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ebola democratic republic of congo

Mark G Burch, Karly A Jacobsen, Joseph H Tien, Grzegorz A Rempala
We present a method for estimating epidemic parameters in network-based stochastic epidemic models when the total number of infections is assumed to be small. We illustrate the method by reanalyzing the data from the 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Ebola outbreak described in Maganga et al. (2014).
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Nicksy Gumede, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo, Peter Nsubuga, Joseph Okeibunor, Annick Dosseh, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda, Charles Byabamazima
BACKGROUND: The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Carolina Nanclares, Jimmy Kapetshi, Fanshen Lionetto, Olimpia de la Rosa, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfun, Miriam Alia, Gary Kobinger, Andrea Bernasconi
During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jean-Louis Lamboray, William Sherlaw
An outbreak of Ebola occurred in 2014-2015 in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Two opposing hypotheses may be put forward to explain its decline in these countries. The first of which attributes this decline to authoritarian emergency action imposed on the populations. This comprised the opening of specialized centres to fight the epidemic, directing people suspected of being contaminated to travel to such centres, and taking charge of cremating the remains of the deceased victims of Ebola. This process was founded on the supposed weaknesses of the health systems in question and sought to offer a substitute for them...
January 2016: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Joseph Okeibunor, Peter Nsubuga, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda
BACKGROUND: As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Joel G Breman, David L Heymann, Graham Lloyd, Joseph B McCormick, Malonga Miatudila, Frederick A Murphy, Jean-Jacques Muyembé-Tamfun, Peter Piot, Jean-François Ruppol, Pierre Sureau, Guido van der Groen, Karl M Johnson
BACKGROUND:  In 1976, the first cases of Ebola virus disease in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (then referred to as Zaire) were reported. This article addresses who was responsible for recognizing the disease; recovering, identifying, and naming the virus; and describing the epidemic. Key scientific approaches used in 1976 and their relevance to the 3-country (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia) West African epidemic during 2013-2016 are presented. METHODS:  Field and laboratory investigations started soon after notification, in mid-September 1976, and included virus cell culture, electron microscopy (EM), immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) testing of sera, case tracing, containment, and epidemiological surveys...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Atis Muehlenbachs, Olimpia de la Rosa Vázquez, Daniel G Bausch, Ilana J Schafer, Christopher D Paddock, Jean Paul Nyakio, Papys Lame, Eric Bergeron, Andrea M McCollum, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Brigid C Bollweg, Miriam Alía Prieto, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Stuart T Nichol, Wun-Ju Shieh, Ute Ströher, Pierre E Rollin, Sherif R Zaki
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Berhanu Mekibib, Kevin K Ariën
Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history...
2016: Viruses
Christian L Althaus
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experienced a confined rural outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) with 69 reported cases from July to October 2014. Understanding the transmission dynamics during the outbreak can provide important information for anticipating and controlling future EVD epidemics. I fitted an EVD transmission model to previously published data of this outbreak and estimated the basic reproduction number R 0 = 5.2 (95% CI [4.0-6.7]). The model suggests that the net reproduction number Rt fell below unity 28 days (95% CI [25-34] days) after the onset of symptoms in the index case...
2015: PeerJ
V G Dedkov, N' F Magassouba, M V Safonova, A A Deviatkin, A S Dolgova, O V Pyankov, A A Sergeev, D V Utkin, G N Odinokov, V A Safronov, A P Agafonov, V V Maleev, G A Shipulin
In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea...
February 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Grant D Brown, Jacob J Oleson, Aaron T Porter
The various thresholding quantities grouped under the "Basic Reproductive Number" umbrella are often confused, but represent distinct approaches to estimating epidemic spread potential, and address different modeling needs. Here, we contrast several common reproduction measures applied to stochastic compartmental models, and introduce a new quantity dubbed the "empirically adjusted reproductive number" with several advantages. These include: more complete use of the underlying compartmental dynamics than common alternatives, use as a potential diagnostic tool to detect the presence and causes of intensity process underfitting, and the ability to provide timely feedback on disease spread...
June 2016: Biometrics
Alicia Rosello, Mathias Mossoko, Stefan Flasche, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Placide Mbala, Anton Camacho, Sebastian Funk, Adam Kucharski, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, W John Edmunds, Peter Piot, Marc Baguelin, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus' discovery in 1976. This article provides for the first time a description and a line list for all outbreaks in this country, comprising 996 cases. Compared to patients over 15 years old, the odds of dying were significantly lower in patients aged 5 to 15 and higher in children under five (with 100% mortality in those under 2 years old). The odds of dying increased by 11% per day that a patient was not hospitalised...
2015: ELife
Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo, Alaleh Rouhipour, Parisa Ghelichkhani, Mahmood Yousefifard
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...
2015: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Gerald Amandu Matua, Dirk Mostert Van der Wal
BACKGROUND: Ebola is a highly infectious disease that is caused by viruses of the family Filoviridae and transmitted to humans by direct contact with animals infected from unknown natural reservoirs. Ebola virus infection induces acute fever and death within a few days in up to 90% of symptomatic individuals, causing widespread fear, panic, and antisocial behavior. Uganda is vulnerable to future Ebola outbreaks. Therefore, the survivors of Ebola and their family caregivers are likely to continue experiencing related antisocial overtones, leading to negative health outcomes...
September 2015: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Barbara McPake, Sophie Witter, Sarah Ssali, Haja Wurie, Justine Namakula, Freddie Ssengooba
Ebola seems to be a particular risk in conflict affected contexts. All three of the countries most affected by the 2014-15 outbreak have a complex conflict-affected recent history. Other major outbreaks in the recent past, in Northern Uganda and in the Democratic Republic of Congo are similarly afflicted although outbreaks have also occurred in stable settings. Although the 2014-15 outbreak in West Africa has received more attention than almost any other public health issue in recent months, very little of that attention has focused on the complex interaction between conflict and its aftermath and its implications for health systems, the emergence of the disease and the success or failure in controlling it...
2015: Conflict and Health
Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Huachen Zhu, Yee Ling Chong, Edward C Holmes, Yi Guan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Journal of Virology
Lola V Stamm
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013-2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world...
September 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Thomas Kratz, Paul Roddy, Antoine Tshomba Oloma, Benjamin Jeffs, Diana Pou Ciruelo, Olimpia de la Rosa, Matthias Borchert
Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre) were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed...
2015: PloS One
Nadia Wauquier, James Bangura, Lina Moses, Sheik Humarr Khan, Moinya Coomber, Victor Lungay, Michael Gbakie, Mohammed S K Sesay, Ibrahim A K Gassama, James L B Massally, Aiah Gbakima, James Squire, Mohamed Lamin, Lansana Kanneh, Mohammed Yillah, Kandeh Kargbo, Willie Roberts, Mohammed Vandi, David Kargbo, Tom Vincent, Amara Jambai, Mary Guttieri, Joseph Fair, Marc Souris, Jean Paul Gonzalez
Since Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first identified in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, and despite the numerous outbreaks recorded to date, rarely has an epidemic origin been identified. Indeed, among the twenty-one most documented EVD outbreaks in Africa, an index case has been identified four times, and hypothesized in only two other instances. The initial steps of emergence and spread of a virus are critical in the development of a potential outbreak and need to be thoroughly dissected and understood in order to improve on preventative strategies...
2015: PLoS Currents
Hatem A Elshabrawy, Timothy B Erickson, Bellur S Prabhakar
Filoviruses are enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which include Ebola and Marburg viruses, known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality of up to 90%. There have been several Ebola virus outbreaks since the first outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 of which, the recent 2013-2015 epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone is the largest in recorded history. Within a few months of the start of the outbreak in December 2013, thousands of infected cases were reported with a significant number of deaths...
July 2015: Reviews in Medical Virology
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