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Zongyao Li, Yujin Cho, Xiang Li, Xinyu Li, Akihisa Aimi, Yoshiyuki Inaguma, Jose Antonio Alonso, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Diaz, Jiaqiang Yan, Michael C Downer, Graeme Henkelman, John B Goodenough, Jianshi Zhou
Perovskite oxides hosting ferroelectricity are particularly important materials for modern technologies. The ferroelectric transition in the well-known oxides BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 is realized by softening of a vibration mode in the cubic perovskite structure. For most perovskite oxides, octahedral-site tilting systems are developed to accommodate the bonding mismatch due to a geometric tolerance factor t = (A-O)/[√2(B-O)] < 1. In the absence of cations having lone-pair electrons, e.g. Bi3+ and Pb2+, all simple and complex A-site and B-site ordered perovskite oxides with a t < 1 show a variety of tilting systems and none of them become ferroelectric...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tim Hilgenfeld, Thorsten Kästel, Alexander Heil, Peter Rammelsberg, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Franz Sebastian Schwindling
AIM: To evaluate whether high-resolution, non-contrast-enhanced dental MRI can be used for accurate determination of palatal-masticatory-mucosa-thickness (PMMT) and to locate the greater palatal artery (GPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In five volunteers (4 males, 1 female; mean age 30.2±0.4 years) two independent raters measured PMMT by use of dental MRI in 180 positions. For comparison, clinical bone sounding was performed. The GPA was identified in time-of-flight (TOF) angiography and MSVAT-SPACE-prototype sequence...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Khaja Moiduddin
The traditional methods of metallic bone implants are often dense and suffer from adverse reactions, biomechanical mismatch and lack of adequate space for new bone tissue to grow into the implant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the customized porous cranial implant with mechanical properties closer to that of bone and to improve the aesthetic outcome in cranial surgery with precision fitting for a better quality of life. Two custom cranial implants (bulk and porous) are digitally designed based on the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and fabricated using additive manufacturing...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Kathryn J Ham, Yoshio Kono, Parimal J Patel, Steven M Kilczewski, Yogesh K Vohra
Pressure induced densification and compression of a reprocessed sample of borosilicate glass has been studied by X-ray radiography and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at a synchrotron X-ray source. The reprocessing of a commercial borosilicate glass was carried out by cyclical melting and cooling. Gold foil pressure markers were used to obtain the sample pressure by X-ray diffraction using its known equation of state, while X-ray radiography provided a direct measure of the sample volume at high pressure...
January 12, 2018: Materials
Changyu Shen, Chuan Zhong, Dejun Liu, Xiaokang Lian, Jianyao Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell, Jacques Albert, John F Donegan
Small lateral forces (lower than 0.1 N) cannot normally be measured with conventional single-mode fiber-based sensors because of the high value of their Young modulus (>70  GPa). Here we demonstrate the measurement of lateral forces in the range from 0.2 to 1.4×10-3  N with a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) in conventional single-mode fiber pushed against the surface tension (ST) of a bead of water. The measured transmission changes of individual cladding mode resonances of the TFBG corresponding to these force values are of the order of 29 dB...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Chrystele Sanloup, Benjamin Cochain, Charlotte de Grouchy, Konstantin Glazyrin, Zuzana Konopkova, Hanns-Peter Liermann, Innokenty Kantor, Raffaella Torchio, O Mathon, Tetsuo Irifune
Niobium (Nb) is one of the key trace elements used to understand Earth's formation and differentiation, and is remarkable for its deficiency relative to tantalum in terrestrial rocks compared to the building chondritic blocks. In this context, the local environment of Nb in silica-rich melts and glasses is studied by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at high pressure (P) up to 9.3 GPa and 1350 K using resistive-heating diamond-anvil cells. Nb is slightly less oxidized in the melt (intermediate valence between +4 and +5) than in the glass (+5), an effect evidenced from the shift of the Nb-edge towards lower energies...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Xu Lin, Cheng Peng, Jonathan Greenbaum, Zhang-Fang Li, Ke-Hao Wu, Zeng-Xin Ao, Tong Zhang, Jie Shen, Hong-Wen Deng
Dyslipidemia (DL) is closely related to osteoporosis (OP), while the exact common genetic mechanisms are still largely unknown. We proposed to use novel genetic analysis methods with pleiotropic information to identify potentially novel and/or common genes for the potential shared pathogenesis associated with OP and/or DL. We assessed the pleiotropy between plasma lipid (PL) and femoral neck bone mineral density (FNK BMD). We jointly applied the conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) method and the genetic analysis incorporating pleiotropy and annotation (GPA) method to the summary statistics provided by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of FNK BMD (n = 49,988) and PL (n = 188,577) to identify potentially novel and/or common genes for BMD/PL...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Kristina Spektor, Wilson A Crichton, Sumit Konar, Stanislav Filippov, Johan Klarbring, Sergei I Simak, Ulrich Häussermann
The Mg-Mn-H system was investigated by in situ high pressure studies of reaction mixtures MgH2-Mn-H2. The formation conditions of two complex hydrides with composition Mg3MnH7 were established. Previously known hexagonal Mg3MnH7 (h-Mg3MnH7) formed at pressures 1.5-2 GPa and temperatures between 480 and 500 °C, whereas an orthorhombic form (o-Mg3MnH7) was obtained at pressures above 5 GPa and temperatures above 600 °C. The crystal structures of the polymorphs feature octahedral [Mn(I)H6]5- complexes and interstitial H-...
January 11, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
V K Judge, J G Speer, K D Clarke, K O Findley, A J Clarke
Quenching and Tempering (Q&T) has been utilized for decades to alter steel mechanical properties, particularly strength and toughness. While tempering typically increases toughness, a well-established phenomenon called tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) is known to occur during conventional Q&T. Here we show that short-time, rapid tempering can overcome TME to produce unprecedented property combinations that cannot be attained by conventional Q&T. Toughness is enhanced over 43% at a strength level of 1...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gizem Ayan, Sinem Nihal Esatoglu, Gulen Hatemi, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Melike Melikoglu, Izzet Fresko, Huri Ozdogan, Sebahattin Yurdakul, Vedat Hamuryudan
Rituximab (RTX) is becoming a standard treatment for patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) but heterogeneity exists regarding its use. We present our uncontrolled experience with RTX in patients with refractory AAV and also the results of a systematic review of non-randomized studies on RTX in AAV patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AAV patients treated with RTX following an inadequate response to immunosuppressives between 2011 and 2015. The systematic review covered all English articles listed in PubMed until June 2017...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology International
Midori Toriyama, Etsuko Tagaya, Tomoko Yamamoto, Mitsuko Kondo, Yoji Nagashima, Jun Tamaoki
A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) at the age of 47, when cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) serology was positive, and he had multiple nodular shadows in both lungs. He had been treated with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and plasma exchange. At the age of 64, a nodular shadow was newly detected in the right lower lung field and serum tumour marker increased. Subsequent positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulations of fluorodexyglucose (FDG) in the same area, mediastinum lymph nodes, thoracic wall, right iliac bone, and right retroperitoneum...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Shengxuan Huang, Xiang Wu, Shan Qin
Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe2O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe2O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anne-Marie Pobloth, Sara Checa, Hajar Razi, Ansgar Petersen, James C Weaver, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Markus Windolf, Andras Á Tatai, Claudia P Roth, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Georg N Duda, Philipp Schwabe
Three-dimensional (3D) titanium-mesh scaffolds offer many advantages over autologous bone grafting for the regeneration of challenging large segmental bone defects. Our study supports the hypothesis that endogenous bone defect regeneration can be promoted by mechanobiologically optimized Ti-mesh scaffolds. Using finite element techniques, two mechanically distinct Ti-mesh scaffolds were designed in a honeycomb-like configuration to minimize stress shielding while ensuring resistance against mechanical failure...
January 10, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Siddharth Jain, Animesh Ray, Manish Soneja, S Leve Joseph Devarajan, Shyam Madabhushi, Anitha Swamy, T Naveen, S K Sharma
A known case of primary Sjogren's syndrome with chronic kidney disease presented with respiratory symptoms and subsequent altered sensorium. Chest imaging suggested cavitating lung lesions in both the lungs. Serum c-ANCA was positive without any upper respiratory tract involvement or active urinary sediments. Treatment with appropriate anti-microbials produced no improvement in the respiratory or neurological parameters. MRI brain revealed tell-tale signs of CNS vascultis. A diagnosis of GPA was made as per European Medical Agency algorithm and the patient was started on immune-suppressants to which there was dramatic response...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
C D Williams, P Carbone, F R Siperstein
A multi-step molecular dynamics procedure was developed to construct fully flexible atomistic models of graphene oxide (GO) membranes. The method of preparation replicates the experimental synthesis of the material; i.e. the flow-directed self-assembly of individual flakes onto a substrate or filter. A total of 180 GO membrane models were prepared with water contents varying between 0 and 20%, providing an insight into changes in the membrane's interlayer distance with swelling. Membranes with 15% water content have an average interlayer distance (0...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Harun Badakhshi, Fidelis Engeling, Volker Budach, Pirus Ghadjar, Sebastian Zschaeck, David Kaul
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma brain metastases (MBM) are the third most common cause for brain metastases (BM). Historically Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was considered the goldstandard of treatment even though melanoma cells are regarded as very radioresistant. Therapeutic possibilities have fundamentally changed since the availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), where it is possible to apply high ablative doses in a very precise manner. In this work we analyze prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) after SRT in patients with MBM and evaluate the applicability of popular prognostic indices that mainly stem from the WBRT-era...
January 10, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Dan Chen, Hongwei Yang, Zhenxin Yi, Hualin Xiong, Lin Zhang, Shunguan Zhu, Guangbin Cheng
This study presents the synthesis and characterization of the new metal-free polyazido compounds 3,6-bis-(2-(4,6-diazido-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-hydrazinyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (2) and 3,6-bis-(2-(4,6-diazido-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-diazenyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (4). Two compounds were characterized by NMR spectra, IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, the structure of title compound 2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibit measured densities (1...
January 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Cheng Li, Ye Wu, Bingchen Deng, Yujun Xie, Qiushi Guo, Shaofan Yuan, Xiaolong Chen, Maruf Bhuiyan, Zishan Wu, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hailiang Wang, Judy J Cha, Michael Snure, Yingwei Fei, Fengnian Xia
Black phosphorus (BP) has recently attracted significant attention due to its exceptional physical properties. Currently, high-quality few-layer and thin-film BP are produced primarily by mechanical exfoliation, limiting their potential in future applications. Here, the synthesis of highly crystalline thin-film BP on 5 mm sapphire substrates by conversion from red to black phosphorus at 700 °C and 1.5 GPa is demonstrated. The synthesized ≈50 nm thick BP thin films are polycrystalline with a crystal domain size ranging from 40 to 70 µm long, as indicated by Raman mapping and infrared extinction spectroscopy...
January 3, 2018: Advanced Materials
Laura Grattarola, Giacomo Derchi, Alberto Diaspro, Carla Gambaro, Marco Salerno
We investigated the viscoelastic response of direct and indirect dental restorative composites by the novel technique of AM-FM atomic force microscopy. We selected four composites for direct restorations (Adonis, Optifil, EPH, CME) and three composites for indirect restorations (Gradia, Estenia, Signum). Scanning electron microscopy with micro-analysis was also used to support the results. The mean storage modulus of all composites was in the range of 10.2-15.2 GPa. EPH was the stiffest (p<0.05 vs. all other composites but Adonis and Estenia), while no significant difference was observed between direct and indirect group (p≥0...
December 31, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Yu Wang, Shu-Qing Jiang, Alexander F Goncharov, Federico A Gorelli, Xiao-Jia Chen, Dušan Plašienka, Roman Martoňák, Erio Tosatti, Mario Santoro
Dichalcogenides are known to exhibit layered solid phases, at ambient and high pressures, where 2D layers of chemically bonded formula units are held together by van der Waals forces. These materials are of great interest for solid-state sciences and technology, along with other 2D systems such as graphene and phosphorene. SiS2 is an archetypal model system of the most fundamental interest within this ensemble. Recently, high pressure (GPa) phases with Si in octahedral coordination by S have been theoretically predicted and also experimentally found to occur in this compound...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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