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Advanced Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930593/precision-medicine-of-frontotemporal-dementia-from-genotype-to-phenotype
#1
Xiang-Qian Che, Ning Song, Ying Gao, Ru-Jing Ren, Gang Wang
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common neurodegenerative  cause of early-onset dementia. FTD has an important genetic component contributing to its pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, extensive research on neuroimaging biomarkers and neurochemical biomarkers in FTD is being conducted to address the clinical need for a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker. Here, we review the advances in genetics, biomarkers and treatment of FTD and how this may represent a shift towards precision medicine...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920888/prediction-of-motor-recovery-after-stroke-advances-in-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Cathy M Stinear
Stroke remains a leading cause of adult disability, and the recovery of motor function after stroke is crucial for the patient to regain independence. However, making accurate predictions of a patient's motor recovery and outcome is difficult when based on clinical assessment alone. Clinical assessment of motor impairment within a few days of stroke can help to predict subsequent recovery, while neurophysiological and neuroimaging biomarkers of corticomotor structure and function can help to predict both motor recovery and motor outcome after stroke...
October 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916167/structural-neuroimaging-in-sport-related-concussion
#3
Erin D Bigler
Structural neuroimaging of athletes who have sustained a sports-related concussion (SRC) can be viewed as either standard clinical imaging or with advanced neuroimaging methods that quantitatively assess brain structure. Negative findings from conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the norm in SRC. Nonetheless, these conventional measures remain the first line of neuroimaging of the athlete as they do detect clinically significant pathologies, when present, such as hemorrhagic abnormalities in the form of hematomas, contusions and mircobleeds along with regions of focal encephalomalacia or other signal abnormalities, with CT best capable of detecting skull fractures...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906268/new-pet-markers-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#4
Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the new PET markers that could become in the coming years, relevant to advanced clinical approaches to dementia diagnosis, drug trials, and treatment strategies and discuss their advantages and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: The most advanced new PET tracers are the markers of the amyloid plaques, the τ compounds and the tracers of the translocator protein as markers of neuroinflammation. The main advantages but also the weaknesses of each of these markers are discussed...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900066/-to-test-glutamate-hypothesis-for-schizophrenia-utilizing-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#5
Sachiko Tsugawa, Shin-Ichiro Luke Nakajima
Recent advancement in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has elucidated the pathophysiology of mental illness, including schizophrenia. MRS is a neuroimaging technique that non-invasively measures chemicals, using nuclear magnetic resonance. This narrative review explains proton MRS (<sup>1</sup>H-MRS) and introduces pivotal studies to examine a glutamate hypothesis for schizophrenia, employing <sup>1</sup>H-MRS.
September 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900059/neuroimaging-of-sports-concussions
#6
Teresa G Odle
Concussions resulting from sports activities have received attention in recent years, and failure to prevent head injury has undergone scrutiny. Although many factors contribute to sports concussion incidence, determining when an athlete can return to play is crucial to minimizing long-term effects of concussion. To date, neuroimaging plays a limited role in concussion evaluation, but conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques are contributing to the body of research on their future use in evaluation...
July 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894291/neural-predictors-of-12-month-weight-loss-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery
#7
L M Holsen, P Davidson, H Cerit, T Hye, P Moondra, F Haimovici, S Sogg, S Shikora, J M Goldstein, A E Evins, L E Stoeckel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893562/positive-allosteric-modulation-of-m1-and-m4-muscarinic-receptors-as-potential-therapeutic-treatments-for-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Samantha E Yohn, P Jeffrey Conn
Current antipsychotic drugs provide symptomatic relief for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but do not offer symptom management for negative and cognitive symptoms. In addition, many patients discontinue treatment due to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more effective and safe treatment options. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is unclear, considerable data from post-mortem, neuroimaging and neuropharmacology studies support a role of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChRs) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891145/commentary-on-schmitz-et-al-2017-advancing-medication-development-for-addiction-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-outcomes-as-indirect-biomarkers-of-target-engagement
#9
Mehdi Farokhnia, Reza Momenan, Lorenzo Leggio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#10
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882867/diagnostic-accuracy-of-neuroimaging-to-delineate-diffuse-gliomas-within-the-brain-a-meta-analysis
#11
N Verburg, F W A Hoefnagels, F Barkhof, R Boellaard, S Goldman, J Guo, J J Heimans, O S Hoekstra, R Jain, M Kinoshita, P J W Pouwels, S J Price, J C Reijneveld, A Stadlbauer, W P Vandertop, P Wesseling, A H Zwinderman, P C De Witt Hamer
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging in diffuse glioma is used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. PURPOSE: In this meta-analysis, we address the diagnostic accuracy of imaging to delineate diffuse glioma. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched studies of adults with diffuse gliomas and correlation of imaging with histopathology. STUDY SELECTION: Study inclusion was based on quality criteria. Individual patient data were used, if available...
September 7, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874928/magnetic-resonance-imaging-utilization-in-an-emergency-department-observation-unit
#12
Yadiel Sánchez, Brian J Yun, Anand M Prabhakar, McKinley Glover, Benjamin A White, Theodore I Benzer, Ali S Raja
INTRODUCTION: Emergency department observation units (EDOUs) are a valuable alternative to inpatient admissions for ED patients needing extended care. However, while the use of advanced imaging is becoming more common in the ED, there are no studies characterizing the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the EDOU. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective study was performed at a 999-bed quaternary care academic Level I adult and pediatric trauma center, with approximately 114,000 ED visits annually and a 32-bed adult EDOU...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872032/atlas-of-electroencephalography-3rd-edition
#13
Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya, Dennis Dlugos, Christopher Skidmore, Michael R Sperling
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of the electrical activity of the brain. EEG is a reliable test to assess cerebral function. It aids in diagnosis, classification, and management of patients with epilepsy. It also has practical uses in conditions other than epilepsy. Moreover, it is harmless and inexpensive. EEG is an important tool for evaluating patients with epilepsy. It may help classify the syndrome, identify the likely source of focal seizures, and confirm a diagnosis of status epilepticus...
September 5, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870383/advancing-alzheimer-s-research-a-review-of-big-data-promises
#14
REVIEW
Rui Zhang, Gyorgy Simon, Fang Yu
OBJECTIVE: To review the current state of science using big data to advance Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and practice. In particular, we analyzed the types of research foci addressed, corresponding methods employed and study findings reported using big data in AD. METHOD: Systematic review was conducted for articles published in PubMed from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2015. Keywords with AD and big data analytics were used for literature retrieval...
October 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870357/neurostimulation-devices-for-the-treatment-of-neurologic-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Christine A Edwards, Abbas Kouzani, Kendall H Lee, Erika K Ross
Rapid advancements in neurostimulation technologies are providing relief to an unprecedented number of patients affected by debilitating neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Neurostimulation therapies include invasive and noninvasive approaches that involve the application of electrical stimulation to drive neural function within a circuit. This review focuses on established invasive electrical stimulation systems used clinically to induce therapeutic neuromodulation of dysfunctional neural circuitry. These implantable neurostimulation systems target specific deep subcortical, cortical, spinal, cranial, and peripheral nerve structures to modulate neuronal activity, providing therapeutic effects for a myriad of neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868035/a-novel-stress-diathesis-model-to-predict-risk-of-post-operative-delirium-implications-for-intra-operative-management
#16
Renée El-Gabalawy, Ronak Patel, Kayla Kilborn, Caitlin Blaney, Christopher Hoban, Lawrence Ryner, Duane Funk, Regina Legaspi, Joseph A Fisher, James Duffin, David J Mikulis, W Alan C Mutch
Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD) is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carbon dioxide (CO2) stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867998/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-insights-from-combined-recording-studies
#17
REVIEW
Vanessa Scarapicchia, Cassandra Brown, Chantel Mayo, Jodie R Gawryluk
Although blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely available, non-invasive technique that offers excellent spatial resolution, it remains limited by practical constraints imposed by the scanner environment. More recently, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as an alternative hemodynamic-based approach that possesses a number of strengths where fMRI is limited, most notably in portability and higher tolerance for motion. To date, fNIRS has shown promise in its ability to shed light on the functioning of the human brain in populations and contexts previously inaccessible to fMRI...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867940/genetics-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-related-traits
#18
Michael G Gottschalk, Katharina Domschke
This review serves as a systematic guide to the genetics of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and further focuses on anxiety-relevant endophenotypes, such as pathological worry fear of uncertainty, and neuroticism. We inspect clinical genetic evidence for the familialityl heritability of GAD and cross-disorder phenotypes based on family and twin studies. Recent advances of linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, and candidate gene studies (eg, 5-HTT, 5-HT1A, MAOA, BDNF) are outlined. Functional and structural neuroimaging and neurophysiological readouts relating to peripheral stress markers and psychophysiology are further integrated, building a multilevel disease framework...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865901/neuroimaging-of-female-sexual-desire-and-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Stephanie Cacioppo
INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in neuroimaging offer an unprecedented window into the female sexual brain. The small samples and poor statistical power of individual functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have limited what can be gleaned about the systematic brain network that is involved in female sexual desire and female sexual dysfunction (eg, hypoactive sexual desire disorder [HSDD]). AIM: To quantitatively determine the brain network involved in HSDD...
August 30, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862482/pseudoprogression-after-glioma-therapy-an-update
#20
Norbert Galldiks, Martin Kocher, Karl-Josef Langen
Initial diagnostics and follow-up of gliomas is usually based on contrast-enhanced MRI. However, the capacity of standard MRI to differentiate neoplastic tissue from posttherapeutic effects such as pseudoprogression is limited. Advanced neuroimaging methods may provide relevant additional information, which allow for a more accurate diagnosis especially in clinically equivocal situations. This review article focuses predominantly on PET using radiolabeled amino acids and advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and summarizes the efforts of these methods regarding the identification of pseudoprogression after glioma therapy...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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