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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324783/recent-updates-of-carbapenem-antibiotics
#1
REVIEW
Mohammed I El-Gamal, Imen Brahim, Noorhan Hisham, Rand Aladdin, Haneen Mohammed, Amany Bahaaeldin
Carbapenems are among the most commonly used and the most efficient antibiotics since they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases, they target penicillin-binding proteins, and generally have broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. In this review, we described the initial discovery and development of carbapenems, chemical characteristics, in vitro/in vivo activities, resistance studies, and clinical investigations for traditional carbapenem antibiotics in the market; imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem, biapenem, panipenem/betamipron in addition to newer carbapenems such as razupenem, tebipenem, tomopenem, and sanfetrinem...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323366/nonribosomal-peptide-synthesis-principles-and-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Roderich D Süssmuth, Andi Mainz
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multienzyme machineries that assemble numerous peptides with large structural and functional diversity. These peptides include more than 20 marketed drugs, such as antibacterials (penicillin, vancomycin), antitumor compounds (bleomycin), and immunosuppressants (cyclosporine). Over the past few decades biochemical and structural biology studies have gained mechanistic insights into the highly complex assembly line of nonribosomal peptides. This Review provides state-of-the-art knowledge on the underlying mechanisms of NRPSs and the variety of their products along with detailed analysis of the challenges for future reprogrammed biosynthesis...
March 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318472/antimicrobial-resistance-penicillin-binding-protein-sequences-and-pilus-islet-carriage-in-relation-to-clonal-evolution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-in-russia-2002-2013
#3
N Mayanskiy, T Savinova, N Alyabieva, O Ponomarenko, E Brzhozovskaya, A Lazareva, L Katosova, R Kozlov
Clonal changes of serotype 19A pneumococci have been appreciated in conjunction with growing prevalence of this serotype after implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In the present study, we characterized serotype 19A pneumococci collected in Russia within a decade preceding the implementation of PCV vaccination and described their clonal evolution. We retrospectively analyzed non-invasive serotype 19A isolates collected in 2002-2013. All isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, determination of macrolide resistance genotype, molecular detection of pilus islet (PI) carriage, sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes...
March 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316160/-effect-of-low-dose-erythromycin-on-the-proliferation-of-granulation-tissue-after-tracheal-injury
#4
L H Li, M P Xu, L M Gan, Y Li, Y L Liang, W T Li, E Y Qin, J H Gan, G N Liu
Objective: To investigate the effect of low dose erythromycin on the proliferation of granulation tissue after tracheal injury. Methods: Forty-two rabbits were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=6 each), group A (saline control group), group B (penicillin group), group C (low dose erythromycin group), group D (low dose erythromycin and penicillin group), group E (budesonide group), group F (low dose erythromycin and budesonide group), group G (low dose erythromycin, penicillin and budesonide group). All rabbits received tracheotomy, and the tracheal mucosa was scraped with a nylon brush 20 times for tracheal stenosis model...
March 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316142/evolutionary-ecology-of-beta-lactam-gene-clusters-in-animals
#5
Wouter Suring, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Blanke, Janine Mariën, Tim Schol, Valeria Agamennone, Anna Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Matty P Berg, Bram Brouwer, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs
Beta-lactam biosynthesis was thought to occur only in fungi and bacteria, but we recently reported the presence of isopenicillin N synthase in a soil-dwelling animal, Folsomia candida. However, it has remained unclear whether this gene is part of a larger beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway and how widespread the occurrence of penicillin biosynthesis is among animals. Here, we analyzed the distribution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes throughout the animal kingdom and identified a beta-lactam gene cluster in the genome of F...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316051/pathogenic-multiple-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-serotypes-in-recreational-waters-of-mumbai-india-a-potential-public-health-risk
#6
Aayushi Maloo, Abhay B Fulke, Najmuddin Mulani, Soniya Sukumaran, Anirudh Ram
Globally, coastal waters have emerged into a pool of antibiotic resistance genes and multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms, and pathogenicity of these resistant microorganisms in terms of serotypes and virulence genes has made the environment vulnerable. The current study underscores the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic serotypes and pathotypes of Escherichia coli, the predominant faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in surface water and sediment samples of famous recreational beaches (Juhu, Versova, Mahim, Dadar, and Girgaon) of Mumbai...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#7
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304213/characterization-of-the-genetic-environment-of-the-blaveb-4-gene-associated-with-a-transposable-region-in-a-proteus-mirabilis-clinical-isolate
#8
Paula Espinal, Elisenda Miró, Laia Ramoneda, Manel Flores, Alba Rivera, Pere Coll, Ferran Navarro
Proteus mirabilis is the second most common cause of urinary tract infections and is also an important cause of nosocomial infections. TEM-type and CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most widely distributed in this bacterial species, but minor ESBLs such as the VEB-type have also been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic environment of the blaVEB-4 gene found in a P. mirabilis clinical isolate recovered in Spain. P. mirabilis N2231 showed resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, remaining susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, β-lactamases inhibitors, and quinolones...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303833/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-leptospira-spp-isolated-from-environmental-human-and-animal-sources-in-malaysia
#9
Douadi Benacer, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Peck Toung Ooi, Kwai Lin Thong
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of isolates obtained from different hosts. A total of 65 Leptospira isolates from humans (n = 1), zoonoses (rat, n = 60; dog, n = 1; swine, n = 1) and environment (n = 2) were tested against six antibiotics. All the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole and had high MIC toward chloramphenicol (MIC90: 6.25 μg/ml). All except one environment isolate were sensitive to ampicillin, doxycycline and penicillin G...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303829/mutation-pattern-in-the-genome-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-its-association-with-multidrug-resistant-isolates-from-delhi-india
#10
Divya Sachdev, Indu Kumari, Manju Bala, Vineet Kumar, Daman Saluja
Mutations in PenA, PorB, MtrE and MtrR genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance were checked in 27 drug-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Phenotype PIB (88.88%) and mutation at G120 and A121 positions of porB were recurrent. N122K, a novel mutation, was observed in PorB in three resistant isolates. Substitution H105Y in MtrR was widespread (37% of clinical isolates). The presence of a novel mutation (L33V), along with G45D mutation in MtrR, was associated with less-resistant isolates, in contrast to isolates with G45D mutation alone...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303826/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-adults-%C3%A2-50-years-of-age
#11
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, S P Byotra
CONTEXT: Currently, majority of studies on antibiotic resistance and serotype prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae are in paediatric population and there is limited epidemiologic data pertaining to elderly Indian population. AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and the coverage of the polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the elderly population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303244/comparison-of-antimicrobial-consumption-patterns-in-the-swiss-and-danish-cattle-and-swine-production-2007-2013
#12
Luís P Carmo, Liza R Nielsen, Lis Alban, Cedric R Müntener, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Ioannis Magouras
Veterinary antimicrobial consumption patterns vary considerably across Europe. These differences are not only limited to the total amount consumed but are also observed with regards to the relative proportion of the various antimicrobial classes used. Currently, most of the data on veterinary antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns at the species level, as well as on the drivers contributing to those differences...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301644/association-of-body-mass-index-with-infectious-complications-in-free-tissue-transfer-for-head-and-neck-reconstructive-surgery
#13
Mohemmed N Khan, Jack Russo, John Spivack, Christopher Pool, Ilya Likhterov, Marita Teng, Eric M Genden, Brett A Miles
Importance: Elevated body mass index (BMI) has been proposed as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing surgery. Conversely, an elevated BMI may confer a protective effect on perioperative morbidity. Objective: To examine whether an elevated BMI is an independent risk factor for perioperative and postoperative infectious complications after free tissue transfer in head and neck reconstructive surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients undergoing major head and neck surgery requiring free tissue transfer at a tertiary care center...
March 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299216/successful-treatment-of-necrotizing-fasciitis-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-the-addition-of-linezolid
#14
Hana Rac, Karine D Bojikian, Jose Lucar, Katie E Barber
Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299215/intra-abdominal-actinomycosis-mimicking-malignant-abdominal-disease
#15
Ali Ridha, Njideka Oguejiofor, Sarah Al-Abayechi, Emmanuel Njoku
Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297032/ultra-wide-field-fundus-autofluorescence-and-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-syphilitic-outer-retinitis
#16
Mohamed G A Saleh, John Peter Campbell, Paul Yang, Phoebe Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of syphilitic outer retinopathy (SOR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Three patients with SOR were investigated. Treatment with parenteral penicillin led to improvement of outer retinopathy, visual acuity, and symptoms. UWFFAF showed speckled hyperautofluorescence, hypoautofluorescence, and normal autofluorescence, similar to what has been described as a trizonal pattern in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) in the chronic case of SOR, but with hyperautofluorescent areas in the two acute cases...
March 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294589/selective-hypersensitivity-to-cefazolin-and-contribution-of-the-basophil-activation-test
#17
J P Almeida, A Lopes, A Campos Melo, M C Pereira Santos, M Pereira Barbosa
The authors present 2 case reports of selective cefazolin hypersensitivity: a 49 year-old woman with a history of two perioperative reactions (urticaria and severe anaphylaxis) after the use of rocuronium, propophol and cefazolin; a 36 year-old pregnant woman who developed facial erythema, lips angioedema and hypotension immediately after administration of ropivacain, sufentanil, cefazolin, oxytocin and ephedrine. In both cases, intradermal skin tests were positive for cefazolin. A basophil activation test was performed for cefazolin, which was positive in one patient...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294071/safety-of-one-week-first-line-standard-triple-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-in-a-japanese-population
#18
Kazutoshi Hori, Tetsuya Takagawa, Nobuyuki Hida, Shiro Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Standard triple therapy with the proton pump inhibitors, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to be safe; however, the development of significant adverse events (AEs), such as skin rashes, has been reported. OBJECTIVE: To reconfirm the safety of this treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. After the exclusion of patients allergic to penicillin, 322 consecutive patients, consisting of 305 outpatients and 17 inpatients, had received the first-line eradication treatment with lansoprazole (30 mg), clarithromycin (200 mg), and amoxicillin (750 mg) twice daily for 7 days...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293958/successful-salvage-treatment-of-native-valve-enterococcus-faecalis-infective-endocarditis-with-telavancin-two-case-reports
#19
Mickala M Thompson, Ali Hassoun
Infective endocarditis (IE) one-year mortality rates approach 40%. Here, we report two native valve Enterococcus faecalis IE cases in patients successfully treated with telavancin. An 88-year-old with mitral valve endocarditis and a penicillin allergy, initially treated with intravenous vancomycin, was switched to telavancin. A 69-year-old, who previously received amoxicillin and intravenous vancomycin for presumed enterococcal bacteraemia, was diagnosed with dual valve endocarditis for which he received telavancin...
March 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293699/-lues-ocular-syphilis
#20
T Neß
Ocular syphilis is not a new issue but due to increasing rates of new cases is now a contemporary issue. The clinical features are unspecific and can be manifested as all forms of ocular inflammation. Unspecific anterior uveitis is the most frequent ocular involvement; however, typical distinctive patterns are superficial white preretinal precipitates within a panuveitis and acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. The diagnosis should be confirmed by serological tests. Treatment is based on parenteral administration of penicillin...
March 14, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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