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Joseph P Kitzmiller, Eduard B Mikulik, Anees M Dauki, Chandrama Murkherjee, Jasmine A Luzum
Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Clint Mizzi, Eleni Dalabira, Judit Kumuthini, Nduna Dzimiri, Istvan Balogh, Nazli Başak, Ruwen Böhm, Joseph Borg, Paola Borgiani, Nada Bozina, Henrike Bruckmueller, Beata Burzynska, Angel Carracedo, Ingolf Cascorbi, Constantinos Deltas, Vita Dolzan, Anthony Fenech, Godfrey Grech, Vytautas Kasiulevicius, Ľudevít Kádaši, Vaidutis Kučinskas, Elza Khusnutdinova, Yiannis L Loukas, Milan Macek, Halyna Makukh, Ron Mathijssen, Konstantinos Mitropoulos, Christina Mitropoulou, Giuseppe Novelli, Ioanna Papantoni, Sonja Pavlovic, Giuseppe Saglio, Jadranka Setric, Maja Stojiljkovic, Andrew P Stubbs, Alessio Squassina, Maria Torres, Marek Turnovec, Ron H van Schaik, Konstantinos Voskarides, Salma M Wakil, Anneke Werk, Maria Del Zompo, Branka Zukic, Theodora Katsila, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Alison Motsinger-Rief, Howard L Mc Leod, Peter J van der Spek, George P Patrinos
Pharmacogenomics aims to correlate inter-individual differences of drug efficacy and/or toxicity with the underlying genetic composition, particularly in genes encoding for protein factors and enzymes involved in drug metabolism and transport. In several European populations, particularly in countries with lower income, information related to the prevalence of pharmacogenomic biomarkers is incomplete or lacking. Here, we have implemented the microattribution approach to assess the pharmacogenomic biomarkers allelic spectrum in 18 European populations, mostly from developing European countries, by analyzing 1,931 pharmacogenomics biomarkers in 231 genes...
2016: PloS One
Nisreen Hoosain, Brendon Pearce, Clifford Jacobs, Mongi Benjeddou
The U.S. President Barack Obama has announced, in his State of the Union address on January 20, 2015, the Precision Medicine Initiative, a US$215-million program. For global precision medicine to become a reality, however, biological and environmental "variome" in previously understudied populations ought to be mapped and catalogued. Chief among the molecular targets that warrant global mapping is the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), a hepatic uptake transporter predominantly expressed in the basolateral side of hepatocytes...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Eleni Aklillu, Abiy Habtewold, Eliford Ngaimisi, Getnet Yimer, Sabina Mugusi, Wondwossen Amogne, Tasmin Reuter, Andreas Meid, Michael Marcus Hoffmann, Johanna Weiss
The solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encodes for a membrane-bound organic anion transporter protein involved in active cellular influx of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. SLCO1B1 genetic variation is associated, for example, with highly variable rifampicin exposure, thus influencing the cornerstone antituberculosis therapy, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where it is a key therapeutic modality. Yet, there is no SLCO1B1-guided pharmacogenetic dosing recommendation for rifampicin to reduce the risk of adverse events or therapy failure...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nyarai D Soko, Collen Masimirembwa, Collet Dandara
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in African populations residing in the African continent is on the rise fueled by both a steady increase in CVD risk factors and comorbidities such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and parasitic diseases such as bilharzia. Statins are recommended together with lifestyle changes in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and overall reduction of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin in particular is an attractive candidate in the management of CVDs in African populations often plagued with multimorbidities owing to both its potency and low drug-to-drug interaction potential...
September 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Nan Shu, Mengyue Hu, Zhaoli Ling, Peihua Liu, Fan Wang, Ping Xu, Zeyu Zhong, Binbin Sun, Mian Zhang, Feng Li, Qiushi Xie, Xiaodong Liu, Li Liu
Liver injury is a common adverse effect of atorvastatin. This study aimed to investigate atorvastatin-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that 40 mg/kg atorvastatin was lethal to diabetic rats, whose mean survival time was 6.2 days. Severe liver injury also occurred in diabetic rats treated with 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg atorvastatin. The in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of diabetic rats was more severe than normal and high-fat diet feeding rats...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jiajia Jiang, Qing Tang, Jing Feng, Rong Dai, Yang Wang, Yuan Yang, Xiaojun Tang, Changkai Deng, Huan Zeng, Yong Zhao, Fan Zhang
An increasing number of studies have investigated the association between SLCO1B1 -521T>C and -388A>G polymorphisms and the risk of statin-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs), but the results have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to gain more insight into the relationship. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published before March 5th, 2015. The quality of included studies was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality scale. Pooled effect estimates (odds ratios [ORs] or hazard ratios [HRs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association in overall and subgroup analyses for various genetic models...
2016: SpringerPlus
Bing Yu, Alexander H Li, Ginger A Metcalf, Donna M Muzny, Alanna C Morrison, Simon White, Thomas H Mosley, Richard A Gibbs, Eric Boerwinkle
The metabolome is a collection of small molecules resulting from multiple cellular and biological processes that can act as biomarkers of disease, and African-Americans exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Exome sequencing of a sample of deeply phenotyped African-Americans allowed us to analyze the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 308 serum metabolites measured by untargeted liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. In an independent sample, we identified and replicated four genes harboring six LoF mutations that significantly affected five metabolites...
August 2016: Science Advances
Htet Khine, Wei Cheng Yuet, Beverley Adams-Huet, Zahid Ahmad
UNLABELLED: Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) may be at increased risk for statin-associated muscle symptoms because they require long-term treatment with high-intensity statin therapy. We sought to determine (1) whether other predisposing factors, including the well-known genetic variant associated with statin-associated muscle symptoms-solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) rs4149056-also increase the risk of statin-associated muscle symptoms in FH patients, and (2) the natural history and management for FH patients with statin-associated muscle symptoms...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Moritz Gruetz, Heinrich Sticht, Hartmut Glaeser, Martin F Fromm, Jörg König
The hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) and OATP1B3 (SLCO1B3) mediate the uptake of endogenous metabolites and drugs from blood into hepatocytes. Alterations of transport function are accompanied with variations in drug plasma concentrations and the risk of adverse drug effects. Thus, knowledge on amino acids determining substrate recognition or transport kinetics are important to predict alterations in transport kinetics. Therefore, we analyzed the charged amino acids His54 and Tyr169, both located at the extracellular entry of the predicted transmembrane pore of OATP1B1...
September 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yi-Hao Weng, Ya-Wen Chiu, Shao-Wen Cheng, Chun-Yuh Yang
BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common disorder during neonatal period in Taiwan. Gene variants may play an important role in the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The current study investigated the association between neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and common gene variants involving the production and metabolism of bilirubin. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 444 healthy infants born in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Taipei from 2013-2015...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Mei Liu, Xiu-Jun Wu, Gui-Lian Zhao, Ti Zhang, Shan-Sen Xu, Ya-Xin Sun, Feng Qiu, Li-Mei Zhao
The nuclear receptors (NR)-farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) have important effects on the expression of genes related to the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of rosuvastatin. This study was designed to investigate whether the genetic variants in drug disposition genes (SLCO1B1 and ABCG2) combined with their upstream regulators (NR1H4 and NR1I2) would affect the PKs of rosuvastatin in a Chinese population. Sixty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled and the plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were measured using the LC-MS/MS method...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
V Stránecký, M Neřoldová, K Hodaňová, H Hartmannová, L Piherová, P Zemánková, A Přistoupilová, M Vrablík, V Adámková, S Kmoch, M Jirsa
Some patients are susceptible to statin-associated myopathy (SAM) either because of genetic variations affecting statin uptake and metabolism, or because they predispose their carriers to muscular diseases. Among the frequent variants examined using the genome-wide association study approach, SLCO1B1 c.521T>C represents the only validated predictor of SAM in patients treated with high-dose simvastatin. Our aim was to ascertain the overall contribution of large copy-number variations (CNVs) to SAM diagnosed in 86 patients...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Sander Bins, Anne Lenting, Samira El Bouazzaoui, Leni van Doorn, Esther Oomen-de Hoop, Ferry Alm Eskens, Ron Hn van Schaik, Ron Hj Mathijssen
AIM: Sorafenib-treated patients display a substantial variation in the incidence of toxicity. We aimed to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms with observed toxicity on sorafenib. PATIENTS & METHODS: We genotyped 114 patients that were treated with sorafenib at the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, the Netherlands, for SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, ABCC2, ABCG2, UGT1A1 and UGT1A9. RESULTS: The UGT1A1 (rs8175347) polymorphism was associated with hyperbilirubinemia and treatment interruption...
September 2016: Pharmacogenomics
K Ramesh, A K Hemanth Kumar, T Kannan, R Vijayalakshmi, V Sudha, S Manohar Nesakumar, T Bharathiraja, J Lavanya, S Swaminathan, G Ramachandran
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of SLCO1B1 gene polymorphisms (rs11045819, rs4149032 and rs4149033) on rifampicin (RMP) concentrations in adult tuberculosis (TB) patients from south India. METHODS: We genotyped adult TB patients for three SLCO1B1 gene polymorphisms-rs11045819, rs4149032 and rs4149033-and compared 2-h post-dosing RMP concentrations of the different genotypes for each of the polymorphisms. Plasma RMP was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C Menni, S Metrustry, G Ehret, A F Dominiczak, P Chowienczyk, T D Spector, S Padmanabhan, A M Valdes
OBJECTIVE: The dicarboxylic fatty acid hexadecanedioate is functionally associated with increased blood pressure. The aims of this study was to further characterize which pathways are related to this compound using genetic and transcriptomic data. DESIGN AND METHOD: A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) was conducted on 6447 individuals from the TwinsUK and KORA cohorts. SNPs achieving genome-wide significance were then tested in the International Consortium for Blood Pressure and in a GWAS of extremes of blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Filipp Filippovich Vasilyev, Diana Aleksandrovna Danilova, Vladimir Sergeevich Kaimonov, Yana Valerievna Chertovskih, Nadezda Romanovna Maksimova
Allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are variable among different populations; therefore the study of SNPs in ethnic groups is important for establishing the clinical significance of the screening of these polymorphisms. The main goal of the research is to study the polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, VKORC1, and SLCO1B1 in Yakuts. Genomic DNA from 229 Yakut subjects were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (SLCO1B1 +521T > C, VKORC1 -1639G>A, CYP2C19 +681G>A, +636G>A, CYP2C9 +430С>T, +1075A>C)...
May 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
R Chen, J Wang, S W Tang, X Z Lyu, Y Zhang, S S Wu, Y Y Xia, S Y Zhan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of genes involving in drug metabolism and transport as well as immunological reaction and the risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury(ATLI)in Chinese. METHODS: This 1∶4 matched case-control study was conducted by using the data from a cohort study of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs Induced Adverse Reactions in National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Progtam of China. Genes involving in three phase of drug metabolism and transport as well as related immunological reaction were chosen and single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)were genotyped by TaqMan allele discrimination technology...
July 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Manthena V Varma, Ayman F El-Kattan
A large body of evidence suggests hepatic uptake transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), are of high clinical relevance in determining the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, based on which recent regulatory guidances to industry recommend appropriate assessment of investigational drugs for the potential drug interactions. We recently proposed an extended clearance classification system (ECCS) framework in which the systemic clearance of class 1B and 3B drugs is likely determined by hepatic uptake...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Zoulikha M Zaïr, Donald Rj Singer
AIM: Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to increase lung patient survival, however their use may be limited by their serious adverse effects. We aimed to assess int impact of pharmacogenetic variation of influx transporters on inter-individual patient variation in adverse drug reactions. PATIENTS & METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis and systemic review and identified 16 publications, totaling 1510 patients, to be eligible for review. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed east-Asian patients expressing SLCO1B1 521T>C or 1118G>A to have a two- to fourfold increased risk of irinotecan-induced neutropenia but not diarrhea...
July 6, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
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