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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786768/risk-prediction-score-for-hiv-infection-development-and-internal-validation-with-cross-sectional-data-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#1
Lu Yin, Yuejuan Zhao, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Liang Song, Xiangjun Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Zheya Sun, Yunan Xu, Li Zhang, Yifei Hu, Chun Hao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sten H Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian
Receptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model...
May 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786085/chronic-crh-depletion-from-gabaergic-long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-extended-amygdala-reduces-dopamine-release-and-increases-anxiety
#2
Nina Dedic, Claudia Kühne, Mira Jakovcevski, Jakob Hartmann, Andreas J Genewsky, Karina S Gomes, Elmira Anderzhanova, Max L Pöhlmann, Simon Chang, Adam Kolarz, Annette M Vogl, Julien Dine, Michael W Metzger, Bianca Schmid, Rafael C Almada, Kerry J Ressler, Carsten T Wotjak, Valery Grinevich, Alon Chen, Mathias V Schmidt, Wolfgang Wurst, Damian Refojo, Jan M Deussing
The interplay between corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the dopaminergic system has predominantly been studied in addiction and reward, while CRH-dopamine interactions in anxiety are scarcely understood. We describe a new population of CRH-expressing, GABAergic, long-range-projecting neurons in the extended amygdala that innervate the ventral tegmental area and alter anxiety following chronic CRH depletion. These neurons are part of a distinct CRH circuit that acts anxiolytically by positively modulating dopamine release...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785888/the-impact-of-oprm1-s-genetic-polymorphisms-on-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-opioid-addicts-a-systematic-review
#3
Bilel Oueslati, Olfa Moula, Rim Ghachem
AIM: Methadone is a long-acting opioid receptor agonist. It is prescribed to patients with opioid-related use disorders. The OPRM1 gene encodes for methadone's main receptor. It appears that polymorphisms in OPRM1 may affect the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to identify all relevant published papers dealing with the impact ofOPRM1's SNPs  on MMT's efficacy and to summarize results in order to evaluate the relevance of conducting pretherapeutic genotyping in opioid addicts prior to the onset of MMT...
May 22, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785704/the-role-of-adolescent-victimization-in-energy-drink-consumption-monitoring-the-future-2010-2016
#4
Dylan B Jackson, Wanda E Leal, Chad Posick, Michael G Vaughn, Myrah Olivan
Energy drinks have been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes among youth. Even so, the underlying risk factors for energy drink consumption among youth are less frequently examined. The present study examines the link between adolescent victimization experiences (i.e., property and violent victimization) and energy drink consumption among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. We employed the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to acquire the U...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784213/knowledge-and-perceptions-of-undergraduate-nurses-towards-the-use-of-cocaine-smoked-in-a-brazilian-context
#5
Sérgia Cristina Cavalcante Pereira, Luciana Marques Andreto, Ariani Impieri Souza, Iracema da Silva Frazão, Goolan Hussein Rassool, Sandra Cristina Pillon
The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and knowledge of nursing students on the identification and intervention care among users of cocaine (smoked) patients. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted with 164 undergraduate nursing students of two nursing school from Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes and therapeutic commitment towards the use of cocaine (smoked) were used. The students stated that they received contents of substance misuse in the curriculum of nursing...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783674/smoking-topography-among-korean-smokers-intensive-smoking-behavior-with-larger-puff-volume-and-shorter-interpuff-interval
#6
Sungroul Kim, Sol Yu
The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783244/some-features-of-the-behavior-of-alcohol-dependent-persons
#7
Ihor М Karpinets, Oksana V Marusyn
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Alcoholism is characterized by psychological dependence and changes in human behavior, which affects the person's relationship with the social environment. The aim: to determine the behavior of alcohol dependent persons basing on the retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: On the basis of narcological offices of healthcare establishments and narcological clinic in Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, 552 people being in follow-up by a narcologist as addicted or abused have been examined for a specially developed extended program based on a standardized AUDIT screening test...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#8
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782623/astrocytic-hypertrophy-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-following-chronic-morphine-differs-with-age
#9
Emily C Goins, Dusica Bajic
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system known to play an integral role in mediating reward and development of drug addiction. Although the differences in neuronal plasticity of VTA at various ages remain to be understood, age is known to influence the effects of chronic opioids. In addition, adaptations associated with exposure to opioids within glial populations located in the VTA are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to determine if there are changes in astrocytic immunofluorescent labeling in the VTA following chronic morphine administration in a rat model at different ages: newborn at postnatal day (PD)7 and adult (estimated PD57)...
2018: Journal of neurology and neurorehabilitation research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782404/evaluating-patient-centered-outcomes-in-clinical-trials-of-procedural-sedation-part-2-safety-sedation-consortium-on-endpoints-and-procedures-for-treatment-education-and-research-recommendations
#10
Denham S Ward, Mark R Williams, John W Berkenbosch, Maala Bhatt, Douglas Carlson, Phillip Chappell, Randall M Clark, Isabelle Constant, Aaron Conway, Joseph Cravero, Albert Dahan, Franklin Dexter, Raymond Dionne, Robert H Dworkin, Tong J Gan, David Gozal, Steven Green, Michael G Irwin, Suzanne Karan, Michael Kochman, Jerrold Lerman, Jenifer R Lightdale, Ronald S Litman, Keira P Mason, James Miner, Robert E O'Connor, Pratik Pandharipande, Richard R Riker, Mark G Roback, Daniel I Sessler, Anne Sexton, Joseph R Tobin, Dennis C Turk, Rebecca S Twersky, Richard D Urman, Mark Weiss, Hannah Wunsch, Anna Zhao-Wong
The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research, established by the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks, a public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, convened a second meeting of sedation experts from a variety of clinical specialties and research backgrounds to develop recommendations for procedural sedation research. The previous meeting addressed efficacy and patient- and/or family-centered outcomes...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781843/international-collaborative-research-in-the-addictions
#11
John B Saunders, Linda B Cottler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781716/determining-typical-smartphone-usage-what-data-do-we-need
#12
Thomas D W Wilcockson, David A Ellis, Heather Shaw
Problematic smartphone use is an emerging issue in behavioral addiction research. At the same time, measuring smartphone use with mobile apps has become increasingly common. However, understanding how much data are necessary requires careful consideration if the field is to move forward. Here, we examine how much time should be spent measuring mobile phone operation to reliably infer general patterns of usage and repetitive checking behaviors. In a second analysis, we consider whether a self-report measure of problematic smartphone use is associated with real-time patterns of use...
May 21, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781554/children-who-face-development-risks-due-to-maternal-addiction-during-pregnancy-require-extra-medical-and-psychosocial-resources
#13
Jenny Rangmar, Maria Lilja, Marie Köhler, Antonia Reuter
AIM: This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. METHODS: Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015...
May 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781460/targeting-nicotine-addiction
#14
Ellen Carr
Smoking cessation remains a high priority in oncology nursing practice. That priority gained additional visibility in 2014 when the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) endorsed the tobacco position statement of the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care, emphasizing the potential for nurses to reduce adult and youth tobacco use.
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781314/is-social-media-bad-for-mental-health-and-wellbeing-exploring-the-perspectives-of-adolescents
#15
Michelle O'Reilly, Nisha Dogra, Natasha Whiteman, Jason Hughes, Seyda Eruyar, Paul Reilly
Despite growing evidence of the effects of social media on the mental health of adolescents, there is still a dearth of empirical research into how adolescents themselves perceive social media, especially as knowledge resource, or how they draw upon the wider social and media discourses to express a viewpoint. Accordingly, this article contributes to this scarce literature. Six focus groups took place over 3 months with 54 adolescents aged 11-18 years, recruited from schools in Leicester and London (UK)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780538/competition-between-li-and-na-in-sodium-transporters-and-receptors-which-na-binding-sites-are-therapeutic-li-targets
#16
Todor Dudev, Karine Mazmanian, Carmay Lim
Sodium (Na+ ) acts as an indispensable allosteric regulator of the activities of biologically important neurotransmitter transporters and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which comprise well-known drug targets for psychiatric disorders and addictive behavior. How selective these allosteric Na+ -binding sites are for the cognate cation over abiogenic Li+ , a first-line drug to treat bipolar disorder, is unclear. Here, we reveal how properties of the host protein and its binding cavity affect the outcome of the competition between Li+ and Na+ for allosteric binding sites in sodium transporters and receptors...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780345/addiction-like-mobile-phone-behavior-validation-and-association-with-problem-gambling
#17
Andreas Fransson, Mariano Chóliz, Anders Håkansson
Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#18
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779552/using-echo-clinics-to-promote-capacity-building-in-clinical-supervision
#19
Michael J Chaple, Thomas E Freese, Beth A Rutkowski, Laurie Krom, Andrew S Kurtz, James A Peck, Paul Warren, Susan Garrett
INTRODUCTION: Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO™) is a hub-and-spoke knowledge-sharing network, led by expert teams who use multipoint videoconferencing to conduct virtual clinics with community providers in order to improve the quality of care. For this project, members of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center network applied this model in order to enhance workforce capacity to deliver clinical supervision for the treatment of substance use disorders. METHODS: Clinical supervisors (n=66) employed in substance use disorder treatment programs were recruited to participate in this pilot study...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779547/policy-pathways-to-address-provider-workforce-barriers-to-buprenorphine-treatment
#20
Rebecca L Haffajee, Amy S B Bohnert, Pooja A Lagisetty
At least 2.3 million people in the U.S. have an opioid use disorder, less than 40% of whom receive evidence-based treatment. Buprenorphine used as part of medication-assisted treatment has high potential to address this gap because of its approval for use in non-specialty outpatient settings, effectiveness at promoting abstinence, and cost effectiveness. However, less than 4% of licensed physicians are approved to prescribe buprenorphine for opioid use disorder, and approximately 47% of counties lack a buprenorphine-waivered physician...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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