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Cherilyn N Mclester, Alex D Dewitt, Rasmus Rooks, John R Mclester
The purpose of this study was to compare the body fat per cent (BF%) assessed with a unique handheld electrical impedance myography (EIM) device, along with other popular methods, to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Participants included 33 males (aged 24.3 ± 4.6 years) and 38 females (aged 25.3 ± 8.9 years) who completed 2 visits separated by 24-72 h. The assessments included DXA, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold measures (SKF), and three separate EIM measurements. No significant differences in BF% (P > 0...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Karlien Mul, Chad Heatwole, Katy Eichinger, Nuran Dilek, William B Martens, Baziel G M van Engelen, Rabi Tawil, Jeffrey M Statland
INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a non-invasive technique for measuring muscle composition and a potential physiological biomarker for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Thirty-two genetically confirmed and clinically affected FSHD participants underwent EIM in 7 muscles bilaterally. Correlations between EIM and baseline clinical measures were used to select EIM parameters of interest in FSHD, and EIM and clinical measures were followed for 1 year...
March 15, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Bronagh M McDonnell, Paul J Buchanan, Kevin M Prise, Karen D McCloskey
Radiation-induced bladder toxicity is associated with radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies, arising from unavoidable irradiation of neighbouring normal bladder tissue. This study aimed to investigate the acute impact of ionizing radiation on the contractility of bladder strips and identify the radiation-sensitivity of the mucosa vs the detrusor. Guinea-pig bladder strips (intact or mucosa-free) received ex vivo sham or 20Gy irradiation and were studied with in vitro myography, electrical field stimulation and Ca2+-fluorescence imaging...
2018: PloS One
Carla Blum-Johnston, Richard B Thorpe, Chelsea Wee, Raechel Opsahl, Monica Romero, Samuel Murray, Alexander Brunelle, Quintin Blood, Rachael Wilson, Arlin B Blood, Lubo Zhang, Lawrence D Longo, William J Pearce, Sean M Wilson
Bradykinin-induced activation of the pulmonary endothelium triggers a rise in intracellular Ca2+ , which activates nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation. Chronic hypoxia is commonly associated with increased pulmonary vascular tone, which can cause pulmonary hypertension in responsive individuals. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term high altitude hypoxia (LTH) diminishes bradykinin-induced Ca2+ signals and inhibits eNOS, PGI2 and BKCa channels in sheep, which are moderately responsive to LTH, resulting in decreased pulmonary arterial vasorelaxation...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sophie N Saxton, Katie E Ryding, Robert G Aldous, Sarah B Withers, Jacqueline Ohanian, Anthony M Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on resistance arteries which is vital in regulating arterial tone. Activation of β3 -adrenoceptors by sympathetic nerve-derived NA (noradrenaline) may be implicated in this effect and may stimulate the release of the vasodilator adiponectin from adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms responsible is vital for determining how PVAT may modify vascular resistance in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Electric field stimulation profiles of healthy C57BL/6J mouse mesenteric resistance arteries were characterized using wire myography...
March 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Xin Ni, Liang Zhang, Min Peng, Tu-Wang Shen, Xiu-Shi Yu, Li-Ya Shan, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si, Xin-Zhi Li, Ke-Tao Ma
BACKGROUND Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects, and connexins (Cxs) are involved in regulation of immune homeostasis. In this study, we explored whether exogenous H2S prevents hypertensive inflammation by regulating Cxs expression of T lymphocytes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). MATERIAL AND METHODS We treated SHR with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) for 9 weeks. Vehicle-treated Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) were used as a control. The arterial pressure was monitored by the tail-cuff method, and vascular function in basilar arteries was examined by pressure myography...
February 27, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kush Kapur, Rebecca S Taylor, Kristin Qi, Janice A Nagy, Jia Li, Benjamin Sanchez, Seward B Rutkove
INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance can be used to estimate cellular characteristics. We sought to determine whether it could be used to approximate myofiber size using standard prediction modeling approaches. METHODS: Forty-four C57BL/6J wild-type immature mice of varying ages underwent electrical impedance myography (EIM) using a needle electrode array placed in the gastrocnemius. Animals were then euthanized and muscle fixed, stained, and myofiber size quantified...
February 24, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Taiming Liu, Meijuan Zhang, Michael H Terry, Hobe Schroeder, Sean Wilson, Gordon Power, Qian Li, Trent Tipple, Dan Borchardt, Arlin Blood
Glutathione-liganded binuclear dinitrosyl iron complex (glut-BDNIC) has been proposed to be a donor of nitric oxide (NO). This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of vasoactivity, systemic hemodynamic effects, and pharmacokinetics of glut-BDNIC. To test the hypothesis that glut-BDNICs vasodilate by releasing NO in its reduced (HNO) state, a bioassay method of isolated, preconstricted ovine mesenteric arterial rings was used in the presence of selective scavengers of HNO or NO free radical (NO⋅), the vasodilatory effects of glut-BDNIC were found to have characteristics similar to those of an HNO donor and markedly different than a NO⋅ donor...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Catherine D E Wilder, Nikoleta Pavlaki, Tutku Dursun, Paul Gyimah, Ellice Caldwell-Dunn, Antonella Ranieri, Hannah R Lewis, Michael J Curtis
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Antiarrhythmic β-blockers are used in patients at risk of myocardial ischaemia, but the survival benefit and mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesised that β-blockers do not prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF), but instead inhibit the ability of catecholamines to facilitate ischaemia-induced VF, limiting the scope of their usefulness. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: ECGs were analysed from ischaemic Langendorff-perfused rat hearts perfused with adrenoceptor antagonists and/or exogenous catecholamines (313 nM noradrenaline+75 nM adrenaline; CATs) in a blinded and randomised study...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
P Totoson, M Pedard, C Marie, C Demougeot
While brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to induce relaxation of conduit artery, whether the BDNF/TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase) pathway is involved in the tone control of resistance arteries is not known. This study investigated TrkB receptors levels/localization and the vasomotor effect of the TrkB receptor agonist LM22A-4 in isolated third-order mesenteric arteries from rats. Immunostaining revealed the presence of both full-length and truncated TrkB receptors, especially at the endothelial level...
February 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Thayna Meirelles, Eva Crosas-Molist, M Alba Sorolla, Darya Gorbenko Del Blanco, Judit López-Luque, Aleksandra Mas-Stachurska, Ana-Maria Siegert, Fabio Bonorino, Laura Barberà, Carolina García, Enric Condom, Marta Sitges, Fernando Rodríguez-Pascual, Francisco Laurindo, Katrin Schröder, Joaquim Ros, Isabel Fabregat, Gustavo Egea
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1C1039G/+ -Nox4-/- )...
February 19, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Anat Lavie, S Shinar, L Hiersch, E Ashwal, Y Yogev, A Aviram
PURPOSE: Uterine activity plays a crucial role in labor, especially when utero-tonic materials are administered. We aimed to determine the electrical responsiveness of the uterine musculature to labor augmentation with oxytocin using electrical uterine myography (EUM) technology, and to assess whether the kinetics of the EUM device may serve as a predictor for successful vaginal delivery. METHODS: EUM prospectively measured electrical uterine activity in women with singleton gestations at term (≥ 37 + 0 weeks) undergoing labor augmentation by oxytocin administration...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
K J Quek, O Z Ameer, J K Phillips
Background: The renin-angiotensin system, in particular Angiotensin II (AngII), plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of chronic AT1 receptor antagonism were investigated in a genetic hypertensive rat model of CKD, the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat. Methods: Mixed-sex LPK and Lewis control rats (total n=31) were split between treated (valsartan 60mg/kg/day p.o. from 4-18 weeks) and vehicle groups...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Lucia Russo, Harrison T Muturi, Hilda E Ghadieh, Alexander M Wisniewski, Eric E Morgan, Syed S Quadri, Gavin P Landesberg, Helmy M Siragy, Guillermo Vazquez, Rosario Scalia, Rajesh Gupta, Sonia M Najjar
OBJECTIVE: Mice with global null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1-/-), display impairment of insulin clearance that causes hyperinsulinemia followed by insulin resistance, elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and visceral obesity. In addition, they manifest abnormal vascular permeability and elevated blood pressure. Liver-specific rescuing of Ceacam1 reversed all of the metabolic abnormalities in Cc1-/-liver+ mice. The current study examined whether Cc1-/- male mice develop endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and whether this relates to the metabolic abnormalities caused by defective insulin extraction...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Roshan Limbu, Graeme S Cottrell, Alister J McNeish
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are beneficial to cardiovascular health, promoting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasodilation. Numerous studies have attempted to study these responses, but to date there has not been a systematic characterisation of both DHA and EPA mediated vasodilation in conduit and resistance arteries. Therefore, we aimed to fully characterise the n-3 PUFA-induced vasodilation pathways in rat aorta and mesenteric artery...
2018: PloS One
Manoj B Kudupoje, James L Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A Dawson, Kyle R McLeod, Eric S Vanzant
Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison...
January 30, 2018: Toxins
S V Mochalov, N V Tarasova, T V Kudryashova, D K Gaynullina, V U Kalenchuk, A S Borovik, A V Vorotnikov, O S Tarasova, R Schubert
AIM: During early postnatal development, arterial contraction depends less on Ca2+ -signalling pathways but more on changes in Ca2+ -sensitivity compared to adult animals. Whether this difference is related to Rho-kinase, one of the major players affecting Ca2+ -sensitivity, is unknown for intact vessels. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Rho-kinase critically contributes to the higher Ca2+ -sensitivity of contraction in intact arteries of 1-week old rats. METHODS: We studied 1-week-old, 4-5-week-old and 10-12-week-old rats performing isometric myography, Ca2+ -fluorimetry and Western blotting using intact saphenous arteries and arterial pressure measurements under urethane anesthesia...
January 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Weiqun Yu, Warren G Hill, Simon C Robson, Mark L Zeidel
Purinergic signalling plays an important role in the regulation of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) contractility, and P2X4 receptor is expressed in the bladder wall, where it may act by forming heteromeric receptors with P2X1 , the major purinergic force-generating muscle receptor. To test this hypothesis, we examined mouse BSM contractile properties in the absence and presence of selective P2X1 (NF449 & NF279) and P2X4 antagonists (5-BDBD). These drugs inhibited BSM purinergic contraction only partially, suggesting the possibility of a heteromeric receptor...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
K Beck, A Friebe, B Voussen
BACKGROUND: Regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Nitric oxide (NO), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts via its receptor NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC). In the GI tract, NO-GC is expressed in several cell types such as smooth muscle cells (SMC) and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Using cell-specific knockout mice, we have previously shown that NO-GC modulates spontaneous contractions in colonic longitudinal smooth muscle...
January 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
E C Muñoz-Muñoz, B J Krause, R Uauy, P Casanello
Maternal obesity is associated with large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates and programming of obesity-related cardiovascular disease in the offspring, however, the mechanisms that lead to the later are unclear. Presently, interpretations of NO-dependent changes in vascular function in LGA newborn from obese mothers are conflicting. Adiponectin improves endothelial function by increasing eNOS activity and NO production. We propose that LGAs from obese mothers present a diminished vascular response to adiponectin; thus, affecting eNOS and AMPK activation...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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