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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100596/genomic-epidemiology-of-penicillin-non-susceptible-pneumococci-with-non-vaccine-serotypes-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-usa
#1
Cheryl P Andam, Patrick K Mitchell, Alanna Callendrello, Qiuzhi Chang, Jukka Corander, Chrispin Chaguza, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall, William P Hanage
Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic resistant strains throughout the 2000s; however, disease caused by resistant non-vaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction of vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with 581 isolates from 2012-2013, collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099001/conformational-dynamics-in-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-allosteric-communication-network-and-enablement-of-catalysis
#2
Kiran V Mahasenan, Rafael Molina, Renee Bouley, Maria T Batuecas, Jed F Fisher, Juan A Hermoso, Mayland Chang, Shahriar Mobashery
The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), is brought into this biosynthetic pathway to complete the cross-linking. PBP2a effectively discriminates against the β-lactam antibiotics as potential inhibitors, and in favor of the peptidoglycan substrate...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098408/vonoprazan-improves-the-efficacy-of-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-therapy-with-a-regimen-consisting-of-clarithromycin-and-metronidazole-in-patients-allergic-to-penicillin
#3
Shoko Ono, Mototsugu Kato, Soichi Nakagawa, Katsuhiro Mabe, Naoya Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: Although all Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients should receive eradication therapy, the therapy is a challenge for patients allergic to penicillin. There have been a few reports on the efficacy of eradication therapy for such patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of vonoprazan or proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based 7-day triple therapy in patients allergic to penicillin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 88 consecutive patients allergic to penicillin who received H...
January 18, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097722/antimicrobial-utilization-in-an-iraqi-province-a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-antibiotic-source-and-cost
#4
Ali A Al-Jumaili, Ahmed H Hussein, Mohammed D Al-Rekabi, Saba A Raheem, Erika J Ernst
PURPOSE: The aims were to calculate total systemic antibiotic consumption and cost in both public and private sectors in all care settings in Al-Najaf province, Iraq, during 2012, recognize the percentage of each pharmacological class for the dispensed antibiotics and identify oral and parenteral antibiotic percentages dispensed and the portions manufactured nationally and imported. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Najaf to calculate the total cost and quantities of antibiotics consumed during 2012 using World Health Organization Guidelines for Defined Daily Dose (DDD)...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097718/a-prospective-study-of-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-chinese-university-hospital
#5
Linan Zeng, Die Hu, Imti Choonara, Dezhi Mu, Lingli Zhang, Xihong Li, Zuojie Zhang, Zhiqiang Hu, Shuyan Quan
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are one of the most widely misused group of medicines. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotics in one of the paediatric emergency departments in China. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study of antibiotic use in the paediatric emergency room of West China Second University Hospital. A total of 500 consecutive patients from March 25 to April 3 2013 were included. Clinical details of the patients were also collected in order to analyse antibiotic use...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096486/phage-derived-protein-induces-increased-platelet-activation-and-is-associated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#6
Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Fredrick M Mobegi, Amelieke J Cremers, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Gerben Ferwerda, Jacques F Meis, Nel Roeleveld, Stephen D Bentley, Alexander S Pastura, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast, Aldert Zomer, Marien I de Jonge
: To improve our understanding about the severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), we investigated the association between the genotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae and disease outcomes for 349 bacteremic patients. A pneumococcal genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated a strong correlation between 30-day mortality and the presence of the phage-derived gene pblB, encoding a platelet-binding protein whose effects on platelet activation were previously unknown. Platelets are increasingly recognized as key players of the innate immune system, and in sepsis, excessive platelet activation contributes to microvascular obstruction, tissue hypoperfusion, and finally multiorgan failure, leading to mortality...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096447/pbp1b-glycosyltransferase-and-transpeptidase-activities-play-different-essential-roles-during-the-de-novo-regeneration-of-rod-shaped-morphology-in-escherichia-coli
#7
Dev K Ranjit, Matthew A Jorgenson, Kevin D Young
: Peptidoglycan is a vital component of nearly all cell wall-bearing bacteria and is a valuable target for antibacterial therapy. However, despite decades of work, there remain important gaps in understanding how this macromolecule is synthesized and molded into a three-dimensional structure that imparts specific morphologies to individual cells. Here, we investigate the particularly enigmatic area of how peptidoglycan is synthesized and shaped during the first stages of creating cell shape de novo, that is, in the absence of a pre-existing template...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093988/adherence-to-secondary-prophylaxis-for-acute-rheumatic-fever-and-rheumatic-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
Priya Minaxi Kevat, Benjamin M Reeves, Alan R Ruben, Ronny Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Optimal delivery of regular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections prescribed as secondary prophylaxis for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is vital to preventing disease morbidity and cardiac sequelae in affected pediatric and young adult populations. However, poor uptake of secondary prophylaxis remains a significant challenge to ARF/RHD control programs. OBJECTIVE: In order to facilitate better understanding of this challenge and thereby identify means to improve service delivery, this systematic literature review explored rates of adherence and factors associated with adherence to secondary prophylaxis for ARF and RHD worldwide...
January 16, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088045/uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitation-of-penicillin-g-and-metabolites-in-citrus-fruit-using-internal-standards
#9
Daniele Canzani, Kevin Hsieh, Matthew Standland, Walter Hammack, Fadi Aldeek
Penicillin G has been applied to citrus trees as a potential treatment in the fight against Huanglongbing (HLB). Here, we have developed and validated a method to identify and quantitate penicillin G and two of its metabolites, penillic acid and penilloic acid, in citrus fruit using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). This method improves upon a previous method by incorporating isotopically labeled internal standards, namely, penillic acid-D5, and penilloic acid-D5...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087620/e152a-substitution-drastically-affects-ndm-5-activity
#10
Gaurav Kumar, Bagre Issa, Debasish Kar, Sarmistha Biswal, Anindya S Ghosh
New Delhi Metallo beta-lactamase (NDM) is of significant public health concern due to its enormous potential to hydrolyse all major beta-lactams including carbapenems. Amino acid substitutions outside the active site reportedly affect NDM beta-lactamase activities. Here, the effect of amino acid substitutions in the possible omega-like loop region of NDM-5 has been elucidated. Overall, three substitution mutations near active site of NDM-5 were done, namely, E152A, S191A, and D223A and subsequently, the change in antimicrobial resistance was monitored upon expressing each mutant in a suitable host...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087584/emergence-of-klebsiella-variicola-positive-for-ndm-9-a-variant-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-an-urban-river-in-south-korea
#11
Doris Y W Di, Jeonghwan Jang, Tatsuya Unno, Hor-Gil Hur
OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in the environment and to characterize the genome structures of these strains. METHODS: Phenotypic screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and WGS were conducted on three Klebsiella variicola strains possessing NDM-9 isolated from an urban river. RESULTS: Three carbapenem-resistant K. variicola isolated from Gwangju tributary were found to possess blaNDM-9 genes...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#12
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080135/characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-amoxicillin-a-review-with-green-approach
#13
Bianca Aparecida de Marco, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano Natori, Stefany Fanelli, Eliane Gandolpho Tótoli, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Bacterial infections are the second leading cause of global mortality. Considering this fact, it is extremely important studying the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin is an antimicrobial agent that belongs to the class of penicillins; it has bactericidal activity and is widely used in the Brazilian health system. In literature, some analytical methods are found for the identification and quantification of this penicillin, which are essential for its quality control, which ensures maintaining the product characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and patient's safety...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077699/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-a-large-nationwide-cohort-of-abiotrophia-and-granulicatella-clinical-isolates
#14
Kunatum Prasidthrathsint, Mark A Fisher
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from 599 A. defectiva, G. adiacens and G. elegans clinical isolates were determined by broth microdilution. We observed significant differences in susceptibility across species, particularly to penicillin and ceftriaxone, and across geographical regions. A. defectiva was the least susceptible species overall to penicillin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and >90% were susceptible to levofloxacin.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072950/-epidemiology-and-etiology-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-xinjiang-uigur-autonomous-region-2004-2014
#15
J Zhang, Mahemuti Mahemuti, Y D Xia, Mutalifu Mutalifu, Muheyati Muheyati, F Li, B S Gu, X L Li
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) during 2004-2014, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang during 2004-2014 and the serotyping and the antibiotic susceptibility test of the pathogens isolated were performed. Results: A total of 123 238 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Xinjiang from 2004 to 2014...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072863/a-single-dose-oral-azithromycin-versus-intramuscular-benzathine-penicillin-for-the-treatment-of-yaws-a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial-in-ghana
#16
Cynthia Kwakye-Maclean, Nsiire Agana, John Gyapong, Priscilia Nortey, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Esther Aryee, Kingsley Asiedu, Roland Ballard, Fred Binka
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a treponemal infection that was almost eradicated fifty years ago; however, the disease has re-emerged in a number of countries including Ghana. A single-dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin has been the mainstay of treatment for yaws. However, intramuscular injections are painful and pose safety and logistical constraints in the poor areas where yaws occurs. A single center randomized control trial (RCT) carried out in Papua New Guinea in 2012 demonstrated the efficacy of a single-dose of oral azithromycin for the treatment of yaws...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#17
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069659/mrsa-strains-carrying-the-novel-mecc-gene-full-genome-sequencing-identifies-in-the-genetic-background-several-determinants-that-modulate-the-resistant-phenotype
#18
Catarina Milheiriço, Hermínia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Most MRSA strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity to virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant - the mecC gene - was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069655/mutation-in-an-unannotated-protein-confers-carbapenem-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kaushik, Drew Bell, Varsha Chauhan, Fangfang Xia, Rick L Stevens, Gyanu Lamichhane
β-lactams are the most widely used antibacterials. Among β-lactams, carbapenems are considered the last line of defense against recalcitrant infections. As recent developments have prompted consideration of carbapenems for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis, it is only a matter of time before Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains resistant to these drugs will emerge. Here, we investigated the genetic basis that confers such resistance. To our surprise, instead of mutations in the known β-lactam targets, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Rv2421c-Rv2422 intergenic region was common among Mtb mutants selected with meropenem or biapenem...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069562/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-the-expression-of-agrin-and-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-rats-with-tibialis-anterior-muscular-atrophy-induced-by-sciatic-nerve-injection-injury
#20
Jianqi Yu, Meng Wang, Junying Liu, Xiaoming Zhang, Shengbo Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on mRNA and protein expression of agrin, acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-ε and AChR-γ in a rat model of tibialis anterior muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury, and to examine the underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: Fifty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: healthy control group (CON, n=6); sciatic nerve injury group (SNI, n=24), comprising rats euthanased at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after penicillin injection-induced SNI (n=6 each); CON+EA group (n=12), comprising healthy rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA at GB30 and ST36); and SNI+EA group, comprising rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA)...
January 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
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