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Vincent Clesi, Mohamed Ali Bouhifd, Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova, Geeth Manthilake, Federica Schiavi, Caroline Raepsaet, Hélène Bureau, Hicham Khodja, Denis Andrault
Hydrogen has been thought to be an important light element in Earth's core due to possible siderophile behavior during core-mantle segregation. We reproduced planetary differentiation conditions using hydrogen contents of 450 to 1500 parts per million (ppm) in the silicate phase, pressures of 5 to 20 GPa, oxygen fugacity varying within IW-3.7 and IW-0.2 (0.2 to 3.7 log units lower than iron-wüstite buffer), and Fe alloys typical of planetary cores. We report hydrogen metal-silicate partition coefficients of ~2 × 10-1 , up to two orders of magnitude lower than reported previously, and indicative of lithophile behavior...
March 2018: Science Advances
Ting Dong, Annesley Copeland, Matthew Gangidine, Deanna Schreiber-Gregory, E Matthew Ritter, Steven J Durning
PURPOSE: We conducted an in-depth empirical investigation to achieve a better understanding of the surgery clerkship from multiple perspectives, including the influence of clerkship sequence on performance, the relationship between self-logged work hours and performance, as well as the association between surgery clerkship performance with subsequent USMLE Step exams' scores. METHOD: The study cohort consisted of medical students graduating between 2015 and 2018 (n = 687)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Giovanni Rillo, Miguel A Morales, David M Ceperley, Carlo Pierleoni
We performed simulations for solid molecular hydrogen at high pressures (250 GPa ≤ P ≤ 500 GPa) along two isotherms at T = 200 K (phase III) and at T = 414 K (phase IV). At T = 200 K, we considered likely candidates for phase III, the C2c and Cmca12 structures, while at T = 414 K in phase IV, we studied the Pc48 structure. We employed both Coupled Electron-Ion Monte Carlo (CEIMC) and Path Integral Molecular Dynamics (PIMD). The latter is based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the van der Waals approximation (vdW-DF)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Takashi Ikeda
The nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) on the structural, elastic, electronic, and vibrational properties of high pressure ices (HPIs) VIII, VII, and X at 270 K were investigated via first principles centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). Our simulations clearly show that even at relatively high temperature of 270 K, the NQEs play a definite role in the pressure-induced proton order (ice VIII)-disorder (ice VII) transition occurring at ∼30 GPa in our H2 O ice and the subsequent transition to the symmetric phase ice X suggested to occur at ∼80 GPa...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
D Martin Kivlighan, Maleeha Abbas, Alberta M Gloria, Arellys Aguinaga, Christina Frank, Nick D Frost
Despite evidence of the effectiveness of postsecondary academic enhancement interventions, presently there is a paucity of research examining the effective processes of such programs. Informed by the psychosociocultural model, this study tested the relationship between the growth in hope and belongingness, as well as academic achievement for undergraduates on academic probation participating in academic enhancement groups. Longitudinal ratings of hope and belongingness from 167 undergraduates enrolled in 22 academic enhancement groups were modeled as predictors of changes in their grade-point average (GPA)...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Sarah Onuora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Jex Ong, A U Yap, J Y Hong, A H Eweis, N A Yahya
This study investigated the viscoelastic properties of contemporary bulk-fill restoratives in distilled water and artificial saliva using dynamic mechanical analysis. The materials evaluated included a conventional composite (Filtek Z350), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill and Tetric N Ceram), a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative), and two novel reinforced glass ionomer cements (Zirconomer [ZR] and Equia Forte [EQ]). The glass ionomer materials were also assessed with and without resin coating (Equia Forte Coat)...
March 13, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Dominique Laniel, Gunnar Weck, Gabriel Gaiffe, Gaston Garbarino, Paul Loubeyre
Polynitrogen compounds have been actively pursued driven by their potential as ultra-high performing propellants or explosives. Despite remarkable breakthroughs over the past two decades, the two figures of merit for a compelling material, namely a large fraction of nitrogen by weight and a bulk stability at ambient conditions, have not been achieved yet. Here, we report the synthesis of a lithium pentazolate solid by compressing and laser-heating lithium embedded in molecular N2 around 45 GPa along with its recovery at ambient conditions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Fiona A Pearce, Peter C Lanyon, Richard A Watts, Matthew J Grainge, Abhishek Abhishek, Richard B Hubbard
Objectives: We aimed to provide insights into the aetiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), by conducting a large case-control study using a general population-based, prospectively collected database of healthcare records. Methods: We compared all incident cases of GPA in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 1990-2014, with up to 10 age-, sex- and general practice-matched controls. We identified potential risk factors, recorded numbers of cases and controls exposed to each, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression...
February 26, 2018: Rheumatology
Satyendra Nath Gupta, Anjali Singh, Koushik Pal, D Victor S Muthu, Chandra Shekhar, Moaz A ElGhazali, Pavel Naumov, Sergey Medvedev, Claudia Felser, Umesh V Waghmare, A K Sooda
High pressure Raman, resistivity and synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on Weyl semimetals NbAs and TaAs have been carried out along with density functional theoretical (DFT) analysis to explain pressure-induced structural and electronic topological phase transitions. The frequencies of first order Raman modes harden with increasing pressure, exhibiting a slope change at P<sub>c</sub><sup>Nb</sup> ~15 GPa for NbAs and P<sub>c</sub><sup>Ta</sup> ~16 GPa for TaAs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Maria Cecilia Evora, Xinyi Lu, Nitilaksha Hiremath, Nam-Goo Kang, Kunlun Hong, Roberto Uribe, Gajanan Bhat, Jimmy Mays
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns exhibit low tensile strength compared to conventional high-performance carbon fibers due to the facile sliding of CNTs past one another. Electron beam (e-beam) irradiation was employed for in a single-step surface modification of CNTs to improve the mechanical properties of this material. To this end, CNT yarns were simultaneously functionalized and crosslinked using acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) in an e-beam irradiation process. The chemical modification of CNT yarns was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Supaporn Suwanchote, Muanpetch Rachayon, Pongsawat Rodsaward, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Tawatchai Deekajorndech, Helen L Wright, Steven W Edwards, Michael W Beresford, Pawinee Rerknimitr, Direkrit Chiewchengchol
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are a group of autoantibodies that cause systemic vascular inflammation by binding to target antigens of neutrophils. These autoantibodies can be found in serum from patients with systemic small-vessel vasculitis and they are considered as a biomarker for ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). A conventional screening test to detect ANCA in the serum is indirect immunofluorescence study, and subsequently confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A positive staining of ANCA can be classified into three main categories based on the staining patterns: cytoplasmic, perinuclear, and atypical...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Naoya Uchida, Juan J Haro-Mora, Selami Demirci, Atsushi Fujita, Lydia Raines, Matthew M Hsieh, John F Tisdale
A reliable cell line capable of robust in vitro erythroid differentiation would be useful to investigate red blood cell (RBC) biology and genetic strategies for RBC diseases. K562 cells are widely utilized for erythroid differentiation; however, current differentiation methods are insufficient to analyze globin proteins. In this study, we sought to improve erythroid differentiation from K562 cells to enable protein-level globin analysis. K562 cells were exposed to a variety of reagents including hemin, rapamycin, imatinib, and/or decitabine (known erythroid inducers), and cultured in basic culture media or erythropoietin-based differentiation media...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Shaoteng Wu, Liancheng Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaoyan Yi, Yang Huang, Chao Yang, Tongbo Wei, Jianchang Yan, Guodong Yuan, Junxi Wang, Jinmin Li
Recently, horizontal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention due to their increased compatibility with NW-based integrated nanoelectronic and nanophotonic systems. However, it still remains challenging to synthesize horizontal NWs efficiently. Here we introduce a novel method towards controllable growth of horizontal GaN NWs using HVPE with an Au/Ni thin film as the catalyst. By simply flipping the substrate, horizontal GaN NWs with various growth directions and cross sections have been obtained on a sapphire substrate with various facet orientations...
March 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Liucheng Chen, Hao Yu, Hong-Jie Pang, Bin-Bin Jiang, Lei Su, Xun Shi, L D Chen, Xiaojia Chen
An extended study on PdS is carried out with the measurements of the resistivity, Hall coefficient, Raman scattering, and X-ray diffraction at high pressures up to 42.3 GPa. With increasing pressure, superconductivity is observed accompanying with a structural phase transition at around 19.5 GPa. The coexistence of semiconducting and metallic phases observed at normal state is examined by the Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction between 19.5 and 29.5 GPa. After that, only the metallic normal state maintains with an almost constant superconducting transition temperature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
H Marco, J Draibe, J Villacorta, L F Quintana, N Martin, R Garcia-Osuna, C Cabre, M A Martín-Gómez, A Balius, A Saurina, M Picazo, I Gich-Saladich, M Navarro-Díaz, M Praga, T Cavero, J Ballarin, M M Díaz-Encarnación
The classification of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) remains controversial. The main objective of this study was to define the respective values of ANCA serotype-based classification, clinicopathological classification, and histopathological classification in predicting patient and renal outcomes in a Spanish cohort of patients with ANCA with specificity for myeloperoxidase, MPO-ANCA, versus ANCA with specificity for proteinase 3, PR3-ANCA. Two hundred and forty-five patients with ANCA-AAV and biopsy-proven renal involvement diagnosed between 2000 and 2104 were recruited in 12 nephrology services...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Piao He, Haozheng Mei, Le Wu, Junqing Yang, Jian-Guo Zhang, Adva Cohen, Michael Gozin
The density functional theory method was employed to calculate three-dimensional structures for a series of novel explosophores. The design of new molecules (DA1-DA12) was based on the bridge-ring structures that could be formed via Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of selected nitrogen-rich dienes and tetranitroethylene dienophile. The feasibility of the proposed DA reactions was predicted on a basis of the molecular orbital theory. That strong interactions between HOMO of dienes, with electron-donating groups (Diene2, Diene6 and Diene8) and LUMO of tetranitroethylene dienophile, suggested thermodynamically favorable formation of the desired DA reaction products...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Mamat-Noorhidayah, Kenjiro Yazawa, Keiji Numata, Y Norma-Rashid
Resilin functions as an elastic spring that demonstrates extraordinary extensibility and elasticity. Here we use combined techniques, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illuminate the structure and study the function of wing flexibility in damselflies, focusing on the genus Rhinocypha. Morphological studies using LSCM and SEM revealed that resilin patches and cuticular spikes were widespread along the longitudinal veins on both dorsal and ventral wing surfaces...
2018: PloS One
Ya Cheng, Xianlong Wang, Jie Zhang, Kaishuai Yang, Chuanguo Zhang, Zhi Zeng, Haiqing Lin
Pressure-induced spin crossover behaviors of Fe-bearing MgO were widely investigated by using LDA+U functional for describing the strongly correlated Fe-O bonding. Moreover, the simulated spin crossover pressures depend on the applied U values, which are sensitive to environments and parameters. In this work, the spin crossover pressures of (Mg1-x,Fex)O are investigated by using the hybrid functional with a uniform parameter. Our results indicate that the spin crossover pressures increase with the iron concentration increasing...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Hisashi Kato, Shinya Masuda, Tomotaka Ohira, Luna Ohira, Hisashi Takakura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Tetsuya Izawa
β-Guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) feeding inhibits growth-associated gain of body mass. It remains unknown, however, whether and how β-GPA feeding affects growth-associated increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We examined the effects of 4- and 8-week β-GPA feeding on serum myostatin levels and expression of genes and proteins related to adipogenesis, lipolysis, and liposynthesis in epididymal WAT (eWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in 3-week-old, juvenile male mice. Body, eWAT, and muscle weights were significantly lower in β-GPA-fed mice than in controls after feeding...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
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