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Pediatric chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901459/pediatric-calculi-cause-prevention-and-medical-management
#1
Cesare M Scoffone, Cecilia M Cracco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise, with a significant related morbidity and a concomitant relevant increase in healthcare costs. The purpose of the present review is to portray the current epidemiology and cause of renal stones in children, to provide a framework for appropriate clinical evaluation on an individual basis, and a guidance regarding treatment and prevention for the following significant risk of lifelong recurrence and deriving complications...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893643/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-children-and-young-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Hua-Shan Liu, Erum A Hartung, Abbas F Jawad, Jeffrey B Ware, Nina Laney, Allison M Port, Ruben C Gur, Stephen R Hooper, Jerilynn Radcliffe, Susan L Furth, John A Detre
Purpose To investigate the pathophysiologic effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on brain function in children with CKD by correlating cerebral blood flow (CBF) with clinical and behavioral indexes. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 73 pediatric patients with CKD (mean age, 15.80 years ± 3.63; range, 9-25 years) and 57 control subjects (mean age, 15.65 years ± 3.76; range, 9-25 years) were recruited. CBF measurements were acquired with an MRI arterial spin labeling scheme. Neurocognitive measurements were performed with traditional and computerized neurocognitive batteries...
June 12, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872964/the-interplay-between-bone-and-vessels-in-pediatric-ckd-lessons-from-a-single-center-study
#3
Evgenia Preka, Bruno Ranchin, Anke Doyon, Melody Vierge, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Behrouz Kassai, Justine Bacchetta
OBJECTIVE: Mineral and bone disorders associated to chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) are a daily challenge for pediatric nephrologists, with a significant risk of long-term bone and vascular comorbidities. METHODS: This single-center study is a prospective transversal evaluation of pediatric CKD patients of our center, part of the European 4C study. In addition to clinical and biochemical data, vascular and bone evaluation was performed: 24-h blood pressure assessment, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultra-distal tibia...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863453/diabetes-mellitus-after-pediatric-kidney-transplant
#4
Reham Almardini, Ghazi Salaita, Jawaher Albderat, Katiba Alrabadi, Aghadir Alhadidi, Mahdi Alfarah, Ala' Abu Ruqa'a, Dina Dahabreh
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant is the best renal replacement therapy for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease; however, this procedure is not without complications. A major complication is the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus, which affects the outcomes of transplant in terms of kidney and patient survival. In this study, our objective was to calculate the percentage of pediatric patients who developed new-onset diabetes mellitus or transient hyperglycemia after kidney transplant, compare our data with international data, and discuss the related factors that predispose to diabetes...
June 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850396/a-pilot-investigation-of-food-insecurity-among-children-seen-in-an-outpatient-pediatric-nephrology-clinic
#5
Michelle C Starr, Kelly Fisher, Kirsten Thompson, Kathryn Thurber-Smith, Sangeeta Hingorani
Food insecurity (FI) is common - affecting one in six American households with children. FI is defined as limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. Awareness of food insecurity and its impact on health has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy statement, "Promoting Food Security for All Children." Though FI is frequently addressed in general pediatric primary care, it is not routinely identified in patients with chronic medical problems. Patients with complex care needs, prescription medication, or restrictive nutritional requirements may be at higher risk of food insecurity...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846891/diagnosis-and-management-of-non-calcium-containing-stones-in-the-pediatric-population
#6
REVIEW
Saritha Ranabothu, Ari P Bernstein, Beth A Drzewiecki
Compared to adults, urolithiasis is less common in children, with a definite rise in incidence, especially among young adults (Tasian et al. in Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 11:488, 2016). In the last 25 years, the incidence in children has increased by approximately 6-10% annually, for reasons still unknown, with an associated significant increase in related health care-related expenditures (Hyams and Matlaga in Transl Androl Urol 3(3):278-83, 2014). It has been shown that there is twice as high a risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) in stone formers compared to non-stone formers (Tasian et al...
May 30, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775450/-congenital-megacalycosis-in-a-girl-with-unilateral-renal-agenesis
#7
Agnieszka Szmigielska, Grażyna Krzemień, Anna Zacharzewska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Stanisław Warchoł
Renal agenesis occurs in pediatric population with the incidence 1:500- 2000 children. It is more often diagnosed in boys and on the left side of the body. Renal agenesis may be isolated or it may be a part of complex malformation syndrome. Megacalycosis is a very rare anomaly of urinary tract associated with abnormal structure of the kidney pyramids. AIM: The aim of the study was to present for the first time in the medical literature the case of a girl with unilateral renal agenesis and megacalycosis...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775446/-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-up-to-2-years-of-age-a-single-center-data-analysis
#8
Kinga Musiał, Marta Sałamacha, Sylwia Gralec, Anna Pers, Łukasz Jacheć, Danuta Zwolińska
Although anomalies in the urinary tract are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the pediatric population, there are few studies focusing on etiological discrepancies between younger and older children. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of etiology of CKD in children hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology at the Wrocław Medical University, with reference to the patients' age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis considered medical records of 174 patients aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with CKD, hospitalized in our Department in the years 2011-2017...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735307/combination-of-pediatric-and-adult-formulas-yield-valid-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimates-in-young-adults-with-a-history-of-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Derek K Ng, George J Schwartz, Michael F Schneider, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady
As patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition from pediatric nephrology care to adult care, their kidney function is clinically assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using both pediatric and adult equations, which may not be congruent. Here we evaluated commonly used eGFR equations and directly measured iohexol GFR (iGFR) among participants between ages 18 and 26 with a diagnosis of pediatric CKD in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort. The bedside serum creatinine (SCr)-only equation (CKiDSCr ), the SCr-only CKD-EPI (CKD-EPISCr ), the cystatin C (Cys)-only CKD-EPI (CKD-EPICys ) and the combined SCr and Cys CKD-EPI (CKD-EPISCr-Cys ) were compared with a) 279 measured iGFRs obtained from 187 participants and b) 548 eGFRs from the SCr and Cys-based CKiD equation (CKiDSCr-Cys ) obtained from 219 participants...
May 5, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727865/prospective-study-on-several-urinary-biomarkers-as-indicators-of-renal-damage-in-children-with-cakut
#10
Fabio Bartoli, Valentina Pastore, Isabella Calè, Gabriella Aceto, Vittoria Campanella, Carla Lasalandra, Simona Magaldi, Francesco Niglio, Angela Basile, Raffaella Cocomazzi
PURPOSE:  The aim of the study was to investigate urinary levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), β-2-microglobulin (β2M), and FAS-ligand (FAS-L) in children with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) disease at risk of developing glomerular hyperfiltration syndrome. For this reason, we selected patients with multicystic kidney, renal agenesia and renal hypodysplasia, or underwent single nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This prospective, multicentric study was conducted in collaboration between the Pediatric Surgery Unit in Foggia and the Pediatric Nephrology Unit in Bari, Italy...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718370/pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-should-we-be-looking-for-kidney-abnormalities
#11
Didde Lauritzen, Bente Utoft Andreassen, Niels Henrik H Heegaard, Lone Gabriels Klinge, Anne-Mette Walsted, Mette Neland, Rasmus Gaardskær Nielsen, Per Wittenhagen
Background: Kidney disease has been reported in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is regarded an extraintestinal manifestation or more rarely a side effect of the medical treatment. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we describe the extent of kidney pathology in a cohort of 56 children with IBD. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for markers of kidney disease and ultrasonography was performed to evaluate pole-to-pole kidney length. Results: We found that 25% of the patients had either previously reported kidney disease or ultrasonographic signs of chronic kidney disease...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680873/pediatric-nephrolithiasis-a-systematic-approach-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Giuseppina Marra, Francesca Taroni, Alfredo Berrettini, Emanuele Montanari, Gianantonio Manzoni, Giovanni Montini
Nephrolithiasis is a rare disease in children. For many years children with kidney stones have been managed like "small adults", but there are significant differences between the pediatric and the adult age in clinical presentation, etiology and treatment. Management of this condition in children has some peculiarities with respect to the adult, as it is often the sign of an underlying metabolic abnormality. Some of these metabolic alterations can lead to serious consequences, such as chronic renal failure, if not adequately diagnosed and treated...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666917/measurement-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Wesley Hayes
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, and dysregulation of iron homeostasis plays a central role in its pathogenesis. Optimizing iron status is a prerequisite for effective treatment of anemia. Insufficient iron can lead to inappropriate escalation of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Excess iron supplementation also has negative sequelae including free radical tissue damage and increased risk of systemic infection...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644055/pretreatment-of-enteral-nutrition-with-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-effective-but-beware-the-high-prevalence-of-electrolyte-derangements-in-clinical-practice
#14
Krisha Le Palma, Elisha Rampolla Pavlick, Lawrence Copelovitch
Background: Current treatment options for chronic hyperkalemia in children with chronic kidney disease include dietary restrictions or enteral sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS); however, dietary restrictions may compromise adequate nutrition and enteral SPS may be limited by palatability, adverse effects and feeding tube obstruction. A potentially safer alternative is to pretreat enteral nutrition (EN) with SPS prior to consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pretreating EN with SPS in pediatric patients with hyperkalemia...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627839/genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-pediatric-patients-with-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#15
Eujin Park, Myung Hyun Cho, Hye Sun Hyun, Jae Il Shin, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Hyun Jin Choi, Hee Gyung Kang, Hae Il Cheong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in children is a rare genetic disorder, and three causative mutated genes have been identified: SLC4A1, ATP6V1B1, and ATP6V0A4. We analyzed the prevalence and phenotypic differences of genetic mutations in children with dRTA. METHODS: A total of 17 children with dRTA were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent genetic testing for all three candidate genes. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations, including six novel mutations, were detected in 15 (88...
2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619486/assessment-of-the-etiologies-and-renal-outcomes-of-rapidly-progressive-glomerulonephritis-in-pediatric-patients-at-king-abdulaziz-university-hospital-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#16
Faisal G Mosaad, Omar Mohammed Saggaf, Khaled T Aletwady, Khaled Y Mohammed Jan, Khalid Al-Qarni, Rakan S Al-Harbi, Osama Y Safdar
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the etiologies and outcomes of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in pediatric patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 19 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with RPGN between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Pediatric Medicine at KAUH. Associations between variables were evaluated using independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-squared tests...
April 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619157/glomerular-hyperfiltration-as-predictor-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-children-and-adolescents-the-childhood-and-adolescence-surveillance-and-prevention-of-adult-v-study
#17
Roya Kelishadi, Mostafa Qorbani, Farahnak Assadi, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Shirin Djalalinia, Ali Shahsavari, Hasan Ziaodini, Majzoubeh Taheri, Gita Shafiee, Azadeh Aminianfar, Sajjad Esmaeili, Tahereh Aminaei, Morteza Mansourian, Ramin Heshmat
Background: The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and chronic kidney disease is increasing worldwide in parallel with obesity hypertension epidemic. The effect of increases in glomerular filtrations (GFR) in children with metabolic syndrome has not been studied. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between GFR and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large sample of pediatric population. Methods: In this nationwide survey, 3800 participants were selected by cluster random sampling from 30 provinces in Iran...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609642/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-myocardial-and-vascular-phenotype-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-using-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Mun Hong Cheang, Nathaniel J Barber, Abbas Khushnood, Jakob A Hauser, Gregorz T Kowalik, Jennifer A Steeden, Michael A Quail, Kjell Tullus, Daljit Hothi, Vivek Muthurangu
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased cardiovascular mortality. Identifying high-risk children who may benefit from further therapeutic intervention is difficult as cardiovascular abnormalities are subtle. Although transthoracic echocardiography may be used to detect sub-clinical abnormalities, it has well-known problems with reproducibility that limit its ability to accurately detect these changes. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the reference standard method for assessing blood flow, cardiac structure and function...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590376/incidence-of-nephrotoxicity-among-pediatric-patients-receiving-vancomycin-with-either-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime-a-cohort-study
#19
Kathryn M Cook, Jessica Gillon, Alison G Grisso, Ritu Banerjee, Natalia Jimenez-Truque, Elizabeth J Phillips, Sara L Van Driest
Background: Recent studies in adults have found an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) that is greater than that expected with either medication alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination therapy with vancomycin and TZP is associated with an incidence of AKI in pediatric patients higher than that in those on combination therapy with vancomycin and cefepime. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center matched-cohort study of pediatric patients who received vancomycin in combination with TZP or cefepime between January 2015 and June 2016...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569190/hif-stabilizers-in-the-management-of-renal-anemia-from-bench-to-bedside-to-pediatrics
#20
REVIEW
Dalvir Kular, Iain C Macdougall
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adult and pediatric patients. It has traditionally been treated with erythropoietin therapy and iron supplementation, with great success. With the discovery of the major transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) for the erythropoietin gene in 1992, molecules were created that inhibit the HIF prolyl-hydroxylase enzyme. This new class of drug-called HIF stabilizers, or HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors-prevents the proteasomal degradation of HIF-α, thereby inducing upregulation of the erythropoietin gene...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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