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Pediatric chronic kidney disease

Shatha Hussain Ali, Salman Hussain Assi, Fadhil S Hussien
Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most common sequelae of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Dialysis-related HTN is predominantly caused by chronic volume overload, and as such the blood pressure (BP) can be reduced and/or brought down to normal in a sizable number of patients with improved salt and fluid balance. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HTN among children on hemodialysis (HD) and to evaluate the correlation of HTN with some demographic data. This is a prospective study performed on forty pediatric patients with CKD receiving maintenance HD in three centers in Baghdad...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Camilla S Hanson, Jonathan C Craig, Allison Tong
Patient- and family-centered care is hailed as a hallmark of high-quality pediatric care. This partnership between patients, families and their healthcare providers is central to caring for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), given the long-term and profound impact of the disease and its treatment on the development and quality of life of these children. This paradigm hinges on a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of children with CKD and their families. However, their perspectives may remain undisclosed during time-limited clinical consultations and because of beliefs that if they did disclose their concerns, their care would be jeopardized...
October 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
C Pietrement, E Allain-Launay, J Bacchetta, A Bertholet-Thomas, L Dubourg, J Harambat, R Vieux, G Deschênes
These guidelines are intended to assist physicians in the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined in children as in adults, regardless of its cause. Often silent for a long time, CKD can evolve to chronic renal failure or end-stage renal disease. Its management aims at slowing disease progression and treating CKD complications as soon as they appear. The different aspects of pediatric CKD care are addressed in these guidelines (screening, treatment, monitoring, diet, quality of life) as proposed by the French Society of Pediatric Nephrology...
October 12, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Elaine Hillesheim, Valéria Laguna Salomão Ambrósio, Inalda Facincani
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Objectives: Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Yuko Shima, Koichi Nakanishi, Masashi Sato, Taketsugu Hama, Hironobu Mukaiyama, Hiroko Togawa, Ryojiro Tanaka, Kandai Nozu, Mayumi Sako, Kazumoto Iijima, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Norishige Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Despite a low incidence, nephrotic syndrome (NS) can present with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with IgAN presenting with NS (NS-IgAN) at onset have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 426 patients, and compared clinical and pathological (Oxford) findings between those with NS-IgAN and those with non-NS-IgAN. RESULTS: Among 426 patients, 30 (7...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marzieh Sadat Minooei, Zohreh Ghazavi, Zahra Abdeyazdan, Alaleh Gheissari, Zeinab Hemati
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) causes a gradual decline in kidney function to the extent that CRF patients need long-term clinical care, which affects the patients' family function and quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to study the effects of the family-centered empowerment model on QoL in children with CRF during 2012-2013. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, 68 children with CRF and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups, intervention and control, via a random numbers table...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Linda C Lee, Armando J Lorenzo, Martin A Koyle
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common bacterial cause of febrile illness in children. Of children presenting with a febrile UTI, 25-40% are found to have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Historically, the concern regarding VUR was that it could lead to recurrent pyelonephritis, renal scarring, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. As a result, many children underwent invasive surgical procedures to correct VUR. We now know that many cases of VUR are low-grade and have a high rate of spontaneous resolution...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Priya Verghese, Kristen Gillingham, Arthur Matas, Srinath Chinnakotla, Blanche Chavers
The association of blood transfusions with GS after pediatric KTx is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed blood transfusions post-KTx and subsequent outcomes. Between 1984 and 2013, 482 children (<18 years of age) underwent KTx at our center. Recipient demographics, outcomes and transfusion data were collected. Cox regression with post-KTx blood transfusion as a time-dependent covariate was performed to model the impact of blood transfusion on outcomes. Of the 208 (44%) that were transfused, 39% had transfusion <1 month post-KTx; 48% >12 months...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Anne M Kouri, Sharon P Andreoli
BACKGROUND: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a small- and medium-sized vasculitis classically seen in adult patients, with peak onset near the fifth to seventh decade of life. There is little data on ANCA-associated vasculitis in pediatric patients, and most studies have limited follow-up. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 22 patients with ANCA-positive glomerulonephritis in a single institution from 1991 to 2013...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
John Dotis, Antigoni Pavlaki, Nikoleta Printza, Stella Stabouli, Stamatia Antoniou, Chrysa Gkogka, Nikolaos Kontodimopoulos, Fotios Papachristou
BACKGROUND: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), irrespective of the underlying etiology, affects the quality of life (QoL) of children due to the need for regular follow-up visits, a strict medication program and diet intake. METHODS: The Greek version of the KIDSCREEN-52 multidimensional questionnaire was used in children with CKD, renal transplantation (RT) and in a control group (CG) of healthy children. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients between 8 and 18 years, with CKD (n = 25), RT (n = 16) and with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n = 14) were included...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Abd El-Hamid Salah Al-Hamshary, Osama Saad El-Shaaer, Doaa Refaay Soliman, Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad, Ahmed Ibraheem Hussien
INTRODUCTION: High serum resistin levels are associated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objectives of this study were to determine the serum concentrations of resistin in children that present with chronic renal failure (CRF) and end stage renal disease (ESRD), in order to examine the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on serum resistin levels, and to determine if a correlation exists between resistin and growth retardation in patients with CRF. METHODS: This case control study was undertaken in the pediatric hemodialysis unit of the Benha and Menoufia University hospitals from April 2014 to March 2015...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Guido Filler, Ana Catalina Alvarez-Elías, Katherine D Westreich, Shih-Han S Huang, Robert M Lindsay
Although measuring creatinine to determine kidney function is currently the clinical standard, new markers such as beta-trace protein (BTP) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) are being investigated in an effort to measure glomerular filtration rate more accurately. In their recent publication, Inker et al. (Am J Kidney Dis 2015; 67:40-48) explored the use of these two relatively new markers in combination with some commonly available clinical characteristics in a large cohort of adults with chronic kidney disease...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Selçuk Yüksel, Havva Evrengül, Z Birsin Özçakar, Tülay Becerir, Nagihan Yalçın, Emine Korkmaz, Fatih Ozaltin
INTRODUCTION: Studies relating to first-line, early, and long-term eculizumab treatment and outcomes in children with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are scarce and unclear. The aim of this case-series study was to evaluate the outcomes of first-line, early, and long-term eculizumab treatment in our aHUS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the data from four pediatric patients with aHUS who were treated with eculizumab. In three of them, eculizumab was used as a first-line therapy, and the follow-up period was ≥2 years in three patients...
September 19, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Jason H Greenberg, Michael Zappitelli, Prasad Devarajan, Heather R Thiessen-Philbrook, Catherine Krawczeski, Simon Li, Amit X Garg, Steve Coca, Chirag R Parikh
Importance: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality; however, the long-term kidney outcomes are unclear. Objective: To assess long-term kidney outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery and to determine if perioperative AKI is associated with worse long-term kidney outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective multicenter cohort study recruited children between ages 1 month to 18 years who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery and survived hospitalization from 3 North American pediatric centers between July 2007 and December 2009...
September 12, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Matthew G Sampson
The discovery of genetic variation associated with pediatric kidney disease has shed light on the biology underlying these conditions and, in some cases, has improved our clinical management of patients. We are challenged to continue the momentum of the genomic era in pediatric nephrology by identifying novel disease-associated genetic variation and translating these discoveries into clinical applications. This article reviews the diverse forms of genetic architecture that have been found to be associated with kidney diseases and traits...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Lyndsay A Harshman, Diana Zepeda-Orozco
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is an irreversible process that, in some cases, may lead to end-stage renal disease. The majority of children with CKD have a congenital disorder of the kidney or urological tract arising from birth. There is strong evidence for both a genetic and epigenetic component to progression of CKD. Utilization of gene-mapping strategies, ranging from genome-wide association studies to single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, serves to identify potential genetic variants that may lend to disease variation...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Francisco Funes Díaz, Verónica Gaete Pinto
UNLABELLED: Adolescents with complex diseases may have a higher frequency of risk behaviors than their healthy peers. AIM: To characterize risk behaviors in adolescents with complex chronic diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Risk behaviors were assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire designed for this purpose, in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, who attended a pediatrics specialties clinic due to cystic fibrosis, congenital craniofacial anomalies, liver transplantation, kidney transplantation and spinal dysraphism...
June 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Monika Miklaszewska, Przemysław Korohoda, Katarzyna Zachwieja, Michał Wolnicki, Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Dorota Drożdż, Jacek A Pietrzyk
Myelomeningocele (MMC) results from a failure of normal neural tube fusion in early fetal development. Retrospective, observational study of medical data of 54 children treated in Pediatric Nephrology and Urology Clinics for five years was performed. The following data were analyzed: serum creatinine, eGFR, urine analysis, renal scintigraphy (RS), renal ultrasound, and urodynamics. Mean age of studied population: 12.3 years, median of eGFR at the beginning and at the end of survey was 110.25 and 116.5 mL/min/1...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniella Levy Erez, Irit Krause, Amit Dagan, Roxana Cleper, Yafa Falush, Miriam Davidovits
Objective. Owing to a shortage of kidney donors in Israel, children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may stay on maintenance dialysis for a considerable time, placing them at a significant risk. The aim of this study was to understand the causes of mortality. Study Design. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from the files of children on chronic dialysis (>3 months) during the years 1995-2013 at a single pediatric medical center. Results. 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 10...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
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