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Philippe Codron, Arnaud Chevrollier, Mariame Selma Kane, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Philippe Latour, Pascal Reynier, Dominique Bonneau, Christophe Verny, Vincent Procaccio, Guy Lenaers, Julien Cassereau
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A disease (CMT2A) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy mainly caused by mutations in the MFN2 gene coding for the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2. Although the disease is mainly inherited in a dominant fashion, few cases of early-onset autosomal recessive CMT2A (AR-CMT2A) have been reported in recent years. In this study, we characterized the structure of mitochondrial network in cultured primary fibroblasts obtained from AR-CMT2A family members. The patient-derived cells showed an increase of the mitochondrial fusion with large connected networks and an increase of the mitochondrial volume...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Rui Zhang, Huimin Zhou, Lei Jiang, Yueran Mao, Ximing Cui, Bing Xie, Dongsheng Cui, Hui Wang, Qingfu Zhang, Shunjiang Xu
Abnormal gene expression, including mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNA), have been identified in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although mitofusin2 (mfn2) has been found to be down-regulated in the neurons from hippocampus and cortex in AD patients, little is known about its roles and the regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of AD. This study was performed to investigate the roles of mfn2 protein and its upstream regulatory mechanism in the progression of AD using a senescence accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) model...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
Jin Yu, Yiliyaer Maimaitili, Peng Xie, Jianjiang Wu, Jiang Wang, Yining Yang, Haiping Ma, Hong Zheng
AIM: Hyperglycaemia-induced cell injury is a primary cause of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. In vivo studies demonstrated that sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) was cardioprotective against ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which was blocked by hyperglycaemia. This study investigated whether high glucose concentration abrogated SpostC cardioprotection in vitro by advancing mitochondrial fission and whether mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1) restored SpostC cardioprotection in cultured primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs)...
September 29, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Maria Manczak, Ramesh Kandimalla, David Fry, Hiromi Sesaki, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the protective effects of reduced expression of dynamin-related protein (Drp1) against amyloid beta (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and pathogenesis. Our recent molecular and biochemical studies revealed that impaired mitochondrial dynamics - increased mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased fusion - in neurons from autopsy brains of AD patients and from transgenic AD mice and neurons expressing Aβ, suggesting that Aβ causes mitochondrial fragmentation in AD...
September 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Deborah Naon, Marta Zaninello, Marta Giacomello, Tatiana Varanita, Francesca Grespi, Sowmya Lakshminaranayan, Annalisa Serafini, Martina Semenzato, Stephanie Herkenne, Maria Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Antonio Zorzano, Diego De Stefani, Gerald W Dorn, Luca Scorrano
The discovery of the multiple roles of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) juxtaposition in cell biology often relied upon the exploitation of Mitofusin (Mfn) 2 as an ER-mitochondria tether. However, this established Mfn2 function was recently questioned, calling for a critical re-evaluation of Mfn2's role in ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-based probes of organelle proximity confirmed that ER-mitochondria juxtaposition was reduced by constitutive or acute Mfn2 deletion...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tamar Harel, Wan Hee Yoon, Caterina Garone, Shen Gu, Zeynep Coban-Akdemir, Mohammad K Eldomery, Jennifer E Posey, Shalini N Jhangiani, Jill A Rosenfeld, Megan T Cho, Stephanie Fox, Marjorie Withers, Stephanie M Brooks, Theodore Chiang, Lita Duraine, Serkan Erdin, Bo Yuan, Yunru Shao, Elie Moussallem, Costanza Lamperti, Maria A Donati, Joshua D Smith, Heather M McLaughlin, Christine M Eng, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Fan Xia, Tommaso Pippucci, Pamela Magini, Marco Seri, Massimo Zeviani, Michio Hirano, Jill V Hunter, Myriam Srour, Stefano Zanigni, Richard Alan Lewis, Donna M Muzny, Timothy E Lotze, Eric Boerwinkle, Richard A Gibbs, Scott E Hickey, Brett H Graham, Yaping Yang, Daniela Buhas, Donna M Martin, Lorraine Potocki, Claudio Graziano, Hugo J Bellen, James R Lupski
ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A (ATAD3A) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial membrane protein implicated in mitochondrial dynamics, nucleoid organization, protein translation, cell growth, and cholesterol metabolism. We identified a recurrent de novo ATAD3A c.1582C>T (p.Arg528Trp) variant by whole-exome sequencing (WES) in five unrelated individuals with a core phenotype of global developmental delay, hypotonia, optic atrophy, axonal neuropathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We also describe two families with biallelic variants in ATAD3A, including a homozygous variant in two siblings, and biallelic ATAD3A deletions mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between ATAD3A and gene family members ATAD3B and ATAD3C...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Zheng Lu, Sujun Li, Shunxin Zhao, Xianen Fa
BACKGROUND Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease characterized by impaired regulation of pulmonary artery vascular growth and remodeling. Aberrant expression of miR-17 has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of PAH, but its underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) expression was determined by qRT-PCR. The protein expression levels of MFN2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and pro-apoptotic protein cleaved Caspase-3 were measured using Western blot analysis...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, David Fry, Yeguvapalli Suneetha, Hiromi Sesaki, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the protective effects of a partial reduction of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylated Tau and mitochondrial abnormalities are involved in the loss of synapses, defective axonal transport and cognitive decline, in patients with AD. In the current study, we investigated whether a partial reduction of Drp1 protect neurons from phosphorylated Tau-induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in AD progression...
September 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Wenwen Li, Tao Sun, Beibei Liu, Di Wu, Wenfeng Qi, Xianhua Wang, Qi Ma, Heping Cheng
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing constant network reorganization and exhibiting stochastic signaling events in the form of mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes). Here we investigate whether and how mitochondrial network dynamics regulate mitoflash biogenesis and signaling. We found that mitoflash frequency was largely invariant when network fragmentized or redistributed in the absence of mitofusin (Mfn) 1, Mfn2, or Kif5b. However, Opa1 deficiency decreased spontaneous mitoflash frequency due to superimposing changes in respiratory function, whereas mitoflash response to non-metabolic stimulation was unchanged despite network fragmentation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anna Picca, Vito Pesce, Giuseppe Sirago, Flavio Fracasso, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Angela Maria Serena Lezza
Extremely interesting for aging research are those individuals able to reach older ages still with functions similar to those of younger counterparts. We examined liver samples from ad libitum-fed old (28-month-old, AL-28) and ad libitum-fed very old (32-month-old, AL-32) rats for a number of markers, relevant for mitochondrial functionality and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content. As for the mtDNA content and the protein amounts of the citrate synthase and the antioxidant peroxiredoxin III there were no significant changes in the AL-32 animals...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
David Sebastián, Antonio Zorzano
A long-standing quest is to define the mechanisms responsible for the mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of damaged mitochondria that occur during aging. Indeed, those defects are considered major contributors to the aging process. We have analyzed the effect of aging on the muscle expression of Mfn2 and the impact of Mfn2 ablation on muscle function. Our findings reveal that Mfn2 is repressed in muscle during aging, and that is a determinant for the inhibition of autophagy, and mitochondrial quality control, which lead to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria...
August 30, 2016: Autophagy
Xiaoxiang Guan, Lu Wang, Zhenhong Liu, Xiaofei Guo, Ying Lu, Yanli Peng, Tianhua Liu, Baofeng Yang, Hongli Shan, Yong Zhang, Chaoqian Xu
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a main factor leading to heart failure and associated sudden death. Improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should aid better treatment of the disease. This study aimed to test our hypothesis that a microRNA miR-106a played an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy through targeting mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a mitochondrial fusion protein known to be critical in regulating cardiac function. miR-106a was robustly upregulated in hypertrophied myocardium both in vivo and in vitro...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Dong Wang, Guo-Dong Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Ling Xu, Xiao-An Li, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Yong-Gang Yao
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), which has massive genomic decay and dependence on host metabolism. Accumulating evidence showed a crucial role of mitochondria in metabolism and innate immunity. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial-related antimicrobial/antiviral immune genes MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein), MITA (mediator of IRF3 activation) and MFN2 (mitofusin 2) would confer a risk to leprosy. In this study, we performed a case-control study to analyze 11 tag and/or non-synonymous SNPs of the MAVS, MITA and MFN2 genes in 527 leprosy patients and 583 healthy individuals, and directly sequenced the three genes in 80 leprosy patients with a family history from Yunnan, Southwest China...
August 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Du Fang, Shijun Yan, Qing Yu, Doris Chen, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Mitochondria are essential dynamic organelles for energy production. Mitochondria dynamically change their shapes tightly coupled to fission and fusion. Imbalance of fission and fusion can cause deficits in mitochondrial respiration, morphology and motility. Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), a mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells, contributes to the maintenance and operation of the mitochondrial network. Due to lack of applicable model systems, the mechanisms and involvement of mitochondria in neurogenesis in human brain cells have not been well explored...
2016: Scientific Reports
Doo Sin Jo, Dong Woon Shin, So Jung Park, Ji-Eun Bae, Joon Bum Kim, Na Yeon Park, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Su Oh, Jung-Won Shin, Dong-Hyung Cho
Mitochondrial dynamics control mitochondrial morphology and function, and aberrations in these are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. To identify novel regulators of mitochondrial dynamics, we screened a phytochemical library and identified liquiritigenin as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fusion. Treatment with liquiritigenin induced an elongated mitochondrial morphology in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, liquiritigenin rescued mitochondrial fragmentation induced by knockout of mitochondrial fusion mediators such as Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa1...
August 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Federica Rizzo, Dario Ronchi, Sabrina Salani, Monica Nizzardo, Francesco Fortunato, Andreina Bordoni, Giulia Stuppia, Roberto Del Bo, Daniela Piga, Romana Fato, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi, Stefania Corti
Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2A (CMT2A) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy caused by mutations in MFN2, which encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein involved in mitochondrial network homeostasis. Because MFN2 is expressed ubiquitously, the reason for selective motor neuron (MN) involvement in CMT2A is unclear. To address this question, we generated MNs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from CMT2A patients as an in vitro disease model. CMT2A iPSC-derived MNs (CMT2A-MNs) exhibited a global reduction in mitochondrial content and altered mitochondrial positioning without significant differences in survival and axon elongation...
August 9, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Haitham E El-Sikhry, Nasser Alsaleh, Rambabu Dakarapu, John R Falck, John M Seubert
Maintenance of a healthy pool of mitochondria is important for the function and survival of terminally differentiated cells such as cardiomyocytes. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are epoxy lipids derived from metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. We have previously shown that EETs trigger a protective response limiting mitochondrial dysfunction and reducing cellular death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether EET-mediated effects influence mitochondrial quality in HL-1 cardiac cells during starvation...
2016: PloS One
Jing-Hua Zhang, Teng Zhang, Si-Hua Gao, Ke Wang, Xiu-Yan Yang, Fang-Fang Mo, Na Yu, Tian An, Yu-Feng Li, Ji-Wei Hu, Guang-Jian Jiang
Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is essential for embryonic development, anti-apoptotic events, protection against free radical-induced lesions, and mitochondrial fusion in many cells. However, little is known about its mechanism and function during oocyte maturation. In this study, we found that Mfn2 was expressed in the cytoplasm during different stages of mouse oocyte maturation. Mfn2 was mainly associated with α-tubulin during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of Mfn2 by specific siRNA injection into oocytes caused the mitochondrial morphology and quantity to change, resulting in severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bharathi Aravamudan, Michael Thompson, Gary C Sieck, Robert Vassallo, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) triggers airway hyperreactivity and remodeling, effects that involve airway smooth muscle (ASM). We previously showed that CS destabilizes the networked morphology of mitochondria in human ASM by regulating the expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins via multiple signaling mechanisms. Emerging data link regulation of mitochondrial morphology to cellular structure and function. We hypothesized that CS-induced changes in ASM mitochondrial morphology detrimentally affect mitochondrial function, leading to CS effects on contractility and remodeling...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Qun Liu, Lina Kang, Lingjuan Wang, Ling Zhang, Wenpei Xiang
Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), one of the mitochondrial dynamic proteins plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, it is unknown if Mfn2 influences the quality of oocytes in the process of development by modulating mitochondrial function in vitro. In this study, immature oocytes were transfected with Mfn2-siRNA for 16 h. We found that the expression level of the Mfn2 gene was significantly lower than those of the control group. The rates of maturation and fertility were also found to have declined...
2016: Scientific Reports
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