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Advanced Neuroimaging

Ashley J Robinson, M Ashraf Ederies
This paper is based on a literature review from 2011 to 2016. The paper is divided into two main sections. The first section relates to technical advances in fetal imaging techniques, including fetal motion compensation, imaging at 3.0 T, 3-D T2-weighted MRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging, computed tomography, morphometric analysis, diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy and fetal behavioral assessment. The second section relates to clinical updates, including cerebral lamination, migrational anomalies, midline anomalies, neural tube defects, posterior fossa anomalies, sulcation/gyration and hypoxic-ischemic insults...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Melissa E Murray, David S Knopman, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Keith A Josephs, Christopher G Schwarz, Walter K Kremers, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Mary M Machulda, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Predicting underlying pathology based on clinical presentation has historically proven difficult, especially in older cohorts. Age-related hippocampal sclerosis may account for a significant proportion of elderly participants with amnestic dementia. Advances in molecular neuroimaging have allowed for detailed biomarker-based phenotyping, but in the absence of antemortem markers of hippocampal sclerosis, cases of mixed pathology remain problematic. We evaluated the utility of 18F-FDG-PET to differentiate flortaucipir tau PET negative from flortaucipir positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and used an autopsy confirmed cohort to test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis might account for the observed pattern...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
V N Vakharia, J S Duncan, J-A Witt, C E Elger, R Staba, J Engel
Neurosurgery is an under-utilised treatment that can potentially cure drug-refractory epilepsy. Careful, multidisciplinary pre-surgical evaluation is vital for selecting patients and ensure optimal outcomes. Advances in neuroimaging have improved diagnosis and guide surgical intervention. Invasive electroencephalography allows the evaluation of complex patients who would otherwise not be candidates for neurosurgery. We review the current state of the assessment and selection of patients and consider established and novel surgical procedures, and associated outcome data...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Anas Z Abidin, Adora M DSouza, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Lu Wang, Xing Qiu, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
HIV is capable of invading the brain soon after seroconversion. This ultimately can lead to deficits in multiple cognitive domains commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Clinical diagnosis of such deficits requires detailed neuropsychological assessment but clinical signs may be difficult to detect during asymptomatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore neuroimaging biomarkers are of particular interest in HAND. In this study, we constructed brain connectivity profiles of 40 subjects (20 HIV positive subjects and 20 age-matched seronegative controls) using two different methods: a non-linear mutual connectivity analysis approach and a conventional method based on Pearson's correlation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Arturo Carpio, Agnès Fleury, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected disease that contributes substantially to neurological morbidity/mortality in lower-income countries and increasingly among high-income countries due to migration. Many advances have been made in understanding NC, but unanswered questions remain Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of NC. Expert commentary: The global NC prevalence remains unknown and needs proper ascertainment. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of extraparenchymally located cysts is needed to improve management...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Juan I Castrillo, Simone Lista, Harald Hampel, Craig W Ritchie
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multifactorial disease, involving a combination of genomic, interactome, and environmental factors, with essential participation of (a) intrinsic genomic susceptibility and (b) a constant dynamic interplay between impaired pathways and central homeostatic networks of nerve cells. The proper investigation of the complexity of AD requires new holistic systems-level approaches, at both the experimental and computational level. Systems biology methods offer the potential to unveil new fundamental insights, basic mechanisms, and networks and their interplay...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alberto Benussi, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with extensive biological, molecular, and clinical heterogeneity. Recently, numerous studies have tried to shed light on the pathophysiology of the disease, highlighting possible disease pathways common to other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, and identifying possible candidate biomarkers for disease staging and response to treatment. Miglustat, which reversibly inhibits glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been licensed in the European Union and elsewhere for the treatment of NPC in both children and adults...
2018: F1000Research
Anthony Pham, Becky Lee, Eric L Chang
Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in the adult population and have been historically treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). However, as medical advances improve life expectancy, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has replaced WBRT as the standard of care for limited (one to three) brain metastases due to the relative sparing of neurocognitive function (NCF) and therefore quality of life (QoL). The use of SRS has been less documented in the case of multiple (four or more) brain metastases, with literature limited to non-randomized studies showing comparable survival and local control...
December 28, 2017: Curēus
Arjune Sen, Valentina Capelli, Masud Husain
With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia...
February 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
The landscape of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has evolved remarkably in recent years and is barely recognizable from two decades ago. Knowledge of the clinical phenomenology, cognition, neuroimaging, genetics, pathology of the different subtypes of FTD, and their relations to other neurodegenerative conditions, has increased rapidly, due in part, to the growing interests into these neurodegenerative brain conditions. This article reviews the major advances in the field of FTD over the past 20 years, focusing primarily on the work of Frontier, the frontotemporal dementia clinical research group, based in Sydney, Australia...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
Katherine T Martucci, Sean C Mackey
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated definitive involvement of the central nervous system in the development, maintenance, and experience of chronic pain. Structural and functional neuroimaging has helped elucidate central nervous system contributors to chronic pain in humans. Neuroimaging of pain has provided a tool for increasing our understanding of how pharmacologic and psychologic therapies improve chronic pain. To date, findings from neuroimaging pain research have benefitted clinical practice by providing clinicians with an educational framework to discuss the biopsychosocial nature of pain with patients...
March 1, 2018: Anesthesiology
Bin He, Abbas Sohrabpour, Emery Brown, Zhongming Liu
Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Maria Ly, Carmen Andreescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mood and anxiety disorders are very commonly experienced by older adults and are becoming a growing concern due to the rapidly aging global population. Recent advances in neuroimaging may help in improving outcomes in late-life mood and anxiety disorders. The elucidation of mechanisms contributing to late-life mental health disorders may ultimately lead to the identification of novel therapeutic interventions. Alternatively, clinically validated imaging biomarkers may allow for the prediction of treatment response and identification of better therapeutic approaches in late-life mood and anxiety disorders...
March 1, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello, Riccardo Masson, Maria Foscan, Maria Teresa Arnoldi, Alessia Marchi, Giorgia Aprile, Chiara Pantaleoni
The huge contribution of advances in the pediatric neurosciences, improvements in clinical practice, and new therapeutic options, has led to the development of new models of treatment and rehabilitation for dystonia in the last decade. It is now generally agreed that a multidimensional therapeutic approach is needed for children with motor disorders, whose motor function-conceived as a complex perceptive, motor and cognitive process - is impaired at a crucial time in their development, with a fall out on how their various adaptive functions evolve...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
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