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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053874/tau-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Alexandre Bejanin, Daniel R Schonhaut, Renaud La Joie, Joel H Kramer, Suzanne L Baker, Natasha Sosa, Nagehan Ayakta, Averill Cantwell, Mustafa Janabi, Mariella Lauriola, James P O'Neil, Maria L Gorno-Tempini, Zachary A Miller, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici
Neuropathological and in vivo studies have revealed a tight relationship between tau pathology and cognitive impairment across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum. However, tau pathology is also intimately associated with neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether grey matter atrophy and amyloid pathology contribute to the relationship between tau pathology, as measured with 18F-AV-1451-PET imaging, and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. We included 40 amyloid-positive patients meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or probable Alzheimer's disease dementia (n = 35)...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053851/escitalopram-ameliorates-hypercortisolemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-low-birth-weight-men-with-limbic-brain-alterations
#2
Christian Selmer Buhl, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Poul Videbech, Allan Vaag, Niels Møller, Sten Lund, Esben Selmer Buhl
CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) is linked to development of insulin resistance and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA)-axis hyperactivity. OBJECTIVE: First aim was to study insulin action, LHPA-axis function and limbic brain structures in young, healthy LBW-men vs. normal birth weight controls (NBW) (Part 1). Second aim was to investigate the effects of Escitalopram vs. placebo treatment in LBW with regards to LHPA-axis and insulin sensitivity (Part 2)...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053836/long-term-disability-progression-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-15-year-study
#3
Maria A Rocca, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco Rovaris, Domenico Caputo, Angelo Ghezzi, Enrico Montanari, Antonio Bertolotto, Alice Laroni, Roberto Bergamaschi, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053835/abnormal-intrinsic-brain-functional-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Jinhee Kim, Marion Criaud, Sang Soo Cho, María Díez-Cirarda, Alexander Mihaescu, Sarah Coakeley, Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Mark F Jacobs, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Previous studies measuring spontaneous brain activity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging have reported abnormal changes in broadly distributed whole-brain networks. Although resting state functional connectivity, estimating temporal correlations between brain regions, is measured with the assumption that intrinsic fluctuations throughout the scan are stable, dynamic changes of functional connectivity have recently been suggested to reflect aspects of functional capacity of neural systems, and thus may serve as biomarkers of disease...
October 5, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053798/in-vivo-characterization-of-cortical-and-white-matter-neuroaxonal-pathology-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Tobias Granberg, Qiuyun Fan, Constantina Andrada Treaba, Russell Ouellette, Elena Herranz, Gabriel Mangeat, Céline Louapre, Julien Cohen-Adad, Eric C Klawiter, Jacob A Sloane, Caterina Mainero
Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability...
October 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053782/seizure-onset-zone-localization-using-postictal-hypoperfusion-detected-by-arterial-spin-labelling-mri
#6
Ismael Gaxiola-Valdez, Shaily Singh, Tefani Perera, Sherry Sandy, Emmy Li, Paolo Federico
Neurological dysfunction following epileptic seizures is a well-recognized phenomenon. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to explain postictal dysfunction, with alteration in cerebral blood flow being one possibility. These vascular disturbances may be long lasting and localized to brain areas involved in seizure generation and propagation, as supported by both animal and human studies. Therefore, measuring perfusion changes in the postictal period may help localize the seizure onset zone. Arterial spin labelling is a non-invasive, rapid and reproducible magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures cerebral perfusion...
September 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053775/neuroinflammation-and-its-relationship-to-changes-in-brain-volume-and-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Wim Van Hecke, Graham Searle, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Paul M Matthews
Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients...
September 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#8
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053451/spatially-resolved-mr-compatible-doppler-ultrasound-proof-of-concept-for-triggering-of-diagnostic-quality-cardiovascular-mri-for-function-and-flow-quantification-at-3t
#9
Lindsey A Crowe, Gibran Manasseh, Aneta Chmielewski, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Daniel Speicher, Andreas Greiser, Hajo Muller, Thomas De Perrot, Jean-Paul Vallee, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrate the use of a Magnetic-Resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially-resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging as an initial step towards hybrid US/MR fetal imaging. METHODS: A newly developed technology for a dedicated MR-compatible phased array ultrasound-imaging probe acquired pulsed color Doppler carotid images, which were converted in near-real time to a trigger signal for cardiac cine and flow quantification MRI...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053402/what-are-we-missing-false-negative-cancers-at-multiparametric-mr-imaging-of-the-prostate
#10
Samuel Borofsky, Arvin K George, Sonia Gaur, Marcelino Bernardo, Matthew D Greer, Francesca V Mertan, Myles Taffel, Vanesa Moreno, Maria J Merino, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
Purpose To characterize clinically important prostate cancers missed at multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective single-center study, which included 100 consecutive patients who had undergone MP MR imaging and subsequent radical prostatectomy. A genitourinary pathologist blinded to MP MR findings outlined prostate cancers on whole-mount pathology slices. Two readers correlated mapped lesions with reports of prospectively read MP MR images...
October 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053096/-scaphoid-fracture-in-a-seven-year-old-girl
#11
Ahmed Halloum, Morten Kjerri Rasmussen, Rikke Thorninger
We report a case of a seven-year-old girl, who had a scaphoid fracture, which occurred when she fell off her bicycle. She was examined in the emergency room. X-ray did not show any sign of fracture of the scaphoid, but the fracture was later verified with a magnetic resonance imaging scan. She wore a shin cast for eight weeks and recovered completely. Very few cases of children aged under eight years and diagnosed with scaphoid fracture have been reported in the literature. Scaphoid fracture should be suspected and examined for in all children with relevant trauma and symptoms, regardless of age...
October 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#12
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052813/exploration-for-reliable-radiographic-assessment-method-for-hinge-like-hypermobility-at-atlanto-occipital-joint
#13
Shinjiro Kaneko, Ken Ishii, Kota Watanabe, Takashi Tsuji, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki Yato, Takashi Asazuma
PURPOSE: Hinge-like hyper-mobility is occasionally observed at the atlanto-occipital (O-C1) joint. However, it has not been clear if this kind of hinge-like hyper-mobility at the O-C1 joint should be regarded as "pathologic", or referred to as "instability". To solve this issue, we aimed to establish a reliable radiographic assessment method for this specific type of O-C1 instability and figure out the "standard value" for the range of motion (ROM) of the O-C1 joint. METHODS: To figure out the standard range of the O-C1 angle, we acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sagittal views of the cervical spine for 157 healthy volunteers [average: 37...
October 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052569/analysis-of-the-expression-of-angioarchitecture-related-factors-in-patients-with-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation
#14
Guang-Zhong Chen, Yu Ke, Kun Qin, Meng-Qi Dong, Shao-Jian Zeng, Xiao-Feng Lin, Sheng-Quan Zhan, Kai Tang, Chao Peng, Xiao-Wen Ding, Dong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) is a type of vascular malformation associated with vascular remodeling, hemodynamic imbalance, and inflammation. We detected four angioarchitecture-related cytokines to make a better understanding of the potential aberrant signaling in the pathogenesis of cAVM and found useful proteins in predicting the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on specimens from twenty patients with cAVM diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography and twenty primary epilepsy controls using antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052526/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-indeterminate-negative-cardiac-sarcoidosis-revealed-by-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
S C Sasson, R Russo, T Chung, G Chu, I Hunyor, J Williamson, A Murad, A Kane, S Riminton, S Limaye
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by non-caseating granulomas that can affect any organ. Cardiac sarcoidosis is an under-recognized entity that has a heterogeneous presentation and may occur independently or with any severity of systemic disease. Diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis remains problematic with endomyocardial biopsies associated with a high risk of complications. Several diagnostic algorithms are currently available that rely on histopathology or clinical and radiological measures...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052248/comparative-anatomical-study-of-sound-production-and-reception-systems-in-the-common-dolphin-delphinus-delphis-and-the-harbour-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena-heads
#16
M Arribart, J Ognard, C Tavernier, Y Richaudeau, C Guintard, W Dabin, D Ben Salem, J-L Jung
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to analyse, respectively, the soft tissues and the bones of the heads of four common dolphins and three harbour porpoises. This imaging study was completed by an examination of anatomical sections performed on two odontocete heads (a subadult common dolphin and a subadult harbour porpoise). The three complementary approaches allowed to illustrate anatomical differences in the echolocation systems of the common dolphin and the harbour porpoise...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052102/changes-in-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-and-autonomic-regulation-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-the-neuro-emotional-technique-for-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#17
Daniel A Monti, Anna Tobia, Marie Stoner, Nancy Wintering, Michael Matthews, Chris J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Inna Chervoneva, Andrew B Newberg
PURPOSE: A growing number of research studies have implicated the cerebellum in emotional processing and regulation, especially with regard to negative emotional memories. However, there currently are no studies showing functional changes in the cerebellum as a result of treatment for traumatic stress symptoms. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is an intervention designed to help improve symptoms related to traumatic stress using an integrative approach that combines emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, with a particular focus on autonomic nervous system regulation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052024/multimodality-imaging-in-secondary-postpartum-or-postabortion-hemorrhage-retained-products-of-conception-and-related-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Yuko Iraha, Masahiro Okada, Masafumi Toguchi, Kimei Azama, Keiko Mekaru, Tadatsugu Kinjo, Wataru Kudaka, Yoichi Aoki, Hajime Aoyama, Akiko Matsuzaki, Sadayuki Murayama
Secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and postabortion hemorrhage are rare complications. Retained products of conception (RPOC) is among the most common causes of both secondary PPH and postabortion hemorrhage. Other less common causes of secondary PPH are uterine vascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and pseudoaneurysms. These are usually related to a history of a procedure such as dilation and curettage or cesarean delivery. Subinvolution of the placental site is an idiopathic cause of secondary PPH; this condition may be underrecognized and therefore could have a higher incidence than currently reported...
October 19, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051996/diffusion-weighted-mri-stroke-volume-following-recanalization-treatment-is-threshold-dependent
#19
Rani Gupta Sah, Christopher D d'Esterre, Michael D Hill, Moiz Hafeez, Sana Tariq, Nils D Forkert, Andrew M Demchuk, Mayank Goyal, Philip A Barber
PURPOSE: Infarct lesion segmentation has been problematic as there are a wide range of relative and absolute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds that have been used for this purpose. We examined differences of stroke lesion volume and evolution evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the immediate post-treatment phase (<5 h) and at 24 h. METHODS: In this study 33 acute ischemic stroke patients were imaged with MRI <5 h and 24 h post-reperfusion treatment...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051976/late-gadolinium-enhancement-on-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-is-associated-with-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#20
Mina Nakayama, Megumi Yamamuro, Seiji Takashio, Tomoaki Uemura, Naoki Nakayama, Kyoko Hirakawa, Seitaro Oda, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Koichi Kaikita, Seiji Hokimoto, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Yukiko Morita, Kazuo Kimura, Kouichi Tamura, Kenichi Tsujita
Myocardial fibrosis and coronary endothelial dysfunction are important determinants of outcome in patients with heart failure. However, the relationship of these factors in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotor abnormality and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with DCM. We examined 38 consecutive patients with DCM. All patients underwent CMR and the acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test using cardiac catheterization...
October 19, 2017: Heart and Vessels
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