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Advanced Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737295/towards-a-unified-analysis-of-brain-maturation-and-aging-across-the-entire-lifespan-a-mri-analysis
#1
Pierrick Coupé, Gwenaelle Catheline, Enrique Lanuza, José Vicente Manjón
There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#2
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728046/advanced-morphological-neuroimaging-study-in-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-multicentric-study
#3
Roberta Vasta, Alessia Sarica, Francesca Bisulli, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Alfredo D'Aniello, Jacopo C Difrancesco, Laura Canafoglia, Marina Casazza, Silvana Franceschetti, Carlotta Stipa, Paolo Tinuper, Laura Mumoli, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (lTLE) is a rare condition characterized by auditory auras or receptive aphasia, negative MRI, and relatively benign evolution. With the low number of cases in the world, our objective was to analyze a cohort of sporadic cases with lTLE (slTLE), in order to investigate possible cerebral morphological alterations. Forty patients with lTLE (34.93±12.08years of age) and 38 healthy controls (CTRL, 34.55±9.08years of age) were enrolled from four tertiary Italian epilepsy centers, which provided brain MRI T1-weighted images following a standard protocol for patients with epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#4
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715518/early-accurate-diagnosis-and-early-intervention-in-cerebral-palsy-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
Iona Novak, Cathy Morgan, Lars Adde, James Blackman, Roslyn N Boyd, Janice Brunstrom-Hernandez, Giovanni Cioni, Diane Damiano, Johanna Darrah, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Linda S de Vries, Christa Einspieler, Michael Fahey, Darcy Fehlings, Donna M Ferriero, Linda Fetters, Simona Fiori, Hans Forssberg, Andrew M Gordon, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Mijna Hadders-Algra, Regina Harbourne, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Petra Karlsson, Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm, Beatrice Latal, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Nathalie Maitre, Sarah McIntyre, Garey Noritz, Lindsay Pennington, Domenico M Romeo, Roberta Shepherd, Alicia J Spittle, Marelle Thornton, Jane Valentine, Karen Walker, Robert White, Nadia Badawi
Importance: Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. Objectives: To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713174/fusing-multiple-neuroimaging-modalities-to-assess-group-differences-in-perception-action-coupling
#6
Jordan Muraskin, Jason Sherwin, Gregory Lieberman, Javier O Garcia, Timothy Verstynen, Jean M Vettel, Paul Sajda
In the last few decades, non-invasive neuroimaging has revealed macro-scale brain dynamics that underlie perception, cognition and action. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging target two capabilities; 1) increased spatial and temporal resolution of measured neural activity, and 2) innovative methodologies to extract brain-behavior relationships from evolving neuroimaging technology. We target the second. Our novel methodology integrated three neuroimaging methodologies and elucidated expertise-dependent differences in functional (fused EEG-fMRI) and structural (dMRI) brain networks for a perception-action coupling task...
January 2017: Proceedings of the IEEE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709695/peripheral-biomarkers-of-major-depression-and-antidepressant-treatment-response-current-knowledge-and-future-outlooks
#7
REVIEW
Bharathi S Gadad, Manish K Jha, Andrew Czysz, Jennifer L Furman, Taryn L Mayes, Michael P Emslie, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: In recent years, we have accomplished a deeper understanding about the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, this improved comprehension has not translated to improved treatment outcome, as identification of specific biologic markers of disease may still be crucial to facilitate a more rapid, successful treatment. Ongoing research explores the importance of screening biomarkers using neuroimaging, neurophysiology, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics measures...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708598/the-performance-of-11c-methionine-pet-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-glioma-recurrence
#8
Weilin Xu, Liansheng Gao, Anwen Shao, Jingwei Zheng, Jianmin Zhang
Despite the advancement of neuroimaging techniques, it often remains a diagnostic challenge to distinguish recurrent glioma from lesions representing treatment effect. Preliminary reports suggest that 11C-methionine Positron emission tomography (PET) can assist in diagnosing true glioma recurrence. We present here a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of 11C-methionine PET in identifying recurrent glioma in patients who had undergone prior therapy. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases yielded 23 eligible articles comprising 29 studies listed prior to November 20, 2016, representing 891 patients...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705730/emotions-as-discrete-patterns-of-systemic-activity
#9
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Heini Saarimäki
Emotions organize human and animal behaviour by automatically adjusting their actions at multiple physiological and behavioural scales. Recently, pattern recognition techniques have emerged as an important tool for quantifying the neural, physiological, and phenomenological organization of emotions in humans. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the human emotion system from the viewpoint of pattern recognition studies, focussing on neuroimaging experiments. These studies suggest, in general, clear and consistent categorical structure of emotions across multiple levels of analysis spanning expressive behaviour, subjective experiences, physiological activity, and neural activation patterns...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696034/fast-non-invasive-functional-diffuse-optical-tomography-for-brain-imaging
#10
Xianjin Dai, Tao Zhang, Hao Yang, Jianbo Tang, Paul R Carney, Huabei Jiang
Advances in epilepsy studies have shown that specific changes in hemodynamics precede and accompany seizure onset and propagation. However, it has been challenging to non-invasively detect these changes in real-time and in humans, due to the lack of fast functional neuroimaging tools. Here, we present a functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) method with the guidance of an anatomical human-head atlas for three-dimensionally mapping the brain in real time. Central to our DOT system is a human head interface coupled with a technique that can incorporate topological information of the brain surface into the DOT image reconstruction...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688882/neuroimaging-in-animal-models-of-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Olli Gröhn
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions worldwide. The current poor understanding and lack of reliable biomarkers of the epileptogenic process are the major limitations in the development of anti-epileptic drugs that are able to prevent or modify the underlying disease. The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our opportunities to study the disease in animal models of epilepsy by means of non-invasive research tools. Here we review the advances of different in vivo imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance-based and nuclear imaging-based modalities, in animal models of epilepsy...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674993/advances-in-neuroimaging-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#12
Michele Veldsman, Natalia Egorova
This chapter is intended as a primer to the most widely used neuroimaging methods available in the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of the neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the imaging methods that allow us to examine brain structure, function and pathology and investigate neurodegenerative mechanisms in vivo. We describe methods to interrogate brain structure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and brain function with molecular imaging, functional MRI and electro- and magneto-encephalography. We highlight the major neuroimaging advances, including brain stimulation and connectomics, which have brought new insights into a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and describe some of the challenges in imaging clinical populations...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666351/brain-networks-predict-metabolism-diagnosis-and-prognosis-at-the-bedside-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#13
Srivas Chennu, Jitka Annen, Sarah Wannez, Aurore Thibaut, Camille Chatelle, Helena Cassol, Géraldine Martens, Caroline Schnakers, Olivia Gosseries, David Menon, Steven Laureys
Recent advances in functional neuroimaging have demonstrated novel potential for informing diagnosis and prognosis in the unresponsive wakeful syndrome and minimally conscious states. However, these technologies come with considerable expense and difficulty, limiting the possibility of wider clinical application in patients. Here, we show that high density electroencephalography, collected from 104 patients measured at rest, can provide valuable information about brain connectivity that correlates with behaviour and functional neuroimaging...
June 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664024/neuroendoscopy-via-an-extremely-narrow-foramen-of-monro-a-case-report
#14
Alhusain Nagm, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Tetsuya Goto, Akihiro Chiba, Kazuhiro Hongo
Herein, safe and reliable neuroendoscopic biopsy via an extremely narrow foramen of Monro (ENFM) for a non-hydrocephalic patient with hypothalamic and pineal region tumors was successfully applied. A 17-year-old boy presented with hypothalamic manifestations attributed to hypothalamic and pineal region tumors. Small ventricles were seen. Intraoperatively, to advance different diameter steerable fiberscopes via ENFM, the third ventricle was flushed to induce a moment increase in the intraventricular pressure with subsequent dilatation of FM...
January 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657454/causality-on-longitudinal-data-stable-specification-search-in-constrained-structural-equation-modeling
#15
Ridho Rahmadi, Perry Groot, Marieke Hc van Rijn, Jan Ajg van den Brand, Marianne Heins, Hans Knoop, Tom Heskes
A typical problem in causal modeling is the instability of model structure learning, i.e., small changes in finite data can result in completely different optimal models. The present work introduces a novel causal modeling algorithm for longitudinal data, that is robust for finite samples based on recent advances in stability selection using subsampling and selection algorithms. Our approach uses exploratory search but allows incorporation of prior knowledge, e.g., the absence of a particular causal relationship between two specific variables...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654472/the-past-present-and-future-of-neurorehabilitation-from-nustep-through-iv-step-and-beyond
#16
Susan R Harris, Carolee J Winstein
PURPOSES: To present the history and aims of the STEP conferences; describe the interdependence of prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation; reflect on where we stand today regarding those 4 Ps; and discuss how future neurorehabilitation should look for individuals with movement disorders. KEY POINTS: Physical therapists have focused primarily on tertiary prevention, emphasizing primary/secondary prevention far less. Predicting optimal response to intervention is essential for primary prevention...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653404/neuroanatomical-characteristics-associated-with-response-to-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Juan Carlos Baldermann, Katja Hardenacke, Xiaochen Hu, Phillip Köster, Andreas Horn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Karl Zilles, Volker Sturm, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Frank Jessen, David Maintz, Jens Kuhn
OBJECTIVES: First reports on the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) showed feasibility and safety of the intervention in patients with Alzheimer´s disease. However, clinical effects vary and the mechanisms of actions are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to characterize neuroimaging changes that are associated with the responsiveness to the treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined preoperative T1-weighted MR images of ten patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with DBS of the NBM and correlated the clinical outcome with volumetric differences of cortical thickness...
June 27, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649490/frequency-dependent-changes-in-local-intrinsic-oscillations-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-a-study-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-the-resting-state
#18
Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Ying Zhuang, Lei Gao, Honghan Gong
New neuroimaging techniques have led to significant advancements in our understanding of cerebral mechanisms of primary insomnia. However, the neuronal low-frequency oscillation remains largely uncharacterized in chronic primary insomnia (CPI). In this study, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data-driven method based on resting-state functional MRI, was used to examine local intrinsic activity in 27 patients with CPI and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. We examined neural activity in two frequency bands, slow-4 (between 0...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649394/functional-neuroimaging-and-chorea-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Debra J Ehrlich, Ruth H Walker
Chorea is a hyperkinetic movement disorder consisting of involuntary irregular, flowing movements of the trunk, neck or face. Although Huntington's disease is the most common cause of chorea in adults, chorea can also result from many other neurodegenerative, metabolic, and autoimmune conditions. While the pathophysiology of these different conditions is quite variable, recent advances in functional imaging have enabled the development of new methods for analysis of brain activity and neuronal dysfunction. In this paper we review the growing body of functional imaging data that has been performed in chorea syndromes and identify particular trends, which can be used to better understand the underlying network changes within the basal ganglia...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646252/childhood-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-the-structural-neuroimaging-literature
#20
REVIEW
Alyssa S Ailion, Kyle Hortman, Tricia Z King
Due to medical advances, a large portion of children survive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify the neuroanatomical and neurocognitive outcomes associated with survivorship. This review summarizes the specific regional structural neuroimaging findings, the broad structural findings, as well as the corresponding neurocognitive domains affected in brain tumor populations. Across studies, damage is commonly reported near the cerebellum, brain stem, and subcortical regions, as well as the frontal lobes...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
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