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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352769/resolvin-e1-resolvin-d1-and-resolvin-d2-inhibit-constriction-of-rat-thoracic-aorta-and-human-pulmonary-artery-induced-by-the-thromboxane-mimetic-u46619
#1
Melanie Jannaway, Christopher Torrens, Jane A Warner, Anthony P Sampson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Omega-6 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators such as prostanoids, thromboxane and leukotrienes have well-established roles in regulating both inflammation and smooth muscle contractility. Resolvins are derived from omega-3 fatty acids and have important roles in promoting the resolution of inflammation, but their activity on smooth muscle contractility is unknown. We investigated whether resolvin E1 (RvE1), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin D2 (RvD2) can modulate contractions of isolated segments of rat thoracic aorta (RTA) or human pulmonary artery (HPA) induced by the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine or the stable thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351458/differences-in-l-type-calcium-channel-activity-partially-underlie-the-regional-dichotomy-in-pumping-behavior-by-murine-peripheral-and-visceral-lymphatic-vessels
#2
Scott D Zawieja, Jorge A Castorena-Gonzalez, Joshua Scallan, Michael J Davis
We identified a regional dichotomy in murine lymphatic contractile function with regard to vessel location within either the periphery or visceral cavity. All vessels isolated from peripheral regions; cervical, popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and inter-nodal inguinal axillary (Ing-Ax) developed robust contractions with maximal ejection fractions (EFs) of 50-80% in our ex vivo isobaric myograph experiments. Conversely, vessels isolated from the visceral cavity (mesenteric, TD, and iliac) demonstrated maximal EFs below 15%...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351439/role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sulfide-quinone-oxoreductase-in-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-contraction-of-rat-pulmonary-arteries
#3
Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Vladimir A Snetkov, Yasin Shaifta, Inmaculada Docio, Michelle J Connolly, Charles E Mackay, Greg A Knock, Jeremy Pt Ward, Philip I Aaronson
Application of H2S ('sulfide') elicits a complex contraction in rat pulmonary arteries (PA) comprising a small transient contraction (phase 1; Ph1) followed by relaxation and then a second, larger, and more sustained contraction (phase 2; Ph2). We investigated the mechanisms causing this response using isometric myography in rat second order PA, with Na2S as a sulfide donor. Both phases of contraction to 1000μM Na2S were attenuated by the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (3μM) and by 50μM ryanodine; the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1μM) was without effect...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349831/aortic-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-mediated-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-tnf%C3%AE-and-nox2-dependent-pathway
#4
Evan DeVallance, Kayla W Branyan, Kent Lemaster, I Mark Olfert, David M Smith, Emidio E Pistilli, Jefferson C Frisbee, Paul D Chantler
AIMS: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is recognized for its vaso-active effects, however it's unclear how Metabolic Syndrome impact thoracic-aorta (t)PVAT and the subsequent effect on functional and structural aortic stiffness. METHODS & RESULTS: Thoracic aorta and tPVAT were removed from 16-17 week old lean (LZR, n = 16) and obese Zucker (OZR, n = 16) rats. OZR presented with aortic endothelial dysfunction, assessed by wire-myography, and increased aortic stiffness, assessed by elastic modulus...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333727/the-relation-between-maximal-voluntary-force-in-m-palmaris-longus-and-the-temporal-and-spatial-summation-of-muscle-fiber-recruitment-in-human-subjects
#5
Cécyl G Claudel, Waqas Ahmed, Vibeke S Elbrønd, Adrian P Harrison, Else Marie Bartels
This study aimed at looking at the frequency (T-score) and the amplitude (S-score) of fiber use during contraction of a forearm muscle, m. palmaris longus, as measured by acoustic myography (AMG). An additional aim was to relate the T- and S-scores to the recorded force obtained from a hand dynamometer. The hypothesis being that temporal and spatial summation of muscle fiber contraction in a given muscle during a given movement, can together describe a given obtained force. Force measurements were carried out on 12 healthy human subjects aged 19-68 years (6 men & 6 women), while their m...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325034/ghrelin-preserves-ischemia-induced-vasodilation-of-male-rat-coronary-vessels-following-beta-adrenergic-receptor-blockade
#6
James T Pearson, Nicola Collie, Regis R Lamberts, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Misa Yoshimoto, Keiji Umetani, Philip Davis, Gerard Wilkins, Pete P Jones, Mikiyasu Shirai, Daryl O Schwenke
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an adverse increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). While β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR)-blockers are routinely used for the management of MI, they may also counter β-AR-mediated vasodilation of coronary vessels. We have reported that ghrelin prevents sympathetic activation following MI. Whether ghrelin modulates coronary vascular tone following MI, either through the modulation of SNA, or directly as a vasoactive mediator, has never been addressed.We utilized synchrotron microangiography to image coronary perfusion and vessel internal diameter (ID) in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats before, and then again 30 mins after induction of an MI (left coronary artery ligation)...
January 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285566/suppression-of-aortic-expansion-and-contractile-recovery-in-a-rat-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-model-by-biodegradable-gelatin-hydrogel-sheet-incorporating-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor
#7
Norikazu Kawai, Hisashi Iwata, Katsuya Shimabukuro, Narihiro Ishida, Hiroki Ogura, Etsuji Umeda, Kiyoshi Doi
Biodegradable gelatin hydrogel sheet (BGHS) incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may inhibit the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated whether AAA in a rat model treated with BGHS soaked with bFGF can suppress aortic expansion and recover the contractile response of aneurysmal aortic wall. Experimental AAA was induced in 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with intra-aortic elastase infusion. Aortas of these rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 6 each) as follows: Control group, aortas infused with saline; Elastase only group, aortas infused with elastase; Hydrogel group, aortas wrapped with saline-soaked BGHS after elastase infusion; and bFGF group, aortas wrapped with bFGF (100 μg)-soaked BGHS after elastase infusion...
December 28, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275372/nitric-oxide-dependent-feedback-loop-regulates-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-channel-cooperativity-and-endothelial-function-in-small-pulmonary-arteries
#8
Corina Marziano, Kwangseok Hong, Eric L Cope, Michael I Kotlikoff, Brant E Isakson, Swapnil K Sonkusare
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate that spatially restricted, local Ca2+ signals are key regulators of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in systemic circulation. There are drastic functional differences between pulmonary arteries (PAs) and systemic arteries, but the local Ca2+ signals that control endothelium-dependent vasodilation of PAs are not known. Localized, unitary Ca2+ influx events through transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels, termed TRPV4 sparklets, regulate endothelium-dependent vasodilation in resistance-sized mesenteric arteries via activation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels...
December 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226623/distortion-of-kb-estimates-of-endothelin-1-eta-and-etb-receptor-antagonists-in-pulmonary-arteries-possible-role-of-an-endothelin-1-clearance-mechanism
#9
James A Angus, Richard J A Hughes, Christine E Wright
Dual endothelin ETA and ETB receptor antagonists are approved therapy for pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that ETB receptor-mediated clearance of endothelin-1 at specific vascular sites may compromise this targeted therapy. Concentration-response curves (CRC) to endothelin-1 or the ETB agonist sarafotoxin S6c were constructed, with endothelin receptor antagonists, in various rat and mouse isolated arteries using wire myography or in rat isolated trachea. In rat small mesenteric arteries, bosentan displaced endothelin-1 CRC competitively indicative of ETA receptor antagonism...
December 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212858/decreased-edhf-mediated-relaxation-is-a-major-mechanism-in-endothelial-dysfunction-in-resistance-arteries-in-aged-mice-on-prolonged-high-fat-sucrose-diet
#10
Shannon M Dunn, Kumuda C Das
High-fat sucrose (HFS) diet in aged individuals causes severe weight gain (obesity) with much higher risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is a major contributor for these vascular disorders. We hypothesize that prolonged ingestion of HFS diet by aged mice would accentuate endothelial dysfunction in the small resistance arteries. Male C57BL/6J mice at 12 weeks of age were divided into four groups and fed either normal chow (NC) or high-fat sucrose diet (HFS)...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187826/differences-in-the-thoracic-aorta-by-region-and-sex-in-a-murine-model-of-marfan-syndrome
#11
Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Anna-Maria Siegert, Fabio Bonorino, Thayna Meirelles, Laura Barberà, Ana P Dantas, Elisabet Vila, Gustavo Egea
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161755/kv-1-channel-expression-and-vasomotor-function-in-human-coronary-resistance-arteries
#12
Yoshinori Nishijima, Ankush Korishettar, Dawid S Chabowski, Sheng Cao, Xiaodong Zheng, David D Gutterman, David X Zhang
OBJECTIVES: KV channels are important regulators of vascular tone, but the identity of specific KV channels involved and their regulation in disease remain less well understood. We determined the expression of KV 1 channel subunits and their role in cAMP-mediated dilation in coronary resistance arteries from subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Human coronary arteries and arterioles (HCA) from non-CAD and CAD patients were assessed for mRNA and protein expression of KV 1 channel subunits with molecular techniques and for vasodilator response with isolated arterial myography...
November 21, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142264/impairment-of-bkca-channels-in-human-placental-chorionic-plate-arteries-is-potentially-relevant-to-the-development-of-preeclampsia
#13
Mengzhou He, Fanfan Li, Meitao Yang, Yao Fan, Rajluxmee Beejadhursing, Yin Xie, Yuan Zhou, Dongrui Deng
Preeclampsia has known associations with insufficient placental perfusion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKca) channels that have recently been found to play important roles in cellular growth and vasodilatation could potentially participate in the development of preeclampsia. However, the mechanisms by which downregulated BKca channels are involved in the development of preeclampsia remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the impairment of vascular tone regulation by BKca channels in human placental chorionic plate arteries (CPAs) in preeclampsia...
November 16, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141949/microvascular-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-and-brain-occurs-early-in-the-development-of-juvenile-obesity-in-pigs
#14
T Dylan Olver, Zachary Ian Grunewald, Thomas J Jurrissen, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, Paul J LeBlanc, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Alana M Czajkowski, Maurice Harold Laughlin, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender, Eric M Walters, Craig A Emter, Jaume Padilla
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular insulin signaling may develop prior to overt indices of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and represent an early pathological feature of adolescent obesity. Using a translational porcine model of juvenile obesity, we tested the hypotheses that in the early stages of obesity development, impaired insulin signaling manifests in skeletal muscle (triceps), brain (prefrontal cortex) and corresponding vasculatures, and that depressed insulin-induced vasodilation is reversible with acute inhibition of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141501/transient-hypertension-after-spinal-cord-injury-leads-to-cerebrovascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-fibrosis
#15
Aaron A Phillips, Nusrat Matin, Mengyao Jia, Jordan W Squair, Aaron Monga, Mei Mu Zi Zheng, Rahul Sachdeva, Andrew Yung, Shea Hocolaski, Stacy L Elliott, Piotr Kozlowski, Anne Dorrance, Ismail Laher, Phil Ainslie, Andrei V Krassioukov
We aimed to create a clinically-relevant preclinical model of transient hypertension, and then evaluate the pathophysiological cerebrovascular processes resulting from this novel stimulus, which has recently been epidemiologically linked to cerebrovascular disease. We first developed a clinically-relevant model of transient hypertension, secondary to induced autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury, and demonstrated that in both patients and rats this stimulus leads to drastic acute cerebral hyper-perfusion...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123442/functional-effects-of-alagebrium-alt-711-isolated-rat-carotid-artery
#16
Cigdem Toprak, Basar Sirmagul, Semra Yigitaslan
Objective: In our study, the effects of glycosylated protein cross-link breaker, alagebrium was investigated on isolated rat carotid artery using myography. Alagebrium showed vasodilator effect on carotid artery rings; particularly, this effect was significantly increased in endothelium-intact rings. Materials and Methods: To clarify the vasodilator mechanism of alagebrium, different antagonists such as N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), glibenclamide, indomethacin, metoprolol, propranolol, tetraethylammonium, and calcium channel activator BAYK-8644 were used to reverse this effect...
October 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109190/trpv4-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-mediates-endothelium-dependent-contractions-in-the-aortae-of-hypertensive-mice
#17
Peng Zhang, Chunyuan Sun, Hongjuan Li, Chunlei Tang, Hao Kan, Zhenyu Yang, Aiqin Mao, Xin Ma
The role of TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) in regulating vascular contraction in hypertensive mice is poorly established. We tested the hypothesis that TRPV4 regulates endothelium-dependent contractions in aortae from hypertensive mice through the activation of cytosolic cPLA2 (phospholipase A2) and COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2) and identified the possible endothelium-derived contracting factor generated by COX2. Using myography, we demonstrated that GSK1016790A (a TRPV4 agonist) and acetylcholine (ACh) trigger endothelium-dependent contractions in aortae from hypertensive mice, and the contractions were abolished with TRPV4 deletion...
November 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089345/loss-of-female-sex-hormones-exacerbates-cerebrovascular-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aortic-banded-miniswine-through-a-neuropeptide-y-ca2-activated-potassium-channel-nitric-oxide-mediated-mechanism
#18
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Todd R Schachtman, Cheryl M Heesch, Paul J Fadel, M Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal women represent the largest cohort of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and vascular dementia represents the most common form of dementia in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that the combination of cardiac pressure overload (aortic banding [AB]) and the loss of female sex hormones (ovariectomy [OVX]) impairs cerebrovascular control and spatial memory. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female Yucatan miniswine were separated into 4 groups (n=7 per group): (1) control, (2) AB, (3) OVX, and (4) AB-OVX...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049394/electrical-impedance-myography-detects-age-related-muscle-change-in-mice
#19
W David Arnold, Rebecca S Taylor, Jia Li, Janice A Nagy, Benjamin Sanchez, Seward B Rutkove
Loss of muscle mass and strength represents one of the most significant contributors to impaired function in older adults. Convenient and non-invasive biomarkers are needed that can readily identify and track age-related muscle change. Previous data has suggested electrical impedance myography (EIM) has the potential to serve in this capacity. In this study we investigated how changes in EIM compared with other standard measures of muscle structure and function in aged compared with young mice. A total of 19 male mice aged approximately 25 months and 19 male mice aged 3 months underwent surface multifrequency EIM of the right gastrocnemius muscle using standard methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046317/vasoactivity-of-nitrite-in-the-iliac-artery-of-the-toad-rhinella-marina
#20
Leonard George Forgan, Melenaite Sofele, Bryony Alice McNeill, Melissa S Cameron, John A Donald
Nitrite (NO2(-)) causes vasodilation in mammals due to the formation of (nitric oxide) NO by endogenous NO2(-) reduction in the vascular wall. In this study, we determined if a similar mechanism operates in amphibians. Dual-wire myography of the iliac artery from Rhinella marina showed that applied NO2(-) caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation in normoxia (21% O2; EC50 438 µM). Hypoxia (0.63% O2) significantly increased the maximal dilation to NO2(-) by 5 % (P = 0.0398). The addition of oxyhemoglobin significantly increased the EC50 (P = 0...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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