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ebola democratic republic of congo

Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Anita K McElroy, Elke Mühlberger, César Muñoz-Fontela
Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Sabue Mulangu, Vivian H Alfonso, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Prime Mulembakani, Neville K Kisalu, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Benoit Ilunga Kebela, Hadar Marcus, Joseph Shiloach, Je-Nie Phue, Linda L Wright, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Nancy J Sullivan, Anne W Rimoin
Background: Previous studies suggest that cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) may go unreported because they are asymptomatic or unrecognized, but evidence is limited by study designs and sample size. Methods: A large population-based survey was conducted (n = 3415) to assess animal exposures and behaviors associated with Ebolavirus antibody prevalence in rural Kasai Oriental province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Fourteen villages were randomly selected and all healthy individuals ≥1 year of age were eligible...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Krista Versteeg, Andrea R Menicucci, Courtney Woolsey, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Robert W Cross, Krystle N Agans, Daniel Jeske, Ilhem Messaoudi, Thomas W Geisbert
Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) continues to pose a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic that originated in West Africa and the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although the ZEBOV variant responsible for this epidemic (Makona) shares significant genetic similarity with previously identified variants (Kikwit and Mayinga), recent reports suggest slower disease progression in nonhuman primates. However, the pathogenesis caused by the new variant is not fully understood...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
Hayley R Ashbaugh, Brandon Kuang, Adva Gadoth, Vivian H Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Reena H Doshi, Nicole A Hoff, Cyrus Sinai, Mathias Mossoko, Benoit Ilunga Kebela, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. METHODS: Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR...
September 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alexis B Nienie, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Amandine Laffite, Patience Ngelinkoto, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Alphonse Matand, Crispin K Mulaji, Emmanuel M Biey, Pius T Mpiana, John Poté
The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Placide Mbala, Marc Baguelin, Ipos Ngay, Alicia Rosello, Prime Mulembakani, Nikolaos Demiris, W John Edmunds, Jean-Jacques Muyembe
The potential for asymptomatic infection from Ebola viruses has long been questioned. Knowing the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic substantially changes the predictions made by mathematical models and alters the corresponding decisions based upon these models. To assess the degree of asymptomatic infection occurring during an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, we carried out a serological survey in the Djera district of the Equateur province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo affected by an Ebola outbreak in 2014...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Mark G Burch, Karly A Jacobsen, Joseph H Tien, Grzegorz A Rempala
We present a method for estimating epidemic parameters in network-based stochastic epidemic models when the total number of infections is assumed to be small. We illustrate the method by reanalyzing the data from the 2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Ebola outbreak described in Maganga et al. (2014).
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Nicksy Gumede, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo, Peter Nsubuga, Joseph Okeibunor, Annick Dosseh, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda, Charles Byabamazima
BACKGROUND: The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Carolina Nanclares, Jimmy Kapetshi, Fanshen Lionetto, Olimpia de la Rosa, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfun, Miriam Alia, Gary Kobinger, Andrea Bernasconi
During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jean-Louis Lamboray, William Sherlaw
An outbreak of Ebola occurred in 2014-2015 in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Two opposing hypotheses may be put forward to explain its decline in these countries. The first of which attributes this decline to authoritarian emergency action imposed on the populations. This comprised the opening of specialized centres to fight the epidemic, directing people suspected of being contaminated to travel to such centres, and taking charge of cremating the remains of the deceased victims of Ebola. This process was founded on the supposed weaknesses of the health systems in question and sought to offer a substitute for them...
January 2016: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Joseph Okeibunor, Peter Nsubuga, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda
BACKGROUND: As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Joel G Breman, David L Heymann, Graham Lloyd, Joseph B McCormick, Malonga Miatudila, Frederick A Murphy, Jean-Jacques Muyembé-Tamfun, Peter Piot, Jean-François Ruppol, Pierre Sureau, Guido van der Groen, Karl M Johnson
BACKGROUND:  In 1976, the first cases of Ebola virus disease in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (then referred to as Zaire) were reported. This article addresses who was responsible for recognizing the disease; recovering, identifying, and naming the virus; and describing the epidemic. Key scientific approaches used in 1976 and their relevance to the 3-country (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia) West African epidemic during 2013-2016 are presented. METHODS:  Field and laboratory investigations started soon after notification, in mid-September 1976, and included virus cell culture, electron microscopy (EM), immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) testing of sera, case tracing, containment, and epidemiological surveys...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Atis Muehlenbachs, Olimpia de la Rosa Vázquez, Daniel G Bausch, Ilana J Schafer, Christopher D Paddock, Jean Paul Nyakio, Papys Lame, Eric Bergeron, Andrea M McCollum, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Brigid C Bollweg, Miriam Alía Prieto, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Stuart T Nichol, Wun-Ju Shieh, Ute Ströher, Pierre E Rollin, Sherif R Zaki
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Berhanu Mekibib, Kevin K Ariën
Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history...
May 23, 2016: Viruses
Christian L Althaus
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) experienced a confined rural outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) with 69 reported cases from July to October 2014. Understanding the transmission dynamics during the outbreak can provide important information for anticipating and controlling future EVD epidemics. I fitted an EVD transmission model to previously published data of this outbreak and estimated the basic reproduction number R 0 = 5.2 (95% CI [4.0-6.7]). The model suggests that the net reproduction number Rt fell below unity 28 days (95% CI [25-34] days) after the onset of symptoms in the index case...
2015: PeerJ
V G Dedkov, N' F Magassouba, M V Safonova, A A Deviatkin, A S Dolgova, O V Pyankov, A A Sergeev, D V Utkin, G N Odinokov, V A Safronov, A P Agafonov, V V Maleev, G A Shipulin
In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea...
February 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Grant D Brown, Jacob J Oleson, Aaron T Porter
The various thresholding quantities grouped under the "Basic Reproductive Number" umbrella are often confused, but represent distinct approaches to estimating epidemic spread potential, and address different modeling needs. Here, we contrast several common reproduction measures applied to stochastic compartmental models, and introduce a new quantity dubbed the "empirically adjusted reproductive number" with several advantages. These include: more complete use of the underlying compartmental dynamics than common alternatives, use as a potential diagnostic tool to detect the presence and causes of intensity process underfitting, and the ability to provide timely feedback on disease spread...
June 2016: Biometrics
Alicia Rosello, Mathias Mossoko, Stefan Flasche, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Placide Mbala, Anton Camacho, Sebastian Funk, Adam Kucharski, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, W John Edmunds, Peter Piot, Marc Baguelin, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has experienced the most outbreaks of Ebola virus disease since the virus' discovery in 1976. This article provides for the first time a description and a line list for all outbreaks in this country, comprising 996 cases. Compared to patients over 15 years old, the odds of dying were significantly lower in patients aged 5 to 15 and higher in children under five (with 100% mortality in those under 2 years old). The odds of dying increased by 11% per day that a patient was not hospitalised...
2015: ELife
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