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Alejandro Galindo-Tovar, María Luisa Vargas, Alberto J Kaumann
Myocardial PDE2 activity increases in terminal human heart failure and after isoprenaline infusion in rat heart. PDE2 inhibitors do not potentiate the murine sinoatrial tachycardia produced by noradrenaline. We investigated whether isoprenaline infusion induces PDE2 to decrease the chronotropic and inotropic effects of catecholamines in rat heart. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with isoprenaline (2.4 mg kg-1  day-1 ) for 3 days. We used spontaneously beating right atria, paced right ventricular strips and left ventricular papillary muscles...
March 19, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Jinshan Guo, Wei Sun, Jimin Peter Kim, Xili Lu, Qiyao Li, Min Lin, Oliver Mrowczynski, Elias B Rizk, Juange Cheng, Guoying Qian, Jian Yang
Tissue adhesives play an important role in surgery to close wounds, seal tissues, and stop bleeding, but existing adhesives are costly, cytotoxic, or bond weakly to tissue. Inspired by the water-resistant adhesion of plant-derived tannins, we herein report a new family of bioadhesives derived from a facile, one-step Michael addition of tannic acid and gelatin under oxidizing conditions and crosslinked by silver nitrate. The oxidized polyphenol groups of tannic acid enable wet tissue adhesion through catecholamine-like chemistry, while both tannic acid and silver nanoparticles reduced from silver nitrate provide antimicrobial sources inherent within the polymeric network...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Marine Paul, Wulfran Bougouin, Florence Dumas, Guillaume Geri, Benoit Champigneulle, Lucie Guillemet, Omar Ben Hadj Salem, Stéphane Legriel, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Julien Charpentier, Jean-Paul Mira, Claudio Sandroni, Alain Cariou
PURPOSE: Although guidelines on post-resuscitation care recommend the use of short-acting agents for sedation during targeted temperature management (TTM) after cardiac arrest (CA), the potential advantages of this strategy have not been clinically demonstrated. METHODS: We compared two sedation regimens (propofol-remifentanil, period P2, vs midazolam-fentanyl, period P1) among comatose TTM-treated CA survivors. Management protocol, apart from sedation and neuromuscular blockers use, did not change between the two periods...
March 16, 2018: Resuscitation
Allen W Barton, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody, Katherine B Ehrlich
From a sample of African American families living in the rural South, this study tested the hypothesis that growing up in poverty is associated with heightened biological stress levels in youth that, in turn, forecast elevations in drug use in young adulthood. Supportive parenting during adolescence was hypothesized to protect youth's biological stress levels from rising in the context of poverty. African American youth and their primary caregivers from 385 families participated in a 14-year prospective study that began when youth were 11 years of age...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Uzair Ansari, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Christian Fastner, Michael Behnes, Katherine Sattler, Aydin Huseynov, Stefan Baumann, Erol Tülümen, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Recent hypotheses have suggested the pathophysiological role of catecholamines in the evolution of the Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). The extent of cardiac and circulatory compromise dictates the use of some form of supportive therapy. This study was designed to investigate the clinical outcomes associated with catecholamine use in TTS patients. METHODS: Our institutional database constituted a collective of 114 patients diagnosed with TTS between 2003 and 2015...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Li Xie, Liqin Chen, Pan Gu, Lanlan Wei, Xuejun Kang
The extraction and analysis of catecholamine neurotransmitters in biological fluids is of great importance in assessing nervous system function and related diseases, but their precise measurement is still a challenge. Many protocols have been described for neurotransmitter measurement by a variety of instruments, including high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, there are shortcomings, such as complicated operation or hard-to-detect multiple targets, which cannot be avoided, and presently, the dominant analysis technique is still HPLC coupled with sensitive electrochemical or fluorimetric detection, due to its high sensitivity and good selectivity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Yunchen Yan, Yan Zheng, Wenjing Ge, Meijia Li, Weilin Wang, Xiaorui Song, Linsheng Song
Dopamine (DA), a significant member of catecholamines, is reported to induce biomineralization of calcium carbonate vaterite microspheres via dopamine receptor (DR) in bivalves, implying the modulation of dopaminergic system on shell formation during larval development. In this research, a homologue of D1 type DR (CgD1DR-1) was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas, whose full length cDNA was 1197 bp. It was widely expressed in various tissues of C. gigas, with the significantly higher levels in hepatopancreas, mantle, muscle and gill...
March 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Christina Schumann, Michael Faust
BACKGROUND:  Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are the most serious diabetic emergencies. Before the discovery of insulin in 1921 by Banting and Best the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was fatal ending in diabetic ketoacidosis equivalent to a torturous death. Today, mortality from diabetic ketoacidosis is low at approximately 2 %. But each death from these two acute metabolic complications of diabetes is potentially avoidable by improved patient and healthcare professional education...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Frédéric J Baud, Mohamad K Haidar, Romain Jouffroy, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Lionel Lamhaut, Pierre Carli
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the magnitude of lactic acidosis in response to cyanide poisoning compared with the secondary response caused by cardiovascular shock. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control observational study. SETTING: University Hospital of Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris. SUBJECTS: Patients admitted for suspicion of cyanide poisoning or drug overdose. Medical charts provided by Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris of patients between January 1988 and December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Reiji Yoshimura, Taro Kishi, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Nakao Iwata
Background: There are complicated interactions between catecholaminergic neurons and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, no reports have addressed the relationship among 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and BDNF in the blood. Objective: This paper sought to investigate correlations between serum BDNF and plasma levels of MHPG and HVA in people with major depression (MD). Materials and methods: A total of 148 patients (male/female 65/83, age 49...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Daisuke Chino, Tomoyo Sone, Kumi Yamazaki, Yuri Tsuruoka, Risa Yamagishi, Shunsuke Shiina, Keisuke Obara, Fumiko Yamaki, Koji Higai, Yoshio Tanaka
Object We aimed to identify the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) subtypes involved in isoprenaline-induced relaxation of guinea pig colonic longitudinal smooth muscle using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Methods Longitudinal smooth muscle was prepared from the male guinea pig ascending colon and contracted with histamine prior to comparing the relaxant responses to three catecholamines (isoprenaline, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). The inhibitory effects of subtype-selective β-AR antagonists on isoprenaline-induced relaxation were then investigated...
2018: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Naoko Yamaguchi, Kentaro Yamakawa, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tatsuo Takamiya, Marmar Vaseghi
BACKGROUND: Neuraxial modulation with cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) can potentially reduce burden of ventricular tachy-arryhthmias (VT). Despite catheter ablation and CSD, however, VT can recur in patients with cardiomyopathy and the role of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in this setting is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate electrophysiological effects of VNS after CSD in normal and infarcted hearts. METHODS: In 10 normal and 6 infarcted pigs, electrophysiological and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated before and during intermittent VNS pre-CSD (bilateral stellectomy and T2-T4 thoracic ganglia removal) as well as post-CSD...
March 9, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Chun-Ho Park, Nozomi Shiwa, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Takehito Kakizaki, Daisaku Watanabe
This case report describes a congenital ganglioneuroblastoma in a 38-day-old male Japanese Black calf. The cervical multinodular mass was present at birth and grew rapidly. The cut surface was pale gray-to-yellow and had a gelatinous appearance. Hemorrhagic cysts of various sizes were observed in the nodule. Histologically, the mass contained clusters of neuroblastic cells, ganglionic cells, and Schwann-like cells. Immunohistochemically, the ganglionic cells showed strong positivity for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A, whereas the Schwann-like cells strongly expressed S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Monivan Chhour, Pierre Perio, Jan Sudor, Régis Gayon, Gilles Ferry, Jean A Boutin, Françoise Nepveu, Karine Reybier
There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is due in part to the reactivity of catecholamines, such as dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. These molecules are rapidly converted, chemically or enzymatically, into catechol-quinone and then into highly deleterious semiquinone radicals after 1-electron reduction in cells. Notably, the overexpression of dihydronicotinamide riboside:quinone oxidoreductase (QR2) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increases the production of ROS, mainly superoxide radicals, when it is exposed to exogenous catechol-quinones (e...
March 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marco Herbsleb, Andy Schumann, Berend Malchow, Christian Puta, P Christian Schulze, Holger W Gabriel, Karl-Jürgen Bär
The elevated cardiovascular risk of patients with schizophrenia contributes to a reduced life expectancy of 15-20years. This study investigated whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction (CADF) in schizophrenia is related to chronotropic incompetence, an established cardiovascular risk marker. We investigated thirty-two patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and thirty-two control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index and fat free mass. A cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed to study heart rate responses to exercise as well as submaximal (ventilatory threshold 1, VT1 ) and maximal endurance capacities (peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak ; peak power output, Ppeak )...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ahsan F Bairam, Mohammed I Rasool, Fatemah A Alherz, Maryam S Abunnaja, Amal A El Daibani, Saud A Gohal, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of sulfoconjugation in the metabolism of catecholamines and serotonin. The current study aimed to clarify the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genes on the enzymatic characteristics of the sulfation of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin by SULT1A3 allozymes. Following a comprehensive search of different SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genotypes, twelve non-synonymous (missense) coding SNPs (cSNPs) of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 were identified...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Tina Markus, David Ley, Stefan R Hansson, Tadeusz Wieloch, Karsten Ruscher
BACKGROUND: Labor subjects the fetus to an hypoxic episode and concomitant adrenomodullary catecholamine surge that may provide protection against the hypoxic insult. The beta1-adrenergic agonist dobutamine protects against hypoxia/aglycemia induced neuronal damage. We aimed to identify the associated protective biological processes involved. RESULTS: Hippocampal slices from 6 days old mice showed significant changes of gene expression comparing slices with or without dobutamine (50 mM) in the following two experimental paradigms: (1) control conditions versus lipopolysacharide (LPS) stimulation and (2) oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), versus combined LPS/OGD...
March 9, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Tanja Scherer, Gabriella Allegri, Christineh N Sarkissian, Ming Ying, Hiu Man Grisch-Chan, Anahita Rassi, Shelley R Winn, Cary O Harding, Aurora Martinez, Beat Thöny
Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) caused by hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency has severe consequences on brain monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism. We have studied monoamine neurotransmitter status and the effect of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) treatment in Pahenu1/enu2 (ENU1/2) mice, a model of partial PAH deficiency. These mice exhibit elevated blood L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) concentrations similar to that of mild hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), but brain levels of L-Phe are still ~5-fold elevated compared to wild-type...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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