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Nonalcoholic fat liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792708/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-is-associated-with-decreased-cyp3a4-protein-expression-and-activity-in-human-liver
#1
Rohitash Jamwal, Suzanne M de la Monte, Ken Ogasawara, Sravani Adusumalli, Benjamin B Barlock, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in Western population. We investigated the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus on CYP3A4 activity in human liver tissue from brain dead donors (N=74). Histopathologically graded livers were grouped into normal (n=24), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, n=26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n=24) categories. The rate of conversion of midazolam to its 1-hydroxy metabolite was used to assess in vitro CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788077/irgm-gene-variants-modify-the-relationship-between-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-nafld-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#2
Tracey G Simon, Kimberley W J Van Der Sloot, Samantha B Chin, Amit D Joshi, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Ramnik Xavier, Raymond T Chung, Hamed Khalili
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Autophagy is a highly conserved process regulating innate immunity that contributes to CD susceptibility. Emerging data suggest that variants in the autophagy-governing IRGM gene may contribute to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between VAT, IRGM gene variants, and NAFLD risk in patients with CD...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#3
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785077/mediterranean-diet-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Caterina Anania, Francesco Massimo Perla, Francesca Olivero, Lucia Pacifico, Claudio Chiesa
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the major risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Currently, there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781841/carbohydrates-and-diet-patterns-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Ahlia Sekkarie, Jean A Welsh, Miriam B Vos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children is lifestyle change, including a healthier diet. However, there are no agreed upon expert recommendations for a specific diet in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we review studies published between 2015 and 2017 contributing to further understanding of the role of diet in the development and progression of NAFLD, particularly those addressing sugars and dietary patterns...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#6
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766802/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-molecular-mechanisms-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#7
Lifeng Wang, Jun Ren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
May 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766801/naringenin-and-its-nano-formulations-for-fatty-liver-cellular-modes-of-action-and-clinical-perspective
#8
Mahdi Zobeiri, Tarun Belwal, Fatemeh Parvizi, Rozita Naseri, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease mainly caused by high fat diets and sudden feed changes, vitamin and energy deficiency, and inflammatory processes. Fatty liver leads to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma as well as liver failure. Lifestyle-modifying such as weight loss and healthy diet have an inverse correlation with the risk of fatty liver. The promising effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits against fatty liver has been evidenced by several empirical studies focused on flavonoids...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764990/ire1%C3%AE-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-by-processing-and-promoting-the-degradation-of-select-micrornas
#9
Jie-Mei Wang, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Hyunbae Kim, Qingwen Qian, Qinghua Sun, Chunbin Zhang, Lei Yin, Deyu Fang, Sung Hong Back, Randal J Kaufman, Ling Yang, Kezhong Zhang
Obesity or a high-fat diet represses the endoribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), a transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An impaired UPR is associated with hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is caused by lipid accumulation in the liver. We found that IRE1α was critical to maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver by repressing the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid mobilization...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761169/prolonged-cenicriviroc-therapy-reduces-hepatic-fibrosis-despite-steatohepatitis-in-a-diet-induced-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Annie J Kruger, Bryan C Fuchs, Ricard Masia, Jacinta A Holmes, Shadi Salloum, Mozhdeh Sojoodi, Diego S Ferreira, Stephanie M Rutledge, Peter Caravan, Nadia Alatrakchi, Pam Vig, Eric Lefebvre, Raymond T Chung
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive liver disease projected to become the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver transplantation in the next decade. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual chemokine receptor 2 and 5 antagonist, prevents macrophage trafficking and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of human NASH fibrosis. We assessed the efficacy and durability of short and prolonged CVC therapy in a diet-induced mouse model of NASH, the choline deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) model...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751074/effects-of-high-fructose-intake-on-liver-injury-progression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-disease-in-ovariectomized-female-mice
#11
Tomoko Ohashi, Masaki Kato, Akihiro Yamasaki, Akifumi Kuwano, Hideo Suzuki, Motoyuki Kohjima, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Epidemiology shows that the morbidity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increased in postmenopausal women and chronic high fructose intake induces NAFLD progression. To analyze the effects of high fructose intake on estrogen deficiency, we evaluated liver disease progression using ovariectomized mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Hepatic steatosis developed in all HFD groups. Fructose intake significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase, which was not exacerbated by ovariectomy alone...
May 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740221/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-hepatic-histological-activity-and-fibrosis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-patients-a-1-year-randomized-control-trial
#12
Shahinul Alam, Jhumur Ghosh, Golam Mustafa, Mohammad Kamal, Nooruddin Ahmad
Background/purpose: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) expression is directly associated with hepatic lipogenesis and liver injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study has been designed to elucidate the histological improvement of NASH with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Materials and methods: In this open-label randomized control trial, paired liver biopsy was taken from 40 NASH patients. Sitagliptin 100 mg was given once daily to the SL group and no sitagliptin was given to the L group for 1 year...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729104/the-impact-of-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#13
Kim H H Liss, Kyle S McCommis, Kari T Chambers, Terri A Pietka, George G Schweitzer, Sara L Park, ILKe Nalbantoglu, Carla J Weinheimer, Angela M Hall, Brian N Finck
The prevalence of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has significantly increased over the past decade and end stage liver disease secondary to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has become one of the most common indications for liver transplantation. This both increases the demand for organs and decreases the availability of donor livers deemed suitable for transplantation. While in the past many steatotic livers were discarded due to concerns over enhanced susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury and organ failure, the discrepancy between supply and demand has resulted in increasing use of expanded criteria donor organs including steatotic livers...
May 5, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728744/free-breathing-quantification-of-hepatic-fat-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-a-multi-echo-3-d-stack-of-radial-mri-technique
#14
Tess Armstrong, Karrie V Ly, Smruthi Murthy, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Grace Hyun J Kim, Kara L Calkins, Holden H Wu
BACKGROUND: In adults, noninvasive chemical shift encoded Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (SVS) accurately quantify hepatic steatosis but require breath-holding. In children, especially young and sick children, breath-holding is often limited or not feasible. Sedation can facilitate breath-holding but is highly undesirable. For these reasons, there is a need to develop free-breathing MRI technology that accurately quantifies steatosis in all children...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727630/theacrine-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-regulating-acylcarnitine-metabolism
#15
Guo-En Wang, Yi-Fang Li, Yu-Jia Zhai, Lian Gong, Jing-Yu Tian, Mo Hong, Nan Yao, Yan-Ping Wu, Hiroshi Kurihara, Rong-Rong He
OBJECTIVE: Acylcarnitine metabolism disorder contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are, however, few ideal medications for NAFLD, which work by targeting acylcarnitine metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of theacrine, a rare purine alkaloid isolated from Camellia assamica var. kucha, against acylcarnitine metabolism disorder in NAFLD. METHODS: The pharmacological activities of theacrine were studied using high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 J mice models...
May 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725353/enhancement-of-lipid-metabolism-and-hepatic-stability-in-fat-induced-obese-mice-by-fermented-cucurbita-moschata-extract
#16
Md Akil Hossain, Seung-Jin Lee, Na-Hye Park, Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Abraham Fikru Mechesso, Ji-Yong Park, Eun-Jin Park, Sam-Pin Lee, Sun-Joo Youn, Seung-Chun Park
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of fermented Cucurbita moschata extract (FCME) in the treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 6 groups and treated for 8 weeks by feeding the normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) with and without FCME. Changes in body weight gain and consumption of feed and water were recorded. Major organs, adipose tissues, and blood samples were collected after the experimental period. The serum lipid profile, histological features of liver and adipose tissues, and mRNA expression of different adipogenic/lipogenic genes from liver tissue were evaluated...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722568/liver-fat-imaging-a-clinical-overview-of-ultrasound-ct-and-mr-imaging
#17
Yingzhen Zhang, Kathryn J Fowler, Gavin Hamilton, Jennifer Cui, Ethan Z Sy, Michelle Balanay, Jonathan C Hooker, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatic steatosis is a frequently encountered imaging finding that may indicate chronic liver disease, the most common of which is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is implicated in the development of systemic diseases and its progressive phenotype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leads to increased liver-specific morbidity and mortality. With the rising obesity epidemic and advent of novel therapeutics aimed at altering metabolism, there is a growing need to quantify and monitor liver steatosis...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721506/vildagliptin-can-alleviate-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-liver-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Xiaoqing Ma, Wenhua Du, Shanshan Shao, Chunxiao Yu, Lingyan Zhou, Fei Jing
Purpose. We investigated whether a DDP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, alleviated ER stress induced by a high fat diet and improved hepatic lipid deposition. Methods. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), and HFD administered with vildagliptin (50 mg/Kg) (V-HFD). After administration for 12 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels were analyzed. Samples of liver underwent histological examination and transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR for gene expression levels, and western blots for protein expression levels...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713145/inhibition-of-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-attenuated-lipotoxicity-by-inducing-autophagy-via-ampk-mtor-pathway
#19
Shaoren Zhang, Yuqing Mao, Xiaoming Fan
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered the most commonly occurring chronic hepatopathy in the world. Ghrelin o -acyltransferase (GOAT) is an acylation enzyme which has an acylated position 3 serine on ghrelin. Recent investigation revealed that activated autophagy could attenuate liver steatosis. The aim of this study was to explore therapeutic roles that inhibit GOAT exerted in NAFLD, and its potential association with autophagy. Materials and methods: Human LO2 cells were pretreated with siRNA-GOAT to induce liver steatosis using free fatty acids (FFAs)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713129/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-severity-is-defined-by-a-failure-in-compensatory-antioxidant-capacity-in-the-setting-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Michelle L Boland, Stephanie Oldham, Brandon B Boland, Sarah Will, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Silvia Guionaud, Christopher J Rhodes, James L Trevaskis
AIM: To comprehensively evaluate mitochondrial (dys) function in preclinical models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We utilized two readily available mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without progressive fibrosis: Lepob /Lepob ( ob/ob ) and FATZO mice on high trans -fat, high fructose and high cholesterol (AMLN) diet. Presence of NASH was assessed using immunohistochemical and pathological techniques, and gene expression profiling...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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