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Nonalcoholic fat liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212047/multimaterial-decomposition-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-liver-fat-content-by-using-fast-kilovolt-peak-switching-dual-energy-ct-clinical-evaluation
#1
Tomoko Hyodo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Hori, Osamu Maenishi, Peter Lamb, Kosuke Sasaki, Minori Onoda, Masatoshi Kudo, Teruhito Mochizuki, Takamichi Murakami
Purpose To assess the clinical accuracy and reproducibility of liver fat quantification with the multimaterial decomposition (MMD) algorithm, comparing the performance of MMD with that of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy by using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-three patients suspected of having hepatic steatosis underwent non-contrast material-enhanced and triple-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) (80 and 140 kVp) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy within 30 days before liver biopsy...
February 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#2
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194671/activation-of-insulin-pi3k-akt-p70s6k-pathway-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-contributes-to-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Cindy X Cai, Hema Buddha, Shobha Castelino-Prabhu, Zhiwei Zhang, Robert S Britton, Bruce R Bacon, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are hallmark features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NASH). It remains unclear whether and how insulin contributes to the development of fibrosis in NASH. In this study, we explored insulin signaling in the regulation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and the progression of NASH-fibrosis. METHODS: Phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K were examined in primary HSC and in a rat model of NASH-fibrosis induced by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet for 24 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194019/il-25-stimulates-m2-macrophage-polarization-and-thereby-promotes-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-and-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissues-against-obesity
#4
Juan Feng, Lingyi Li, Zhiying Ou, Qiao Li, Baoyong Gong, Zhenxian Zhao, Weiwei Qi, Ti Zhou, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Xia Yang, Aiping Zhao, Guoquan Gao, Zhonghan Yang
Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with the infiltration of many inflammatory cells, especially macrophages. Immune molecules, including some cytokines, have a close relationship with metabolism. Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 cytokine family that can regulate macrophages and alleviate some metabolic dysfunction; however, its role and mechanisms in lipid metabolism remain to be extensively clarified. Human serum and liver biopsy specimens, high-fat diet-induced obesity mice and DB/DB (Lepr-/-) animal models were used to examine IL-25 expression in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187500/basement-membrane-type-iv-collagen-and-laminin-an-overview-of-their-biology-and-value-as-fibrosis-biomarkers-of-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Ki M Mak, Rena Mei
Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187366/a-combination-of-dietary-n-3-fatty-acids-and-a-cyclooxygenase-1-inhibitor-attenuates-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#6
Viswanathan Saraswathi, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Murali Ganesan, Cyrus V Desouza, Yazen Alnouti, Michael J Duryee, Geoffrey M Thiele, Tara M Nordgren, Dahn L Clemens
We sought to determine whether a combination of purified n-3 fatty acids (n-3) and SC-560 (SC), a cyclooxygenase-1-specific inhibitor, is effective in ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obesity. Female wild-type mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HF) supplemented with n-3 in the presence or absence of SC. Mice treated with SC alone exhibited no change in liver lipids, whereas n-3-fed mice tended to have lower hepatic lipids. Mice given n-3+SC had significantly lower liver lipids compared with HF controls indicating enhanced lipid clearance...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185715/effects-of-oral-antidiabetic-drugs-on-changes-in-the-liver-to-spleen-ratio-on-computed-tomography-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Koichi Yabiku, Akiko Mutoh, Kazufumi Miyagi, Nobuyuki Takasu
PURPOSE: Oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) such as pioglitazone and metformin have beneficial effects in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We prospectively assessed the effects of OADs on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 886 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in a murine model of NAFLD. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive pioglitazone, metformin, sitagliptin, or a non-OAD (control) for 6 months. All the patients received dietary and exercise guidance once a month during this study...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169509/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-measures-of-early-brain-health-in-middle-aged-adults-the-cardia-study
#8
Lisa B VanWagner, James G Terry, Lisa S Chow, Amy C Alman, Hakmook Kang, Katherine H Ingram, Christina Shay, Cora E Lewis, R Nick Bryan, Lenore J Launer, J Jeffrey Carr
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and measures of brain health in a population-based sample of adults. METHODS: Participants from the CARDIA study (Y25 exam; age 43-55 years) with concurrent computed tomography quantification of liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images were included (n = 505). NAFLD was identified after exclusion of other causes of liver fat. Total tissue volume (TTV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow (GM-CBF) were estimated using 3T brain MR images...
February 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163820/apolipoprotein-ciii-overexpression-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-increases-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-association-with-inflammation-and-cell-death
#9
Adriene A Paiva, Helena F Raposo, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Helena C F Oliveira
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163011/aerobic-endurance-training-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-features-via-mir-33-dependent-autophagy-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
Parvin Ghareghani, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Saeideh Ahmadi, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Neda Rezvan, Reza Meshkani, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks...
February 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153707/interleukin-17a-exacerbates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-inhibiting-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation
#11
Tianran Shen, Xu Chen, Yanping Li, Xilan Tang, Xinwei Jiang, Chao Yu, Yuanzhu Zheng, Honghui Guo, Wenhua Ling
: There is a growing body of evidence that the interleukin-17A (IL-17A) signaling pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanism by which IL-17A signaling induces hepatocyte injury is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of the IL-17A axis in NAFLD and to explore the role of IL-17A in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6 mice and oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes...
January 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148637/impact-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-on-toxicokinetics-of-tetrachloroethylene
#12
Joseph A Cichocki, Shinji Furuya, Kranti Konganti, Yu-Syuan Luo, Thomas J McDonald, Yasuhiro Iwata, Weihsueh A Chiu, David W Threadgill, Igor P Pogribny, Ivan Rusyn
Lifestyle factors and chronic pathological states are important contributors to inter-individual variability in susceptibility to xenobiotic-induced toxicity. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent condition that can dramatically affect chemical metabolism. We examined the effect of NAFLD on toxicokinetics of tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that requires metabolic activation to induce adverse health effects. Mice (C57Bl/6J, male) were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD), or methionine/folate/choline-deficient diet (MCD) to model a healthy liver, steatosis, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133993/a-healthy-diet-optimal-sleep-lifestyle-pattern-is-inversely-associated-with-liver-stiffness-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Christina N Katsagoni, George V Papatheodoridis, Maria-Vasiliki Papageorgiou, Panagiota Ioannidou, Melanie Deutsch, Alexandra Alexopoulou, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elisabeth Fragopoulou, Meropi D Kontogianni
Several lifestyle habits have been described as risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Given that both healthy and unhealthy habits tend to cluster, the aim of this study was to identify lifestyle patterns and explore their potential associations with clinical characteristics of individuals with NAFLD. One hundred and thirty-six consecutive patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD were included. Diet and physical activity level were assessed through appropriate questionnaires. Habitual night sleep hours and duration of midday naps were recorded...
November 8, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125672/relationship-of-serum-betatrophin-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-in-a-chinese-population
#14
Wen Hu, Xiaojuan Shao, Dianxuan Guo, Hairong Hao, Yong Zhang, Mingfeng Xia, Yingyun Gong, Hongwen Zhou, Yunqing Fan, Weinan Yu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association of serum betatrophin with the status and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 249 subjects who received ultrasonic examination of liver fat content (LFC) were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical examinations were performed. Serum betatrophin was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with control group, serum betatrophin significantly increased in NAFLD group (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125073/the-association-between-igf-1-levels-and-the-histologic-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Laura E Dichtel, Kathleen E Corey, Joseph Misdraji, Miriam A Bredella, Melanie Schorr, Stephanie A Osganian, Brian J Young, Joshua C Sung, Karen K Miller
OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms responsible for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are incompletely understood. Growing evidence suggests that growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may have roles in the development and progression of NAFLD. We hypothesized that lower serum IGF-1 levels would be associated with increased liver fat accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis in a group of meticulously phenotyped obese subjects with liver biopsies...
January 26, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124507/fatty-liver-promotes-fibrosis-in-monkeys-consuming-high-fructose
#16
Michael A Cydylo, Ashley T Davis, Kylie Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are related to development of liver fibrosis which currently has few therapeutic options. Rodent models of NAFLD inadequately model the fibrotic aspects of the disease and fail to demonstrate the spectrum of cardiometabolic diseases without genetic manipulation. This study aimed to document a monkey model of fatty liver and fibrosis, which naturally develop cardiometabolic disease pathophysiologies. METHODS: Twenty-seven cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) fed diets either low or high in simple carbohydrates, supplied as fructose [control and high-fructose diet (HRr)], on low-fat, cholesterol-free background were studied...
February 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123944/celastrol-ameliorates-liver-metabolic-damage-caused-by-a-high-fat-diet-through-sirt1
#17
Yinliang Zhang, Chao Geng, Xiaoyan Liu, Meixia Li, Mingyue Gao, Xiaojun Liu, Fude Fang, Yongsheng Chang
OBJECTIVE: Celastrol was recently identified as a potential novel treatment for obesity. However, the effect of Celastrol on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains elusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Celastrol in NAFLD. METHODS: Functional studies were performed using wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice and liver specific Sirt1-deficient (LKO) mice. The molecular mechanism was explored in primary mouse liver and primary hepatocytes. RESULTS: When WT mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with Celastrol, reductions in body weight, subcutaneous and visceral fat content, and liver lipid droplet formation were observed, along with reduced hepatic intracellular triglyceride and serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, and ALT concentrations...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116779/long-term-dietary-supplementation-with-low-dose-nobiletin-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-without-altering-fat-mass-in-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Young-Je Kim, Myung-Sook Choi, Je Tae Woo, Mi Ji Jeong, Sang Ryong Kim, Un Ju Jung
SCOPE: We evaluated the long-term effect of low-dose nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxylated flavone, on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without NOB (0.02%, w/w) for 16 weeks. NOB did not alter food intake or body weight. Despite increases in fatty acid oxidation-related genes expression and enzymes activity in adipose tissue, NOB did not affect adipose tissue weight due to simultaneous increases in lipogenic genes expression and fatty acid synthase activity...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115523/apoc3-is-not-a-predisposing-factor-for-fat-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#19
Xiaoyun Cheng, Jun Yamauchi, Sojin Lee, Ting Zhang, Zhenwei Gong, Radhika Muzumdar, Shen Qu, H Henry Dong
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by excessive fat accumulation in liver, is prevalent in obesity. Genetic factors that link obesity to NAFLD remain obscure. Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) is a lipid-binding protein with a pivotal role in triglyceride metabolism. Humans with APOC3 gain-of-function mutations and mice with APOC3 overproduction are associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Nonetheless, it remains controversial whether APOC3 is culpable for diet-induced NAFLD. To address this fundamental issue, we fed APOC3-transgenic and wild-type littermates a high fructose diet or high fat diet, followed by determining the effect of APOC3 on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation, and the progression of NAFLD...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112684/out-of-the-frying-pan-dietary-saturated-fat-influences-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Elizabeth Parks, Hannele Yki-Järvinen, Meredith Hawkins
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess accumulation of fat in the liver. In some cases, NAFLD is also accompanied by insulin resistance, resulting in metabolic dysfunction. Dietary fat content probably influences both NAFLD and insulin resistance; however, the immediate effects of fat consumption have not been fully explored. In this issue of the JCI, Hernández et al. evaluated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in humans and mice following a single oral dose of saturated fat...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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