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Scientific writing

Cary Moskovitz
Text recycling, often called "self-plagiarism", is the practice of reusing textual material from one's prior documents in a new work. The practice presents a complex set of ethical and practical challenges to the scientific community, many of which have not been addressed in prior discourse on the subject. This essay identifies and discusses these factors in a systematic fashion, concluding with a new definition of text recycling that takes these factors into account. Topics include terminology, what is not text recycling, factors affecting judgements about the appropriateness of text recycling, and visual materials...
March 15, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Emily Goldmann, James H Stark, Farzana Kapadia, Matthew B McQueen
The rapid growth in undergraduate public health education has offered an increasing number of undergraduate students training in epidemiology. Epidemiology courses introduce undergraduate students to a population health perspective and provide opportunities for these students to build essential skills and competencies such as ethical reasoning, teamwork, comprehension of scientific methods, critical thinking, quantitative and information literacy, ability to analyze public health information, and effective writing and oral communication...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tuva Bjørkvold, Marte Blikstad-Balas
All scientists depend on both reading and writing to do their scientific work. It is of paramount importance to ensure that students have a relevant repertoire of practices they can employ when facing scientific content inside and outside the school context. The present study reports on students in seventh grade acting as researchers. Over an 8-week collaborative research period, students posed their own research question, attempted to answer it by systematically testing hypotheses, discussing findings, presenting their conclusions, and documenting their process in a written report...
March 2018: Science Education
Isabelle Boutron, Philippe Ravaud
Publication in peer-reviewed journals is an essential step in the scientific process. However, publication is not simply the reporting of facts arising from a straightforward analysis thereof. Authors have broad latitude when writing their reports and may be tempted to consciously or unconsciously "spin" their study findings. Spin has been defined as a specific intentional or unintentional reporting that fails to faithfully reflect the nature and range of findings and that could affect the impression the results produce in readers...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Deepika Ganju, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Rajatashuvra Adhikary, Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti, Gina Dallabetta
BACKGROUND: The Knowledge Network project was launched in 2010 to build evidence on the HIV epidemic by using the data generated by HIV programme implementing organisations in India. This paper describes the implementation of the programme and the strategies adopted to enhance the capacity of individuals to document and publish HIV prevention programme learnings. Further, it discusses the outcomes of the initiative. METHODS: A multipronged approach was adopted, where a group of experts were brought together to collaborate with programme implementing organisations, review available data, develop research questions and guide peer-reviewed publications...
March 12, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Maria Henricson, Bengt Fridlund, Jan Mårtensson, Berith Hedberg
BACKGROUND: The supervision process is characterized by differences between the supervisors' and the students' expectations before the start of writing a bachelor thesis as well as after its completion. A review of the literature did not reveal any scientifically tested questionnaire for evaluating nursing students' expectations of the supervision process when writing a bachelor thesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of a questionnaire for measuring nursing students' expectations of the bachelor thesis supervision process...
February 17, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Kurt R Lehner, Michael Schulder
Sir Victor Horsley was a pioneering British neurosurgeon known for his numerous neurosurgical, scientific, and sociopolitical contributions. Although word of these surgical and scientific achievements quickly spread throughout Europe and North America in the late 19th century, much of modern neurosurgery's view of Horsley has been colored by a single anecdote from John Fulton's biography of Harvey Cushing. In this account, Cushing observes a frenetic Horsley hastily removing a Gasserian ganglion from a patient in the kitchen of a British mansion...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Myriam Zawoznik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Jeffrey A Lawton, Noelle A Prescott, Ping X Lawton
We have developed an integrated, project-oriented curriculum for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses spanning two semesters that is organized around the ldhA gene from the yogurt-fermenting bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which encodes the enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular biology module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eleven sessions, begins with the isolation of genomic DNA from L. bulgaricus in yogurt and guides students through the process of cloning the ldhA gene into a prokaryotic expression vector, followed by mRNA isolation and characterization of recombinant gene expression levels using RT-PCR...
March 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Victor Grech
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) may be required by researchers as an inferential statistical test when more than two means require comparison. This paper explains how to perform ANOVA in Microsoft Excel.
March 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Victor Grech
Contingency tables may be required to perform chi-test analyses. This provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel and explains how to set up methods to calculate confidence intervals for proportions, including proportions with zero numerators.
March 1, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
t-Testing is a common component of inferential statistics when comparing two means. This paper explains the central limit theorem and the concept of the null hypothesis as well as types of errors. On the practical side, this paper outlines how different t-tests may be performed in Microsoft Excel, for different purposes, both statically as well as dynamically, with Excel's functions.
February 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Carrying out research beyond that which is required by one's work/academic obligations, and teaching and training others so that one can be replaced or even surpassed, are both metamotivational. The Write a Scientific Paper (WASP) course provides a metamotivational outlet for senior academics to impart their collective experiences to WASP delegates in this crucial aspect of career progress.
February 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Manaswita Dutta, Laura Murray, Wendy Miller, Doyle Groves
Purpose: This study involved a scoping review to identify possible gaps in the empirical description of language functioning in epilepsy in adults. With access to social network data, data mining was used to determine if individuals with epilepsy are expressing language-related concerns. Method: For the scoping review, scientific databases were explored to identify pertinent articles. Findings regarding the nature of epilepsy etiologies, patient characteristics, tested language modalities, and language measures were compiled...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Daniela Costa-Silva, Juliana A Côrtes, Rober F Bachinski, Carolina N Spiegel, Gutemberg G Alves
Although the discipline of cell biology (CB) is part of the curricula of predoctoral dental schools, students often fail to recognize its practical relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a practical-theoretical project-based course in closing the gaps among CB, scientific research, and dentistry for dental students. A project-based learning course was developed with nine sequential lessons to evaluate 108 undergraduate dental students enrolled in CB classes of a Brazilian school of dentistry during 2013-16...
March 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Victor Grech
The calculation of descriptive statistics after data collection provides researchers with an overview of the shape and nature of their datasets, along with basic descriptors, and may help identify true or incorrect outlier values. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible. This paper provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel, both statically and dynamically, with Excel's functions, including the calculation of standard deviation and variance and the relevance of the t-distribution...
February 26, 2018: Early Human Development
Eduardo de Almeida Guimarães Nogueira, Vitor Martinez de Carvalho, Marcos Vinicius de Queiroz, Gleysson Rodrigues Rosa, Yara Dadalti Fragoso
Augusta Marie Déjerine-Klumpke (1859-1927) was a formidable neurologist, neuroanatomist and researcher in France. One of the first women to be accepted for medical internship, externship and research in Paris, Augusta made her name studying and teaching anatomy, histology and dissection, attending clinical activities in neurology, obstetrics, pediatrics and neurologic trauma, performing necropsies, and writing scientific papers and book chapters. Her main research in neurology awarded her an eponym for the avulsion of the lowest root of the brachial plexus (Klumpke's palsy)...
February 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Victor Grech
The almost inevitable descriptive statistics exercise that is undergone once data collection is complete, prior to inferential statistics, requires the acquisition of basic descriptors which may include standard deviation and quartiles. This paper provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel™ and explains the relationship between the two.
February 23, 2018: Early Human Development
Jenine K Harris, Sarah B Wondmeneh, Yiqiang Zhao, Jonathon P Leider
OBJECTIVE: Research replication, or repeating a study de novo, is the scientific standard for building evidence and identifying spurious results. While replication is ideal, it is often expensive and time consuming. Reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published findings, is one proposed minimum alternative standard. While a lack of research reproducibility has been identified as a serious and prevalent problem in biomedical research and a few other fields, little work has been done to examine the reproducibility of public health research...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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