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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527345/a-literature-review-of-blood-concentrations-of-new-psychoactive-substances-classified-as-phenethylamines-aminoindanes-arylalkylamines-arylcyclohexylamines-and-indolalkylamines
#1
REVIEW
Ritva Karinen, Gudrun Høiseth
Interpretation of blood concentrations of new psychoactive substances (NPS) requires comparison of the results to previously published case reports; as only a few experimental studies for these substances exist. A large number of articles representing single or multiple cases have been published for a great number of substances, making a unified overview difficult. In this review we have collected all published blood concentrations from the NPS groups classified as phenethylamines, aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, arylcyclohexylamines, and indolalkylamines, and also included unpublished results for MPA, MXE, 4-FMA, 4-FA and 4-MA analyzed in our laboratory...
March 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527205/moderate-physical-activity-is-associated-with-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Taylor K Kirby, Elizabeth A Boots, Jennifer M Oh, Dorothy Edwards, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Bradley T Christian, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and glucose metabolism in asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults. Ninety-three cognitively healthy late-middle-aged adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this cross-sectional study. They underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) to measure free-living PA. Accelerometer data yielded measures of light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527190/tight-medial-knot-tying-may-increase-retearing-risk-after-transosseous-equivalent-repair-of-rotator-cuff-tendon
#3
Hirotaka Sano, Masako Tokunaga, Moriyuki Noguchi, Takashi Inawashiro, Taichi Irie, Hiroo Abe, A Toshimitsu Yokobori
BACKGROUND: Retearing mechanism after transosseous equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair has not been fully clarified yet. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to compare the stress distribution pattern in the tendon stump between knotted and knotless TOE repair and to investigate the role of suture tension applied during medial knot tying using a 3-dimensional finite element (3D-FE) method. METHODS: Both knotted and knotless TOE repairs were simulated on the 3D-FE human rotator cuff tear model...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523744/bioinspired-ultratough-hydrogel-with-fast-recovery-self-healing-injectability-and-cytocompatibility
#4
Sara Azevedo, Ana M S Costa, Amanda Andersen, Insung S Choi, Henrik Birkedal, João F Mano
Inspired by the mussel byssus adhesiveness, a highly hydrated polymeric structure is designed to combine, for the first time, a set of interesting features for load-bearing purposes. These characteristics include: i) a compressive strength and stiffness in the MPa range, ii) toughness and the ability to recover it upon successive cyclic loading, iii) the ability to quickly self-heal upon rupture, iv) the possibility of administration through minimally invasive techniques, such as by injection, v) the swelling ratio being adjusted to space-filling applications, and vi) cytocompatibility...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523651/microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-of-single-stalks-from-diatom-didymosphenia-geminata-and-their-change-due-to-adsorption-of-selected-metal-ions
#5
Izabela Zgłobicka, Adrian Chlanda, Michał Woźniak, Maciej Łojkowski, Robert Szoszkiewicz, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Wojciech Święszkowski, Elżbieta Wyroba, Krzysztof J Kurzydłowski
We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalks. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from fresh water samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalks cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called here "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differs significantly from topography of pristine stalks...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522819/elastocaloric-effect-and-superelastic-stability-in-ni-mn-in-co-polycrystalline-heusler-alloys-hysteresis-and-strain-rate-effects
#6
Binfeng Lu, Jian Liu
Controlling material hysteresis and working frequency variability are fundamentally important for refrigeration cycle efficiency and power density in solid-state cooling systems. For elastocaloric cooling, understanding the relationship between the width of the stress hysteresis and elastocaloric behaviour during superelastic cycles under varied strain rates is important. In this work, we report the effects of strain rate effects on the superelastic and elastocaloric responses in Ni45Mn50-xInxCo5 (x = 13...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522271/medroxyprogesterone-acetate-drives-m2-macrophage-differentiation-toward-a-phenotype-of-decidual-macrophage
#7
Yung-Chieh Tsai, Joseph T Tseng, Chia-Yih Wang, Mei-Tsz Su, Jyun-Yuan Huang, Pao-Lin Kuo
M1 macrophage differentiation plays a crucial role in enhanced inflammation during pregnancy, which may lead to pregnancy complications. Therefore, modulation of macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype is desirable to ensure a successful pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a potent progestin with an anti-inflammatory property, but its effect on macrophage differentiation is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether MPA can induce an M2 macrophage differentiation by using the human monocytes cell line THP-1 or primary monocytes...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521808/b-cell-repopulation-kinetics-after-rituximab-treatment-in-anca-associated-vasculitides-compared-to-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-connective-tissue-diseases-a-longitudinal-observational-study-on-120-patients
#8
Jens Thiel, Marta Rizzi, Marie Engesser, Ann-Kathrin Dufner, Arianna Troilo, Raquel Lorenzetti, Reinhard E Voll, Nils Venhoff
BACKGROUND: B cell depletion with rituximab (RTX) is approved for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Recently, RTX has been shown to be effective in AAV maintenance therapy, but an optimal RTX treatment schedule is unknown and the time to B cell repopulation after RTX has not been studied. METHODS: Retrospective single-center analysis of B cell repopulation in patients with AAV, RA or connective tissue disease (CTD) treated with RTX...
May 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521202/dual-growth-factor-loaded-nonmulberry-silk-fibroin-carbon-nanofiber-composite-3d-scaffolds-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-bone-regeneration
#9
Deboki Naskar, Ananta K Ghosh, Mahitosh Mandal, Piyali Das, Samit K Nandi, Subhas C Kundu
In recent years the potential application of nanocomposite biomaterials in tissue engineering field is gaining importance because of the combined features of all the individual components. A bottom-up approach is acquired in this study to recreate the bone microenvironment. The regenerated silk protein fibroin obtained from nonmulberry tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta species is reinforced with functionalized carbon nano fiber (CNF) and the composite sponges are fabricated using facile green aqueous based method...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518000/comparison-of-simulated-microgravity-and-hydrostatic-pressure-for-chondrogenesis-of-hasc
#10
Liliana F Mellor, Andrew J Steward, Rachel C Nordberg, Michael A Taylor, Elizabeth G Loboa
BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue engineering is a growing field due to the lack of regenerative capacity of native tissue. The use of bioreactors for cartilage tissue engineering is common, but the results are controversial. Some studies suggest that microgravity bioreactors are ideal for chondrogenesis, while others show that mimicking hydrostatic pressure is crucial for cartilage formation. A parallel study comparing the effects of loading and unloading on chondrogenesis has not been performed...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517977/injectable-chelate-setting-hydroxyapatite-cement-prepared-by-using-chitosan-solution-fabrication-material-properties-biocompatibility-and-osteoconductivity
#11
Toshiisa Konishi, Michiyo Honda, Masaki Nagaya, Hiroshi Nagashima, Eng San Thian, Mamoru Aizawa
An injectable chelate-setting hydroxyapatite cement (IP6-HAp), formed by chelate-bonding capability of inositol phosphate (IP6), was developed. The effects of ball-milling duration of starting HAp powder and IP6 concentration on the material properties such as injectability and mechanical strength of the cement were examined. The cement powder was prepared by ball-milling the as-synthesized HAp powder for 5 min using ZrO2 beads with a diameter of 10 mm, followed by another 60 min with ZrO2 beads with a diameter of 2 mm, and thereafter surface-modified with 5000 ppm of IP6 solution...
May 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516379/panobinostat-enhances-growth-suppressive-effects-of-progestin-on-endometrial-carcinoma-by-increasing-progesterone-receptor-and-mitogen-inducible-gene-6
#12
Hirofumi Ando, Tsutomu Miyamoto, Hiroyasu Kashima, Shotaro Higuchi, Koichi Ida, David Hamisi Mvunta, Tanri Shiozawa
Although progestin has been used to treat endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma (EC), its therapeutic efficacy is limited. In order to improve this, the underlining mechanisms of the effects of progestin need to be elucidated in more detail. In the present study, we examined the involvement of mitogen-inducible gene-6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of the EGF receptor, in the progestin-mediated growth suppression of endometrial epithelia. The immunohistochemical expression of MIG6 was elevated in the early to mid-secretory phases of normal endometrium and also with endometrial hyperplasia after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy...
May 17, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515439/the-biomechanics-behind-extreme-osteophagy-in-tyrannosaurus-rex
#13
Paul M Gignac, Gregory M Erickson
Most carnivorous mammals can pulverize skeletal elements by generating tooth pressures between occluding teeth that exceed cortical bone shear strength, thereby permitting access to marrow and phosphatic salts. Conversely, carnivorous reptiles have non-occluding dentitions that engender negligible bone damage during feeding. As a result, most reptilian predators can only consume bones in their entirety. Nevertheless, North American tyrannosaurids, including the giant (13 metres [m]) theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex stand out for habitually biting deeply into bones, pulverizing and digesting them...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515415/evaluation-of-mycophenolate-mofetil-and-low-dose-steroid-combined-therapy-in-moderately-severe-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-nephritis
#14
Zhihong Lu, Junfeng Song, Jianhua Mao, Yonghui Xia, Caiyun Wang
BACKGROUND The most appropriate management of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) nephritis with nephrotic-range proteinuria remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of mycophenolate mofetil and low-dose steroid in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) with nephrotic-range proteinuria and pathological classification less than IV in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical effects of MMF and low-dose steroid therapy were studied in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis manifested with nephrotic-range proteinuria, normal kidney function, and <50% crescents or sclerosing lesions on renal biopsy...
May 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513885/biomechanical-function-of-a-balloon-nucleus-pulposus-replacement-system-a-human-cadaveric-spine-study
#15
Taekyeong Lee, Tae-Hong Lim, Sang-Heon Lee, Joo-Han Kim, Junghwa Hong
With recent advances in motion-sparing techniques in spine surgery, disc nucleus replacement (DNR) has been introduced as a viable method to restore the biomechanical functions of the spine. Several methods of DNR have been proposed in the literature. However, the risk of device migration or extrusion is a major issue that should be addressed for a successful DNR. DNR using a balloon nucleus (BN) filled with pressurized fluid may be capable of reducing such risks while preserving the advantages of DNR. The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical functionalities of the human cadaveric lumbar motion segments with a custom made BN filled with saline at internal fluid pressure of 0...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513512/effects-of-laser-etching-on-shear-bond-strengths-of-brackets-bonded-to-fluorosed-enamel
#16
R Nalcaci, B Temel, S Çokakoğlu, H Türkkahraman, S Üsümez
AIM: To evaluate the effects of laser etching on the shear bond strengths (SBS) and failure modes of brackets bonded to fluorosed enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study included 34 fluorosed and 34 nonfluorosed teeth. Teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the etching procedure: Group (A) normal enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s, Group (B) nonfluorosed enamel etched with erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er: YAG) laser for 15 s, Group (C) fluorosed enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, Group (D) fluorosed enamel etched with Er: YAG laser for 30 s...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512543/tensile-strength-and-impact-strength-of-color-modified-acrylic-resin-reinforced-with-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#17
Loghman Ghahremani, Saeed Shirkavand, Faezeh Akbari, Niloofar Sabzikari
BACKGROUND: Poor mechanical properties are among the main limitations of acrylic resins. Addition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to acrylic resin has been shown to improve its mechanical properties with an adverse effect on its color. Thus, this study sought to assess the tensile and impact strength of a color modified heat cure acrylic resin reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this in vitroexperimental study, 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were added to SR Triplex Hot heat-cure acrylic resin powder and mixed...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512311/dramatic-improvement-of-strain-hardening-and-ductility-to-95-in-highly-deformable-high-strength-duplex-lightweight-steels
#18
Seok Su Sohn, Hyejin Song, Jai-Hyun Kwak, Sunghak Lee
Ferrite + austenite duplex lightweight steels have been actively developed by adding low-density Al for overcoming a limitation of stiffness deterioration by a traditional approach to obtain a weight reduction. Multiple-stage deformation mechanism in lightweight steels, i.e., simultaneous formation of deformation-induced martensite and deformation twin and additional plasticity by twinning, has been nominated as an attractive strategy, but shows a steady flow behavior with early plastic instability. Here, we present a newly designed Fe-0...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511695/absolute-and-relative-accelerometer-thresholds-for-determining-the-association-between-physical-activity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-older-adults-the-generation-100-study
#19
Nina Zisko, Javaid Nauman, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Nils Petter Aspvik, Øyvind Salvesen, Trude Carlsen, Hallgeir Viken, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold
BACKGROUND: When assessing population adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendation using accelerometers, absolute intensity threshold definition is applied despite having limited validity in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), who are unable to reach them (e.g older adults). Thus, PA thresholds relative to CRF may be an alternative approach. We compared the proportion of the older adults meeting the PA recommendation when PA is assessed using absolute versus sex-and-CRF-adjusted (relative) accelerometer thresholds and determined the association between relative versus absolute moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511515/comparative-evaluation-of-antibacterial-and-adhesive-properties-of-chitosan-modified-glass-ionomer-cement-and-conventional-glass-ionomer-cement-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Arpan Debnath, Srivastava Bagepalli Kesavappa, Gyanendra Pratap Singh, Shruthi Eshwar, Vipin Jain, Madhuniranjan Swamy, Punith Shetty
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have reported the incorporation of modifiers with conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) to enhance its antibacterial effect. One such modification being the addition of Chitosan (CH). However, these modifiers might affect the physical properties of the restorations. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of modifying the liquid phase of conventional GIC with 10% v/v CH on the antibacterial properties and adhesion to enamel in comparison to conventional GIC...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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