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Ryo Takaji, Shunro Matsumoto, Maki Kiyonaga, Yasunari Yamada, Hiromu Mori, Yukio Iwashita, Masayuki Ohta, Masafumi Inomata, Naoki Hijiya, Masatsugu Moriyama, Hajime Takaki, Kengo Fukuzawa, Hirotoshi Yonemasu
OBJECTIVES: Periportal low attenuation (PPLA) associated with metastatic liver cancer is occasionally seen on multi-detector-row CT (MDCT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the MDCT patterns of the PPLA and to correlate it with pathological findings. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MDCT images of 63 patients with metastatic liver cancers from colorectal adenocarcinoma. On MDCT scans, PPLA associated with liver metastasis was visualized in six patients with colorectal cancer...
October 25, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Alexandre Morel, Michel Rivoire, Valéria Basso, Pierre Meeus, Patrice Peyrat, Aurélien Dupré
PURPOSE: Knowledge of vascular outflow is essential in liver surgery. Communicating veins between the right hepatic vein (RHV) and the middle hepatic vein (MHV) have been described and allowed us to perform new surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to predict the existence of intra-hepatic venous anastomosis by identifying communicating veins on 2D CT-scan imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 32 patients operated on for liver tumours between 2004 and 2013 who underwent a bisegmentectomy VI-VII enlarged to the RHV and/or a bisegmentectomy VII-VIII and/or a left hepatectomy enlarged to the MHV and who had pre and post-operative CT-scans...
October 25, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Sébastien Pesenti, Benjamin Blondel, Gregory Armaganian, Sébastien Parratte, Gérard Bollini, Franck Launay, Jean-Luc Jouve
Patellofemoral instability in children requires surgery when recurrent dislocation occurs. The aim of this study is to report the 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes following lateral wedge augmentation trochleoplasty of the femoral trochlea. This is a review of 23 (mean age: 12.5 years) patients who underwent surgery for recurrent patellar dislocations related to a flat trochlea. In every case, a lateral wedge augmentation trochleoplasty was performed with preservation of the growth plate. This surgery was consistently associated with a soft tissue procedure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Madhav P Yadav, Sanjana Ballal, Madhavi Tripathi, Nishikant A Damle, Ranjit K Sahoo, Amlesh Seth, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617, a urea-based compound, binds to the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, thus providing an effective target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Before its therapeutic use, it is necessary that the radiation dosimetry of this radiopharmaceutical be studied to determine the safe activity that can be administered in patients to prevent haematological, renal and liver toxicity. The present study thus aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in CRPC patients...
October 25, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Tao Sun, Jung-Ha Kim, Roger Fulton, Johan Nuyts
PURPOSE: Although current computed tomography (CT) systems can scan the head in a very short time, patient motion sometimes still induces artifacts. If motion occurs, one has to repeat the scan; to avoid motion, sedation or anesthesia is sometimes applied. METHODS: The authors propose a method to iteratively estimate and compensate this motion during the reconstruction. In every iteration, the rigid motion was estimated view-by-view and then used to update the system matrix...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Wookjin Choi, Ming Xue, Barton F Lane, Min Kyu Kang, Kruti Patel, William F Regine, Paul Klahr, Jiahui Wang, Shifeng Chen, Warren D'Souza, Wei Lu
PURPOSE: To develop an individually optimized contrast-enhanced (CE) 4D-computed tomography (CT) for radiotherapy simulation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDA). METHODS: Ten PDA patients were enrolled. Each underwent three CT scans: a 4D-CT immediately following a CE 3D-CT and an individually optimized CE 4D-CT using test injection. Three physicians contoured the tumor and pancreatic tissues. Image quality scores, tumor volume, motion, tumor-to-pancreas contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared in the three CTs...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Pablo Mínguez, Glenn Flux, José Genollá, Alejandro Delgado, Emilia Rodeño, Katarina Sjögreen Gleisner
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible differences between SPECT/CT based whole-remnant and maximum-voxel dosimetry in patients receiving radio-iodine ablation treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: Eighteen DTC patients were administered 1.11 GBq of (131)I-NaI after near-total thyroidectomy and rhTSH stimulation. Two patients had two remnants, so in total dosimetry was performed for 20 sites. Three SPECT/CT scans were performed for each patient at 1, 2, and 3-7 days after administration...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Adria Perez-Rovira, Wieying Kuo, Jens Petersen, Harm A W M Tiddens, Marleen de Bruijne
PURPOSE: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle, there is a need for methods that automatically segment the airway and vascular trees, measure their size, and pair each airway branch with its accompanying artery. METHODS: This paper combines and extends existing techniques to present a fully automated pipeline that, given a thoracic chest CT, segments, measures, and pairs airway branches with the accompanying artery, then quantifies airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis by measuring the wall-artery ratio (WAR) and lumen and outer wall airway-artery ratio (AAR)...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Jennifer Xu, Alejandro Sisniega, Wojciech Zbijewski, Hao Dang, J Webster Stayman, Michael Mow, Xiaohui Wang, David H Foos, Vassillis E Koliatsos, Nafi Aygun, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: A cone-beam CT scanner has been developed for detection and monitoring of traumatic brain injury and acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at the point of care. This work presents a technical assessment of imaging performance and dose for the scanner in phantom and cadaver studies as a prerequisite to clinical translation. METHODS: The scanner incorporates a compact, rotating-anode x-ray source and a flat-panel detector (43 × 43 cm(2)) on a mobile U-arm gantry with source-axis distance = 550 mm and source-detector distance = 1000 mm...
October 2016: Medical Physics
K Müller, S Datta, M Ahmad, J-H Choi, T Moore, L Pung, C Niebler, G E Gold, A Maier, R Fahrig
PURPOSE: In the last years, dual-energy CT imaging has shown clinical value, thanks to its ability to differentiate materials based on their atomic number and to exploit different properties of images acquired at two different energies. C-arm CT systems are used to guide procedures in the interventional suite. Until now, there are no commercially available systems that employ dual-energy material decomposition. This paper explores the feasibility of implementing a fast kV-switching technique on a clinically available angiographic system for acquiring dual-energy C-arm CT images...
October 2016: Medical Physics
R Claeys, M Walsdorff, S Pargov, R Matasa, R Duttmann, M Cannie
Non-traumatic wrist pain remains a diagnostic challenge. An accurate diagnosis is crucial in order to choose the appropriate treatment. We report the case of a 23-year-old female with a four-month history of mainly nocturnal wrist pain. There was no history of trauma or prior surgery. Radiographs and CT scans showed a lytic lesion with central nidus and sclerotic margins in the pisiform bone. Bone scan showed increased uptake in the pisiform bone. The diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was confirmed by histopathological analysis after complete surgical resection...
September 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Jiayin Li, Yang Liu, Jianbo Gao, Dandan Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of CT perfusion imaging in differential diagnosis between Borrmann types II( and III( gastric cancer. METHODS: All the patients were proven as ulcerated gastric cancer by preoperative gastroscopy and underwent CT perfusion scanning with Aquilion ONE 320 spiral CT from October 2013 to June 2014 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, including 19 patients as Borrmann type II( gastric cancer and 23 patients as Borrmann type III( gastric cancer by pathology...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Peter M Formby, Daniel G Kang, Melvin D Helgeson, Scott C Wagner
Study Design Retrospective review. Objective To compare clinical outcomes after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in patients with and patients without osteoporosis. Methods We reviewed all patients with 6-month postoperative radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluation of the interbody cage. CT Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of the instrumented vertebral body were used to determine whether patients had osteoporosis. Radiographs and CT scans were evaluated for evidence of implant subsidence, migration, interbody fusion, iatrogenic fracture, or loosening of posterior pedicle screw fixation...
November 2016: Global Spine Journal
Takuro Yukawa, Takuya Fukazawa, Masakazu Yoshida, Ichiro Morita, Katsuya Kato, Yasumasa Monobe, Mitsuko Furuya, Yoshio Naomoto
BACKGROUND Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder clinically characterized by pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, renal cell cancer, and skin fibrofolliculomas. The disorder is caused by germline mutations in the FLCN gene. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed bilateral multiple bullae predominantly located in the subpleural and mediastinal areas in the bilateral upper and lower lobes...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Catherine Okoukoni, David M Randolph, Emory R McTyre, Andy Kwok, Ashley A Weaver, A William Blackstock, Michael T Munley, Jeffrey S Willey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) have an increased risk of hip fractures after treatment. The mechanism of these fractures is unknown; however, femoral fractures have been correlated with cortical bone thinning. The objective of this study was to assess early changes in cortical bone thickness at common sites of femoral fracture in anal cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: RT treatment plans and computed tomography (CT) scans from 23 anal cancer patients who underwent IMRT between November 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 22, 2016: Bone
Yoshinori Funama, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Seitaro Oda, Toshiaki Shimonobo, Takeshi Nakaura, Toshifumi Mukunoki, Masafumi Kidoh, Hideaki Yuki, Yasuyuki Yamashita
PURPOSE: Transluminal-attenuation-gradient (TAG) may reflect patient characteristics and physiological parameters. Furthermore, TAG may be affected by factors such as the CT scanner speed, scanning method, scan timing after contrast-medium (CM) injection, and the injection methods. The purpose of our study was to investigate quantitative TAG at different scan timing points after CM injection for coronary CT angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a CM flow phantom and two types of connecting tube mimicking 0% and 70% coronary artery stenosis, we performed 320-detector volume scanning...
October 22, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Lori R Hill, Steven Y Huang, Mihai Gagea
A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a poor prognosis, the pig was euthanized. A necropsy and gross examination revealed a tear of the diaphragmatic muscle in the region of the esophageal hiatus through which the stomach was displaced into the right side of the thoracic cavity. In addition, the herniated stomach had a rupture of the stomach wall through which the gastric mucosa was everted and exposed into the right thoracic cavity...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Michael P O'Leary, Aaron B Parrish, Cynthia M Tom, Brian W MacLaughlin, Beverley A Petrie
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends that patients who are newly diagnosed with rectal cancer undergo staging CT scan of the chest. It is unclear whether posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography (X-ray) alone would provide adequate staging for most of these patients. A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had a two-view chest X-ray along with a chest CT for rectal cancer staging from 2007 to 2015. A total of 74 patients had both modalities. Sixty-three (85%) had a normal chest X-ray and 11 (15%) had an abnormal chest X-ray...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Michael P O'Leary, Angela L Neville, Jessica A Keeley, Dennis Y Kim, Christian de Virgilio, David S Plurad
Preoperative diagnosis of ischemic bowel in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative variables associated with ischemic bowel found at operative exploration. We performed a 5-year retrospective review of patients admitted to a university affiliated, county funded hospital who underwent exploratory laparoscopy or laparotomy for SBO. Patients were excluded if they had a known preoperative malignancy or hernia on physical examination...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Alexander C Schwed, Monica M Boggs, Drew Watanabe, David S Plurad, Brant A Putnam, Dennis Y Kim
Consensus is lacking for ideal management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Patients are often monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) without additional interventions. We sought to identify admission variables associated with a favorable outcome (ICU admission for 24 hours, no neurosurgical interventions, no complications or mortality) to divert these patients to a non-ICU setting in the future. We reviewed all patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) = 13-15] and concomitant ICH between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015...
October 2016: American Surgeon
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