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Nonalcoholic fat liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918389/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-management-of-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-option
#1
REVIEW
Gauri Dhir, Kenneth Cusi
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is associated with a cluster of metabolic factors that lead to poor cardiovascular outcomes. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fat (triglyceride) accumulation closely mirrors adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and T2DM. It is now recognized as the most common chronic liver disease in Westernized societies, often progressing to more severe forms of the disease such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918170/lifestyle-predictors-of-obese-and-non-obese-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Joo Hee Kwak, Dae Won Jun, Seung Min Lee, Yong Kyun Cho, Kang Nyeong Lee, Hang Lak Lee, Oh Young Lee, Ho Soon Choi, Byung Chul Yoon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obese, and they usually eat more while being less physically active as compared to healthy individuals. However, little is known about the lifestyle patterns of non-obese or obese patients with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate nutrition components and behavioral differences between non-obese and obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising of 209 patients...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915103/mr-spectroscopy-derived-proton-density-fat-fraction-is-superior-to-controlled-attenuation-parameter-for-detecting-and-grading-hepatic-steatosis
#3
Jurgen Henk Runge, Loek Pieter Smits, Joanne Verheij, Annekatrien Depla, Sjoerd Douwe Kuiken, Bert Cornelis Baak, Aart Johannes Nederveen, Ulrich Beuers, Jaap Stoker
Purpose To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained with transient elastography and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) obtained with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with results of liver biopsy in a cohort of adult patients suspected of having nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors evaluated 55 patients suspected of having NAFLD (40 men, 15 women)...
September 15, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912902/effects-of-dapagliflozin-on-body-composition-and-liver-tests-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospective-open-label-uncontrolled-study
#4
Hiroshi Tobita, Shuichi Sato, Tatsuya Miyake, Shunji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an active form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Risk factors for NASH include type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors used to treat T2DM prevent glucose reabsorption in the kidney and increase glucose urinary excretion. Dapagliflozin is a potent, selective SGLT2 inhibitor that reduces hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM and has been demonstrated to reduce some complications associated with NASH in rodent models...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912810/latent-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-adipose-tissue
#5
REVIEW
I S Stafeev, A V Vorotnikov, E I Ratner, M Y Menshikov, Ye V Parfyonova
Obesity is a growing problem in modern society and medicine. It closely associates with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatic and cardiovascular diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, myocarditis, and hypertension. Obesity is often associated with latent inflammation; however, the link between inflammation, obesity, T2DM, and cardiovascular diseases is still poorly understood. Insulin resistance is the earliest feature of metabolic disorders. It mostly develops as a result of dysregulated insulin signaling in insulin-sensitive cells, as compared to inactivating mutations in insulin receptor or signaling proteins that occur relatively rare...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906401/transabdominal-ultrasonography-of-the-pancreas-is-superior-to-that-of-the-liver-for-detection-of-ectopic-fat-deposits-resulting-from-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Shilin Li, Liyang Su, Guorong Lv, Weihong Zhao, Jianhui Chen
The aim of our study was to investigate the rate of nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) in the south China province of Fujian and its relationship to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters.NAFPD is frequently identified on transabdominal ultrasound examination. The incidence of NAFPD varies from 16% to 69.7% depending on the country.A total of 256 subjects were recruited. Each was assessed by abdominal sonography to diagnose NAFLD and NAFPD. The ages, sexes, heights, weights, blood pressure, and detection of peripheral blood biochemical indices (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL], and glucose) were recorded...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905319/pi3k-inhibition-protects-mice-from-nafld-by-down-regulating-cmklr1-and-nlrp3-in-kupffer-cells
#7
Wenfeng Zhang, Yan Liu, Mingbing Wu, Xiwen Zhu, Tao Wang, Kun He, Peizhi Li, Xiaoling Wu
Inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) is of critical importance in the development of hepatic steatosis. The role of chemerin in the progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. Here, we have evaluated the effects and mechanism of chemerin on insulin sensitivity and inflammation. An inhibitor (wortmannin) and agonist (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) were applied to Kupffer cells (KCs) after treatment with a concentration gradient of chemerin in vitro...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904866/imm-h007-a-new-therapeutic-candidate-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-improves-hepatic-steatosis-in-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Huijie Shi, Qingchun Wang, Liu Yang, Shouxia Xie, Haibo Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in humans, is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) in hepatocytes. We tested whether 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) can eliminate hepatic steatosis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a model of NAFLD. Compared with HFD-only controls, IMM-H007 treatment significantly lowered serum levels of TG, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in hamsters fed the HFD, with a prominent decrease in levels of serum transaminases and fasting insulin, without affecting fasting glucose levels...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903486/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-a-susceptibility-factor-for-perchloroethylene-induced-liver-effects-in-mice
#9
Joseph A Cichocki, Shinji Furuya, Yu-Syuan Luo, Yasuhiro Iwata, Kranti Konganti, Weihsueh A Chiu, David W Threadgill, Igor P Pogribny, Ivan Rusyn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent pathological liver condition in developed countries. NAFLD results in severe alterations in liver function, including xenobiotic metabolism. Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, a known hepatotoxicant in rodents, and a probable human carcinogen. It is known that PERC disposition and metabolism are affected by NAFLD in mice; here, we examined how NAFLD changes PERC-associated liver effects. Male C57Bl6/J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), or methionine/folate/choline-deficient diet (MCD) to model a healthy liver, or mild and severe forms of NAFLD, respectively...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899784/mir-181b-regulates-steatosis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-targeting-sirt1
#10
Yunxia Wang, Kongxi Zhu, Weihua Yu, Hongjuan Wang, Lan Liu, Qiong Wu, Shuai Li, Jianqiang Guo
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the leading cause of chronic liver diseases in the world. However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still unclear. Emerging studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) are profoundly involved in NAFLD and related metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which miR-181b influences NAFLD via direct targeting SIRT1. The expression of miR181b was up-regulated while SIRT1 was down-regulated in both human NAFLD patients and high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFDL mice model...
September 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886991/molecular-mechanisms-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-potential-role-for-12-lipoxygenase
#11
REVIEW
Niharika Samala, Sarah A Tersey, Naga Chalasani, Ryan M Anderson, Raghavendra G Mirmira
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of pathologies associated with fat accumulation in the liver. NAFLD is the most common cause of liver disease in the United States, affecting up to a third of the general population. It is commonly associated with features of metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance. NAFLD shares the basic pathogenic mechanisms with obesity and insulin resistance, such as mitochondrial, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Lipoxygenases catalyze the conversion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane-mainly arachidonic acid and linoleic acid-to produce oxidized pro-inflammatory lipid intermediates...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886741/taurine-and-tea-polyphenols-combination-ameliorate-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-rats
#12
Wenhua Zhu, Siwen Chen, Ronggui Chen, Zhiqing Peng, Jun Wan, Benyan Wu
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, for which there is currently no safe and effective drug for therapy. In this study, we explored the effects of taurine, tea polyphenols (TPs), or a combination thereof, on NASH rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into a normal group, a high-fat diet induced model group and a treatment group (including taurine, TPs, or taurine + TPs treatment for 8 weeks). Twelve weeks later, all rats were sacrificed, and serum transaminase, lipid and lipopolysaccharide levels and hepatic oxidative stress levels were determined...
September 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883393/fas-cell-surface-death-receptor-controls-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-regulating-mitochondrial-function
#13
Flurin Item, Stephan Wueest, Vera Lemos, Sokrates Stein, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Rémy Denzler, Muriel C Fisser, Tenagne D Challa, Eija Pirinen, Youngsoo Kim, Silvio Hemmi, Erich Gulbins, Atan Gross, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Markus Stoffel, Johan Auwerx, Daniel Konrad
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders and it tightly associates with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Reduced mitochondrial lipid oxidation contributes to hepatic fatty acid accumulation. Here, we show that the Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas/CD95/Apo-1) regulates hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Hepatic Fas overexpression in chow-fed mice compromises fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and the abundance of mitochondrial respiratory complexes promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881825/development-of-hepatocellular-cancer-induced-by-long-term-low-fat-high-carbohydrate-diet-in-a-nafld-nash-mouse-model
#14
Alessandra Tessitore, Valentina Mastroiaco, Antonella Vetuschi, Roberta Sferra, Simona Pompili, Germana Cicciarelli, Remo Barnabei, Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Carlo Capalbo, Edoardo Alesse
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877220/attenuated-lipotoxicity-and-apoptosis-is-linked-to-exogenous-and-endogenous-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-by-different-pathways
#15
Thomas S Weiss, Madeleine Lupke, Sara Ibrahim, Christa Buechler, Julia Lorenz, Petra Ruemmele, Ute Hofmann, Michael Melter, Rania Dayoub
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Free fatty acids (FFA) induce steatosis and lipo-toxicity and correlate with severity of NAFLD. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of exogenous and endogenous ALR (augmenter of liver regeneration) for FFA induced ER (endoplasmatic reticulum) -stress and lipoapoptosis. Primary human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells either treated with recombinant human ALR (rhALR, 15kDa) or expressing short form ALR (sfALR, 15kDa) were incubated with palmitic acid (PA) and analyzed for lipo-toxicity, -apoptosis, activation of ER-stress response pathways, triacylglycerides (TAG), mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolizing genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834687/weight-loss-enhances-hepatic-antioxidant-status-in-a-nafld-model-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#16
Iara Karise Santos Mendes, Cristiane Matsuura, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Julio Beltrame Daleprane, Marcela Anjos Martins, Wanda Vianna Mury, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha Brunini
PURPOSE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk)...
August 23, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827398/network-analyses-identify-liver-specific-targets-for-treating-liver-diseases
#17
Sunjae Lee, Cheng Zhang, Zhengtao Liu, Martina Klevstig, Bani Mukhopadhyay, Mattias Bergentall, Resat Cinar, Marcus Ståhlman, Natasha Sikanic, Joshua K Park, Sumit Deshmukh, Azadeh M Harzandi, Tim Kuijpers, Morten Grøtli, Simon J Elsässer, Brian D Piening, Michael Snyder, Ulf Smith, Jens Nielsen, Fredrik Bäckhed, George Kunos, Mathias Uhlen, Jan Boren, Adil Mardinoglu
We performed integrative network analyses to identify targets that can be used for effectively treating liver diseases with minimal side effects. We first generated co-expression networks (CNs) for 46 human tissues and liver cancer to explore the functional relationships between genes and examined the overlap between functional and physical interactions. Since increased de novo lipogenesis is a characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the liver-specific genes co-expressed with fatty acid synthase (FASN)...
August 21, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814531/patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-have-a-low-response-rate-to-vitamin-d-supplementation
#18
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Rony Varghese, Abram Feldman, Amer Khiyami, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808418/emerging-roles-of-sirt1-in-fatty-liver-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ren-Bo Ding, Jiaolin Bao, Chu-Xia Deng
Fatty liver diseases, which are commonly associated with high-fat/calorie diet, heavy alcohol consumption and/or other metabolic disorder causes, lead to serious medical concerns worldwide in recent years. It has been demonstrated that metabolic homeostasis disruption is most likely to be responsible for this global epidemic. Sirtuins are a group of conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) dependent histone and/or protein deacetylases belonging to the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796993/oral-administration-of-cardioaid-and-lunasin-alleviates-liver-damage-in-a-high-fat-diet-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-model
#20
Ariel Drori, Dvorah Rotnemer-Golinkin, Lidya Zolotarov, Yaron Ilan
BACKGROUND: Several of the drugs in development for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) target liver fibrosis or have side effects that prohibit their long-term use in patients with mild to moderate disease. Lunasin is a soy-derived peptide with anti-inflammatory properties. ADM's CardioAid™ is a plant sterol extract that exerts cholesterol- and triacylglycerol-lowering effects. AIM: To determine the immunomodulatory effects of CardioAid and lunasin in a high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of NASH...
2017: Digestion
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