynnette A Averill, Brian Schweinsburg, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Brenda Martini, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
Disruption in the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, studies have largely been limited to seed-based methods and involved inconsistent definitions of the DMN. Recent advances in neuroimaging and graph theory now permit the systematic exploration of intrinsic brain networks. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI, and graph theoretical analyses to systematically examine the DMN connectivity and its relationship with PTSD symptom severity in a cohort of 65 combat-exposed US Veterans...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729390/advances-in-microstructural-diffusion-neuroimaging-for-psychiatric-disorders
#18
Ofer Pasternak, Sinead Kelly, Valerie J Sydnor, Martha E Shenton
Understanding the neuropathological underpinnings of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder is an essential step towards the development of targeted treatments. Diffusion MRI studies utilizing the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model have been extremely successful to date in identifying microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals suffering from mental illness, especially in regions of white matter, although identified abnormalities have been biologically non-specific...
May 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725960/towards-portable-large-scale-image-processing-with-high-performance-computing
#19
REVIEW
Yuankai Huo, Justin Blaber, Stephen M Damon, Brian D Boyd, Shunxing Bao, Prasanna Parvathaneni, Camilo Bermudez Noguera, Shikha Chaganti, Vishwesh Nath, Jasmine M Greer, Ilwoo Lyu, William R French, Allen T Newton, Baxter P Rogers, Bennett A Landman
High-throughput, large-scale medical image computing demands tight integration of high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure for data storage, job distribution, and image processing. The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has constructed a large-scale image storage and processing infrastructure that is composed of (1) a large-scale image database using the eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT), (2) a content-aware job scheduling platform using the Distributed Automation for XNAT pipeline automation tool (DAX), and (3) a wide variety of encapsulated image processing pipelines called "spiders...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723244/the-social-brain-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mere-presence-of-social-information-an-automated-meta-analysis-and-an-independent-study
#20
Ivy F Tso, Saige Rutherford, Yu Fang, Mike Angstadt, Stephan F Taylor
How the human brain processes social information is an increasingly researched topic in psychology and neuroscience, advancing our understanding of basic human cognition and psychopathologies. Neuroimaging studies typically seek to isolate one specific aspect of social cognition when trying to map its neural substrates. It is unclear if brain activation elicited by different social cognitive processes and task instructions are also spontaneously elicited by general social information. In this study, we investigated whether these brain regions are evoked by the mere presence of social information using an automated meta-analysis and confirmatory data from an independent study of simple appraisal of social vs...
2018: PloS One
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