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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219436/from-local-adaptation-to-activism-and-global-solidarity-framing-a-research-and-innovation-agenda-towards-true-health-equity
#1
EDITORIAL
Eric A Friedman, Lawrence O Gostin
The proposal for a global health treaty aimed at health equity, the Framework Convention on Global Health, raises the fundamental question of whether we can achieve true health equity, globally and domestically, and if not, how close we can come. Considerable knowledge currently exists about the measures required to, at the least, greatly improve health equity. Why, then, do immense inequities remain? Building on this basic question, we propose four areas that could help drive the health equity research and innovation agenda over the coming years...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157569/international-synthesis-and-case-study-examination-of-promising-caregiver-friendly-workplaces
#2
Shruti Ramesh, Rachelle Ireson, Allison Williams
The nature of unpaid caregiving is changing significantly in response to the changing nature of families, increased average life expectancy, and the rise in elderly populations. In order to adapt to these challenges, there is an increased focus on the workplace as a source of support for caregiver-employees (CEs), or employees providing unpaid care to a family member or friend while also working in paid employment. As demonstrated by Ireson et al. (2016), a number of workplaces in Canada and abroad are currently showing leadership with respect to the provision of caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs)...
January 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153541/nonlinear-predictive-control-of-a-boiler-turbine-unit-a-state-space-approach-with-successive-on-line-model-linearisation-and-quadratic-optimisation
#3
Maciej Ławryńczuk
This paper details development of a Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for a boiler-turbine unit, which is a nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output process. The control objective is to follow set-point changes imposed on two state (output) variables and to satisfy constraints imposed on three inputs and one output. In order to obtain a computationally efficient control scheme, the state-space model is successively linearised on-line for the current operating point and used for prediction. In consequence, the future control policy is easily calculated from a quadratic optimisation problem...
January 30, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153020/what-do-we-think-we-are-doing-how-might-a-clinical-information-network-be-promoting-implementation-of-recommended-paediatric-care-practices-in-kenyan-hospitals
#4
Mike English, Philip Ayieko, Rachel Nyamai, Fred Were, David Githanga, Grace Irimu
BACKGROUND: The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our 'insider' interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention...
February 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151388/peri-operative-treatment-of-anaemia-in-major-orthopaedic-surgery-a-practical-approach-from-spain
#5
REVIEW
Elvira Bisbe, Misericordia Basora, María J Colomina
In patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery, pre-operative anaemia, peri-operative bleeding and a liberal transfusion policy are the main risk factors for requiring red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). The clinical and economic disadvantages of RBCT have led to the development and implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal, individualised strategies, collectively termed patient blood management, which aim to reduce RBCT and improve patients' clinical outcome and safety. Within a patient blood management programme, low pre-operative haemoglobin is one of the few modifiable risk factors for RBCT...
January 26, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149259/the-effect-of-policies-regulating-tobacco-consumption-on-smoking-initiation-and-cessation-in-spain-is-it-equal-across-socioeconomic-groups
#6
Jaime Pinilla, Ignacio Abásolo
BACKGROUND: In Spain, the Law 28/2005, which came into effect on January 2006, was a turning point in smoking regulation and prevention, serving as a guarantee for the progress of future strategies in the direction marked by international organizations. It is expected that this regulatory policy should benefit relatively more to lower socioeconomic groups, thus contributing to a reduction in socioeconomic health inequalities. This research analyzes the effect of tobacco regulation in Spain, under Law 28/2005, on the initiation and cessation of tobacco consumption, and whether this effect has been unequal across distinct socioeconomic levels...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148264/what-limits-the-utilization-of-health-services-among-china-labor-force-analysis-of-inequalities-in-demographic-socio-economic-and-health-status
#7
Liming Lu, Jingchun Zeng, Zhi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. METHODS: Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University...
February 2, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139330/management-of-the-obese-kidney-transplant-candidate
#8
REVIEW
Julie Lesage, John S Gill
Obesity is an increasingly common condition that can exclude end stage renal disease patients from consideration of kidney transplantation. The optimal management of obese transplant candidates is uncertain, especially the use of pharmacologic therapies or bariatric surgery. We review the rationale to consider transplantation in obese patients, the impact of obesity on access to kidney transplantation, the evidence for obese patients to lose weight loss prior to kidney transplantation, peri-operative management considerations and specific weight loss strategies prior to transplantation...
January 12, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135996/mental-health-and-public-policies-implemented-in-the-northeast-of-brazil-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#9
Sonilde Saraiva Januário, Florido Sampaio das Neves Peixoto, Nádia Nara Rolim Lima, Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento, Danilo Ferreira de Sousa, Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira Luz, Claúdio Gleidiston Lima da Silva, Modesto Leite Rolim Neto
INTRODUCTION: Studies about mental disorders are very rare in the Northeast of Brazil, especially when psychopathologies in children and adolescents are considered. The consequence is a small availability of data and an absence of a real epidemiological profile. METHODS: This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol, in the period from 2003 to 2015, using the databases LILACS, SciELO and BVS...
February 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123862/staged-excisions-of-moderate-sized-burns-compared-with-total-excision-with-immediate-autograft-an-evaluation-of-two-strategies
#10
Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Johan Thorfinn, Islam Abdelrahman, Pia Olofsson, Folke Sjoberg
BACKGROUND: Different surgical techniques have evolved since excision and autografting became the treatment of choice for deep burns in the 1970s. The treatment plan at the Burn Center, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, has shifted from single-stage excision and immediate autografting to staged excisions and temporary cover with xenografts before autografting. The aim of this study was to find out if the change in policy resulted in extended duration of hospital stay/total body surface area burned (LOS/TBSA%)...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119181/the-impact-of-fragility-fracture-and-approaches-to-osteoporosis-risk-assessment-worldwide
#11
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem, through its association with age-related fractures, particularly of the hip, vertebrae, distal forearm and humerus. Substantial geographic variation has been noted in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures worldwide, with Western populations (North America, Europe and Oceania), reporting increases in hip fracture throughout the second half of the 20th century, with a stabilisation or decline in the last two decades. In developing populations however, particularly in Asia, the rates of osteoporotic fracture appears to be increasing...
January 22, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106817/value-based-caching-in-information-centric-wireless-body-area-networks
#12
Fadi M Al-Turjman, Muhammad Imran, Athanasios V Vasilakos
We propose a resilient cache replacement approach based on a Value of sensed Information (VoI) policy. To resolve and fetch content when the origin is not available due to isolated in-network nodes (fragmentation) and harsh operational conditions, we exploit a content caching approach. Our approach depends on four functional parameters in sensory Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). These four parameters are: age of data based on periodic request, popularity of on-demand requests, communication interference cost, and the duration for which the sensor node is required to operate in active mode to capture the sensed readings...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104039/challenges-in-implementing-individual-placement-and-support-in-the-australian-mental-health-service-and-policy-context
#13
Yolande Stirling, Kate Higgins, Melissa Petrakis
Objective Although Australia's service and policy context differs from that of the US, studies have highlighted potential for individual placement and support (IPS) to support competitive employment outcomes for people with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to explore why the model is not yet widely available.Methods A document analysis was conducted to discern reasons for challenges in implementation of IPS practice principles within the Australian service context.Results The document analysis illustrated that although policy acknowledges the importance of increasing employment rates for people with severe and persistent mental illness, consistent measures, change indicators, direction and time frames are lacking in policy and strategy documentation...
January 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100157/characterization-of-planned-and-unplanned-30-day-readmissions-following-vascular-surgical-procedures
#14
Georges Tahhan, Alik Farber, Nishant K Shah, Brianna M Krafcik, Teviah E Sachs, Jeffrey A Kalish, Matthew R Peacock, Jeffrey J Siracuse
OBJECTIVE: Thirty-day readmission is increasingly used as a quality of care indicator. Patients undergoing vascular surgery have historically been at high risk for readmission. We analyzed hospital readmission details to identify patients at high risk for readmission in order to better understand these readmissions and improve resource utilization in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective review and analysis of our medical center's admission and discharge data were conducted from October 2012 to March 2015...
January 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079591/point-of-care-diagnostics-extending-the-laboratory-network-to-reach-the-last-mile
#15
Paul K Drain, Christine Rousseau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests are becoming available for HIV diagnosis and treatment in resource-limited settings. These novel technologies have the potential to foster decentralized HIV care and treatment for the benefit of clinical laboratories, HIV clinics, and HIV-infected patients. There continue to be many business, technological, and operational challenges that limit product development and regulatory approval, which limits products available for the required operational and cost-effectiveness studies and delays policy adoption and implementation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059586/resource-document-coordination-of-pediatric-emergency-care-in-ems-systems
#16
Katherine Remick, Toni Gross, Kathleen Adelgais, Manish I Shah, Julie C Leonard, Marianne Gausche-Hill
BACKGROUND: Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043036/equity-in-healthcare-resource-allocation-decision-making-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Haylee Lane, Mitchell Sarkies, Jennifer Martin, Terry Haines
OBJECTIVE: To identify elements of endorsed definitions of equity in healthcare and classify domains of these definitions so that policy makers, managers, clinicians, and politicians can form an operational definition of equity that reflects the values and preferences of the society they serve. DESIGN: Systematic review where verbatim text describing explicit and implicit definitions of equity were extracted and subjected to a thematic analysis. DATA SOURCES: The full holdings of the AMED, CINAHL plus, OVID Medline, Scopus, PsychInfo and ProQuest (ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, ProQuest Social Science Journals) were individually searched in April 2015...
December 13, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042365/variations-in-strategies-to-prevent-ventriculostomy-related-infections-a-practice-survey
#18
Ariane Lewis, Barry M Czeisler, Aaron S Lord
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ideal strategy to prevent infections in patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs) is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of members of the Neurocritical Care Society on infection prevention practices for patients with EVDs between April and July 2015. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 52 individuals (5% response rate). Catheter selection, use of prolonged prophylactic systemic antibiotics (PPSAs), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection policies, location of EVD placement, and performance of routine EVD exchanges varied...
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025588/exporting-an-inherently-harmful-product-the-marketing-of-virginia-slims-cigarettes-in-the-united-states-japan-and-korea
#19
Timothy Dewhirst, Wonkyong B Lee, Geoffrey T Fong, Pamela M Ling
Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women's cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers...
November 2016: Journal of Business Ethics: JBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003943/envisioning-and-leading-organizational-transformation-one-organ-procurement-organization-s-journey
#20
Jeffrey P Orlowski
BACKGROUND:  In 2012, one organ procurement organization (OPO) welcomed a new President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). This OPO, LifeShare Transplant Donor Services of Oklahoma (LifeShare), had just celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2011. While LifeShare was well-established chronologically, growth in organ donors and organs transplanted from these donors had occurred at a much slower rate during the collaborative era and afterward (2003-2011) than the donor/transplant growth the United States (US), as a whole, had experienced...
November 15, 2016: Curēus
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