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Alexander Mischnik, Philipp Baumert, Axel Hamprecht, Anna Rohde, Silke Peter, Susanne Feihl, Johannes Knobloch, Hanna Gölz, Axel Kola, Birgit Obermann, Christiane Querbach, Matthias Willmann, Friedemann Gebhardt, Evelina Tacconelli, Petra Gastmeier, Harald Seifert, Winfried V Kern
As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.
September 23, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Qiaohui Luo, Neng Yu, Chunfei Shi, Xiaoping Wang, Jianmin Wu
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor combined with nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as recognition element was developed for selective detection of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP). The MIP film on SPR sensor chip was prepared by in situ photo-initiated polymerization method which has the advantages of short polymerization time, controllable thickness and good uniformity. The surface wettability and thickness of MIP film on SPR sensor chip were characterized by static contact angle measurement and stylus profiler...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Shanshan Wang, Yinjuan Guo, Jingnan Lv, Xiuqin Qi, Dan Li, Zengqiang Chen, Xueqing Zhang, Liangxing Wang, Fangyou Yu
BACKGROUND: Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative antibiotic to vancomycin for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium infections. However, resistance to Q/D in E. faecium clinical isolates and nosocomial dissemination of Q/D-resistant E. faecium have been reported in several countries and should be of concern. RESULTS: From January 2012 to December 2015, 911 E. faecium clinical isolates were isolated from various specimens of inpatients at the first Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University located in Wenzhou, east China...
October 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Alejandro Monton, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Etienne Carbonnelle, Carole Veckerlé, Yves Brun, Michael van Nieuwenhze, Christiane Bouchier, Kuyek Tu, Louis B Rice, Michel Arthur
The target of β-lactam antibiotics is the D,D-transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) for synthesis of 4→3 cross-links in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Unusual 3→3 cross-links formed by L,D-transpeptidases were first detected in Escherichia coli more than four decades ago, however no phenotype has previously been associated with their synthesis. Here we show that production of the L,D-transpeptidase YcbB in combination with elevated synthesis of the (p)ppGpp alarmone by RelA lead to full bypass of the D,D-transpeptidase activity of PBPs and to broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance...
October 21, 2016: ELife
Eileen Hoskin, Analia Veitz-Keenan
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials which compared the relief of pain with systemic antibiotics and analgesics against placebo and analgesics in the preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. The primary interest was pain control with an antibiotic or without one in the presence of analgesics...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Corinne Ruppen, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
BACKGROUND: According to expert opinions, gentamicin should be administered as an adjunct to penicillin against severe group B streptococcal (GBS) infections. Whether the adjunct is important is of particular interest for elderly patients. Not only is the risk of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity higher in elderly persons, but their immune defence to bacterial infections may also be impaired. METHOD: Time-kill assays with human blood products, such as serum, neutrophilic granulocytes (opsonophagocytic assays) and whole blood from healthy, elderly volunteers were performed to evaluate the effect of gentamicin in combination with penicillin...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Kapil Tahlan, Marcus A Moore, Susan E Jensen
The δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV) tripeptide is the first dedicated intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the penicillin and cephalosporin classes of β-lactam natural products in bacteria and fungi. It is synthesized nonribosomally by the ACV synthetase (ACVS) enzyme, which has been purified and partially characterized from many sources. Due to its large size and instability, many details regarding the reaction mechanism of ACVS are still not fully understood. In this review we discuss the chronology and associated methodology that led to the discovery of ACVS, some of the main findings regarding its activities, and some recent/current studies being conducted on the enzyme...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Carla Novais, Ana P Tedim, Val F Lanza, Ana R Freitas, Eduarda Silveira, Ricardo Escada, Adam P Roberts, Mohammed Al-Haroni, Fernando Baquero, Luísa Peixe, Teresa M Coque
Ampicillin resistance has greatly contributed to the recent dramatic increase of a cluster of human adapted Enterococcus faecium lineages (ST17, ST18, and ST78) in hospital-based infections. Changes in the chromosomal pbp5 gene have been associated with different levels of ampicillin susceptibility, leading to protein variants (designated as PBP5 C-types to keep the nomenclature used in previous works) with diverse degrees of reduction in penicillin affinity. Our goal was to use a comparative genomics approach to evaluate the relationship between the diversity of PBP5 among E...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Wesley D Oliver, Emily L Heil, Kerri A Thom, Joseph P Martinez, Bryan D Hayes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
A S Gauthier, S Tea, L Hustache Mathieu, C Schwartz, M Saleh, B Delbosc
Syphilis is a disease with ocular involvement may be opening and cover all ocular structures. The objective of the study was to retrospectively identify and describe all cases of ocular syphilis diagnosed in the ophthalmology department of Besançon University Hospital from March 2004 to April 2014. Between March 2004 and April 2014, we diagnosed and monitored 9 male patients (13 eyes) with ocular syphilis (1 interstitial keratitis, chorioretinitis associated with a 1 hyalite, 3 panuvéites, 1 chorioretinitis after placoid, 3 bilateral papillary edema)...
October 17, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Girish Rajadhyaksha, Charulata Limaye, Ameena Meah, Sushma Gaikwad, Shubham Jain
Rare complications have been documented due to inadvertent intravascular administration of penicillin such as Nicolau syndrome (lipoatrophy), transverse myelitis, injury to sciatic nerve as well as Hoigne syndrome (transient central nervous system dysfunction).1 We present a case report where a young male developed Nicolau syndrome and transverse myelitis after receiving benzathine penicillin injection.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
E Espigares, E Moreno Roldan, M Espigares, R Abreu, B Castro, A L Dib, Á Arias
The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method...
October 20, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
I Klimiene, M Virgailis, A Pavilonis, R Siugzdiniene, R Mockeliunas, M Ruzauskas
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Lyudmila Boyanova, Rumyana Markovska, Ivan Mitov
This review focuses on the virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna according to recently published data from 2012-2016. Virulence factors like sortase dependent pili and F. magna adhesion factor (FAF) facilitate the start of the infection. Albumin binding protein (PAB) enhances F. magna survival. FAF, subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease (SufA) and superantigen protein L protect the bacteria from factors of innate defense system. SufA, capsule and tissue-destroying enzymes provide a deep penetration or spread of the infections and the protein L is associated with infection severity...
October 15, 2016: Anaerobe
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yancheng Yang, Zhen Hu, Weilong Shang, Qiwen Hu, Junmin Zhu, Jie Yang, Huagang Peng, Xiaopeng Zhang, Hui Liu, Yanguang Cong, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for ∼40% of staphylococcal infections in China. However, the molecular characterization of MSSA is not well described. In this study, 124 MSSA strains collected in 2013 from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwestern China, were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene detection, and antibiotic-resistant gene detection...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Xu Yang, Vasily Gelfanov, Fa Liu, Richard DiMarchi
A new synthetic route to human relaxin-2 has been established through a sequential disulfide bond formation process in the absence of iodine. It is enabled by a combination of cysteine protection with penicillin G acylase-labile Phacm and a newly identified thiol activator bis(5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2-pyrimidinyl disulfide. The long-standing challenges in relaxin B-chain assembly and its poor solubility have been solved by the insertion of two isoacyl dipeptide segments. The overall yield was 25% from the B chain and 5...
October 18, 2016: Organic Letters
Ali Bilal, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Laurence Caeymaex, Robert Cohen, Corinne Levy, Xavier Durrmeyer
Among 831 cases of neonatal bacterial meningitis occurring from 2001 to 2013, Neisseria meningitidis was the third most frequent bacterial species found. All cases occurred only in term neonates and were mainly late onset. Serogroup B accounted for 78% of cases. At diagnosis, 27% of cases had at least one sign of disease severity. All strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, but 12% showed intermediate susceptibility to penicillin G and to aminopenicillin.
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Etienne Paris, Tonio Piscopo, Karen Cassar
Actinomycosis is a relatively rare infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria. We present the case of a 54-year-old, previously healthy, male patient with a history of severe penicillin allergy who developed severe pneumonia and empyema caused by Actinomyces meyeri. Presenting symptoms included productive cough, right upper quadrant pain, and chills and rigors. He required drainage of the empyema via tube and prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone for 2 weeks followed by oral doxycycline for 6 months...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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