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treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Neehar D Parikh, Vincent D Marshall, Amit G Singal, Hari Nathan, Anna S Lok, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Vahakn Shahinian
: Sorafenib is the only chemotherapeutic approved for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.) However, its effectiveness in patients with Child Pugh B cirrhosis and any moderating effects of health system characteristics are unclear. We aimed to examine the survival and cost-effectiveness associated with sorafenib in elderly patients with advanced HCC. We performed an analysis of Medicare beneficiaries with HCC diagnoses from 2007-2009. We compared advanced stage patients with HCC (AJCC stage III/IV) who received sorafenib within 6 months of diagnosis (and were otherwise untreated) to advanced stage patients with HCC who received no therapy (control...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Anika Wranke, Beatriz Calle Serrano, Benjamin Heidrich, Janina Kirschner, Birgit Bremer, Patrick Lehmann, Svenja Hardtke, Katja Deterding, Kerstin Port, Max Westphal, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG- IFNα) is effective in only 25-30% of patients and is associated with frequent side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical long-term outcome of hepatitis delta in relation to different antiviral treatment strategies. METHODS: We studied 136 anti-HDV-positive patients who were followed for at least 6 months in a retrospective single-center cohort (mean time of follow up 5...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
G Kamkamidze, M Butsashvili, K Gendzekhadze
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Lei Shi, Wenfa Zhang, Fagui Zou, Lihua Mei, Gang Wu, Yong Teng
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has very high prevalence and associated-mortality. However, targeted therapies that are currently used in clinical practice for HCC have certain limitations, in part because of the lack of reliable and clinically applicable biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and prognosis assessments and for the surveillance of treatment effectiveness. METHODS: Meta-analysis was used to analyze the integrated microarray data for global identification of a set of robust biomarkers for HCC...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yuxin Shu, Yan Lu, Xiaojuan Pang, Wei Zheng, Yahong Huang, Jiahong Li, Jianguo Ji, Can Zhang, Pingping Shen
Peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor, is involved in many important biological processes, including cell terminal differentiation, survival and apoptosis. However, the role of PPARγ, which regulates tumour promoter and oncogene expression, is not well understood in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, based on evidence from clinical samples that phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser84 is up-regulated in human liver tumours, we confirmed that phosphorylation of PPARγ was also significantly increased in an HCC mouse model and was increased by Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/ Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) kinase...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Chao Wu, Ping Chen, Jian-Jun Qian, Sheng-Jie Jin, Jie Yao, Xiao-Dong Wang, Dou-Sheng Bai, Guo-Qing Jiang
Marital status has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancers, but it has been rarely studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by surgical resection. We retrospectively investigated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data and identified 13,408 cases of HCC with surgical treatment between 1998 and 2013. The patients were categorized according to marital status, as "married," "never married," "widowed," or "divorced/separated." The 5-year HCC cause-specific survival (HCSS) data were obtained, and Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate Cox regression models were used to ascertain whether marital status is also an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuanyuan Ji, Zhidong Wang, Zongfang Li, Na Huang, Haiyan Chen, Baohua Li, Bo Hui
Emerging evidence confirms that insulin-like growth factor -II (IGF-II), oncogenes C-myc and N-ras are an essential regulator for development and growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although our previous study also indicated that IGF-II might upregulate levels of oncogenes C-myc and N-ras in hepatoma carcinoma cells, the molecular mechanism had not been fully elucidated. Herein, we successfully silenced IGF-II expression in SMCC-7721 cells by small RNA interference. Functional analysis showed that knockdown of IGF-II significantly suppressed growth and proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and decreased C-myc and N-ras mRNA and protein levels...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
Minglei Yang, Hui Ding, Lei Zhu, Guangzhi Wang
PURPOSE: Ultrasound fusion imaging is an emerging tool and benefits a variety of clinical applications, such as image-guided diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and unresectable liver metastases. However, respiratory liver motion-induced misalignment of multimodal images (i.e., fusion error) compromises the effectiveness and practicability of this method. The purpose of this paper is to develop a subject-specific liver motion model and automatic registration-based method to correct the fusion error...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Manan Jhaveri, Nicholas Procaccini, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic Hepatitis C is a major public health problem. The chronicity of the Hepatitis C can lead to advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading indication of for liver transplantation in the United States. Since the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), there have been there have been dramatic advances in treatment of hepatitis C in terms of tolerability, duration of therapy with significant increases in the rates of sustained virology response (SVR)...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Haruki Kimura, Kazuyoshi Ohkawa, Masanori Miyazaki, Mitsuru Sakakibara, Kazuho Imanaka, Takeshi Tamura, Hironari Sueyoshi, Ryoji Takada, Nobuyasu Fukutake, Hiroyuki Uehara, Reiko Ashida, Tatsuya Ioka, Tetsuro Nakazawa, Katsuyuki Nakanishi, Kazuhiro Katayama
BACKGROUND: Intermediate-stage [Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage-B (BCLC-B)] hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comprises of a heterogeneous population of patients with a wide range of tumor burdens. We therefore formulated a subclassification of BCLC-B HCC using the up-to-seven criteria and tumor markers according to the results of a retrospective analysis of these patients. METHODS: This study included 125 patients newly diagnosed with BCLC-B HCC who underwent transarterial chemoembolization...
October 20, 2016: Hepatology International
Xiaoyun Dai, Kwang Seok Ahn, Ling Zhi Wang, Chulwon Kim, Amudha Deivasigamni, Frank Arfuso, Jae-Young Um, Alan Prem Kumar, Young-Chae Chang, Dhiraj Kumar, Gopal C Kundu, Junji Magae, Boon Cher Goh, Kam Man Hui, Gautam Sethi
Increasing evidence(s) have indicated that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) at the advanced stage of liver cancer, not only has the ability to self-renew and progress cancer, but also enables greater resistance to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here, we report that ascochlorin (ASC), an isoprenoid antibiotic could potentiate the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on HCCLM3, SNU387, SNU49, and SK-Hep-1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, which had a predominantly mesenchymal signature with low expression of E-cadherin but high expression of N-cadherin...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da Silva, Ana Flora Dalberto Vasconcelos, Igor Vivian de Almeida, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini, Alicia Prieto, Maria Dolores Diaz Hernandez, João Lúcio de Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
This study reports the characterization and antiproliferative activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by submerged cultures of the endophytes Diaporthe sp. JF766998 and Diaporthe sp. JF767007 isolated from the medicinal plant Piper hispidum Sw. Both strains secreted a crude EPS that, upon size exclusion chromatography, showed to contain a heteropolysaccharide (galactose, glucose and mannose) and a high-molecular weight glucan. Data from methylation analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, COSY, TOCSY and HSQC-DEPT) indicated that the purified glucan consisted of a main chain of glucopyranosyl β-(1→3) linkages substituted at O-6 by glucosyl residues...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Guangxian Zhang, Xiancheng Zeng, Ren Zhang, Juan Liu, Weici Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Zhixue Wu, Yuhui Tan, Yingya Wu, Biaoyan Du
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy of the liver, occurs frequently in the setting of chronic liver injury. Although multiple therapeutic approaches are available, the prognosis of patients with HCC remains poor. Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin that presents in various plants. The anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic effects have been extensively reported. However, the effect of dioscin on HCC remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-HCC properties of dioscin in vitro and in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Adrian M Di Bisceglie, David E Kaplan, Ratna B Ray
African Americans (AA) have higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality rates than Caucasians Americans (CA). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to cirrhosis and HCC. HCV infection is highly prevalent in AA population compared to other racial groups. African Americans are also less likely to naturally clear HCV, potentially contributing to higher prevalence of HCV. However, the explanation for this disparity is currently unknown. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions...
October 19, 2016: Gene Expression
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of disease remains unfavorable. Several immune therapies have been applied to HCC, and their responses have not been satisfactory. The immune response to cancer is determined by the balance between the antigenicity of the tumor and the microenvironment of cancer tissues. Generally, accumulated genetic mutations are observed in HCC, which may lead to increased neoantigens on cancer cells with high antigenicity...
October 21, 2016: Oncology
Raymond Kwok Kei Chow, Sarah Tsz-Kwan Sin, Ming Liu, Yan Li, Tim Hon Man Chan, Yangyang Song, Leilei Chen, Dora Lai-Wan Kwong, Xin-Yuan Guan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 85-90% of primary liver cancer, is now the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here we reported that Aldo-Keto Reductase family 7A isoform 3 (AKR7A3) is frequently down-regulated in HCC, associating with poor overall survival rate, elevated serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) and poor differentiation of HCC. The promoter region of AKR7A3 was detected to be hypermethylated. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was also detected in AKR7A3. Functional assays on both AKR7A3 overexpressed and knockdown cells, including foci formation, colony formation in soft agar, migration, invasion and tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrated the strong tumor suppressive functions of AKR7A3...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Jing Zhang, Yuan Zong, Gang-Zhu Xu, Ke Xing
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in June 2015. Phase II/III trials of erlotinib for the treatment of advanced HCC were included. A descriptive analysis was applied. The study was conducted in College of Medicine, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, between June 2015 and January 2016. RESULTS: Ten trials, comprising 9 phase II and one phase III trial, were included in the systematic review...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jeffrey Gnerre, Yankai Sun, Andrzej Jedynak, Anthony Gilet
Gallbladder varices are a rare form of collateralization that develop in patients with portal hypertension. We present here a case of gallbladder varices accurately diagnosed by contrast enhanced CT imaging of the abdomen and confirmed by Color Doppler Sonography. A 76-year-old patient with hepatocellular carcinoma developed portal vein thrombosis due to tumor extension during the course of treatment and was incidentally discovered to have gallbladder varices. While most commonly asymptomatic, gallbladder varices are associated with increased risk of massive bleeding, either spontaneously or during cholecystectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
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