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organic brain and organic personality disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739366/angiocentric-lymph-proliferative-disorder-lymphomatoid-granulomatosis-in-a-person-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infection-a-case-report
#1
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Jason Karamchandani, Ali Bessissow, Jean-Pierre Routy, Jason Szabo, Charles Frenette
BACKGROUND: Angiocentric lymph proliferative disorder (ALPD) is a granulomatous lymphoproliferative condition associated with various primary and secondary immunodeficiency states. ALPD is so rare that its prevalence has not been established. Typically affecting middle-aged adults, this condition is often found in the context of Epstein Bar Virus infection and consists of angiocentric and angioinvasive pulmonary infiltrates. Herein, we present a biopsy-proven case of a patient manifesting with a viral meningoencephalomyelitis-like picture with brain, spinal cord, renal and splenic lesions...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712788/mesocorticolimbic-connectivity-and-volumetric-alterations-in-dcc-mutation-carriers
#2
Daniel E Vosberg, Yu Zhang, Aurore Menegaux, Amanda Chalupa, Colleen Manitt, Simone Zehntner, Conrad Eng, Kristina DeDuck, Dominique Allard, France Durand, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Myriam Srour, Ridha Joober, Franco Lepore, Guy Rouleau, Hugo Théoret, Barry J Bedell, Cecilia Flores, Marco Leyton
The axon guidance cue receptor DCC plays a critical role in the organization of mesocorticolimbic pathways in rodents. To investigate whether this occurs in humans, we measured (i) anatomical connectivity between the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (SN/VTA) and forebrain targets, (ii) striatal and cortical volumes, and (iii) putatively associated traits and behaviors. To assess translatability, morphometric data were also collected in Dcc haploinsufficient mice.The human volunteers were 20 DCC +/- mutation carriers, 16 DCC +/+ relatives, and 20 DCC +/+ unrelated healthy volunteers (UHV) (28 females)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666739/prosopagnosia-as-a-type-of-conversion-disorder
#3
Clodagh Power, Oisin Hannigan, Robert Coen, Irene Bruce, Matthew Gibb, Marie McCarthy, David Robinson, Brian A Lawlor
Background: Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. Case: A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505103/interventions-for-eye-movement-disorders-due-to-acquired-brain-injury
#4
REVIEW
Fiona J Rowe, Kerry Hanna, Jennifer R Evans, Carmel P Noonan, Marta Garcia-Finana, Caroline S Dodridge, Claire Howard, Kathryn A Jarvis, Sonia L MacDiarmid, Tallat Maan, Lorraine North, Helen Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions and the timing of their implementation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any intervention and determine the effect of timing of intervention in the treatment of strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus due to acquired brain injury...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497586/advanced-metrics-for-assessing-holistic-care-the-epidaurus-2-project
#5
Frederick O Foote, Herbert Benson, Ann Berger, Brian Berman, James DeLeo, Patricia A Deuster, David J Lary, Marni N Silverman, Esther M Sternberg
In response to the challenge of military traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder, the US military developed a wide range of holistic care modalities at the new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, from 2001 to 2017, guided by civilian expert consultation via the Epidaurus Project. These projects spanned a range from healing buildings to wellness initiatives and healing through nature, spirituality, and the arts. The next challenge was to develop whole-body metrics to guide the use of these therapies in clinical care...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166365/cdc-grand-rounds-improving-the-lives-of-persons-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Mary Hulihan, Kathryn L Hassell, Jean L Raphael, Kim Smith-Whitley, Phoebe Thorpe
Approximately 100,000 Americans have sickle cell disease (SCD), a group of recessively inherited red blood cell disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S or sickle hemoglobin, in the red blood cells. Persons with hemoglobin SS or hemoglobin Sß0 thalassemia, also known as sickle cell anemia (SCA), have the most severe form of SCD. Hemoglobin SC disease and hemoglobin Sß+ thalassemia are other common forms of SCD. Red blood cells that contain sickle hemoglobin are inflexible and can stick to vessel walls, causing a blockage that slows or stops blood flow...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114538/the-risk-of-hospitalizations-with-injury-diagnoses-in-a-matched-cohort-of-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-germany-a-database-study
#7
Christina Lindemann, Ingo Langner, Tobias Banaschewski, Edeltraut Garbe, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and adolescents worldwide, and children with ADHD have elevated risk of injuries. Our aim was to assess the risk of hospitalizations with injury diagnoses and their various subtypes in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ADHD compared to those without ADHD, as well as to study sex effects on this risk in the setting of the German health care system. Methods: The German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database, in which 20 million insured from four statutory health insurances in Germany are included, was used to set up a matched cohort study of 3- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with and without ADHD...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039851/quantifying-person-level-brain-network-functioning-to-facilitate-clinical-translation
#8
T M Ball, A N Goldstein-Piekarski, J M Gatt, L M Williams
Although advances in neuroimaging have yielded insights into the intrinsic organization of human brain networks and their relevance to psychiatric and neurological disorders, there has been no translation of these insights into clinical practice. One necessary step toward clinical translation is identifying a summary metric of network function that is reproducible, reliable, and has known normative data, analogous to normed neuropsychological tests. Our aim was therefore to establish the proof of principle for such a metric, focusing on the default mode network (DMN)...
October 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953797/the-therapeutic-model-of-group-analytic-psychotherapy-in-brain-s-plasticity-modification-and-expression-in-patients-with-cognitive-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-hypothesis-of-neuron-immune-analysis-and-neuron-immune-modulation
#9
Catherine Mela
BACKGROUND: Dementia-like situations and depressive symptoms can be caused by a specific neuron circuit blockage, related with remote organic causes that are not cited in the CNS. Excessive cytokine secretion during stress situations is one of these causes which can be related with onset of cognitive symptoms including or accompanied by depressive ones, sometimes in an overlapping way. In both cases, chronic inflammation is a common hidden mechanism causing a vicious circle with mechanisms of somatic chronic stress and vice-versa while the serotonin pathway seems not to get seriously involved...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884977/organoid-technology-for-brain-and-therapeutics-research
#10
REVIEW
Zhi Wang, Shu-Na Wang, Tian-Ying Xu, Zhu-Wei Miao, Ding-Feng Su, Chao-Yu Miao
Brain is one of the most complex organs in human. The current brain research is mainly based on the animal models and traditional cell culture. However, the inherent species differences between humans and animals as well as the gap between organ level and cell level make it difficult to study human brain development and associated disorders through traditional technologies. Recently, the brain organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells have been reported to recapitulate many key features of human brain in vivo, for example recapitulating the zone of putative outer radial glia cells...
October 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879798/inhalation-exposure-of-nano-diamond-induced-oxidative-stress-in-lung-heart-and-brain
#11
Yahya Khosravi, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Enayatollah Seydi
1. Today, diamond nanoparticles have several industrial applications. Nano diamond (ND) as a carbon allotrope diffuses in the air easily during producing and processing procedures. 2. In this study, we investigated sub-acute exposed to ND at the exposure chamber in mice. The animals were divided into two groups (control and exposed group to ND at the concentration of 3 µg/m(3) for 3 h/day, 5 days/week for 30 days) in a whole-body inhalation chamber. 3. Our results showed that exposure to ND induced the hematological and biochemical changes...
October 2, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#12
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774225/the-anterior-temporal-lobes-new-frontiers-opened-to-neuropsychological-research-by-changes-in-health-care-and-disease-epidemiology
#13
Guido Gainotti
Changes in health care and disease epidemiology have shifted the attention of neuropsychologists and cognitive neuroscientists from vascular lesions to degenerative diseases or other bilateral brain lesions. This displacement of attention from vascular patients to patients with degenerative brain diseases allowed the discovery of hitherto unexplored and unheralded aspects of the neural substrates of human cognition. Three aspects of research on the anterior parts of the temporal lobes (ATLs) are the focus of the present review...
2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690389/personality-traits-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2
#14
Teodora Paunic, Stojan Peric, Aleksandra Parojcic, Dusanka Savic-Pavicevic, Milorad Vujnic, Jovan Pesovic, Ivana Basta, Dragana Lavrnic, Vidosava Rakocevic-Stojanovic
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a multisystem disorder that affects many organs and systems, including the brain. The objective is to analyze personality patterns in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) compared to DM1 control group. The study comprised 27 consecutive genetically confirmed DM2 patients and control group of 44 DM1 patients. Personality traits were assessed with the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory III (MMCI III). In DM2 group there were no scale with pathological scores, although compulsive and paranoid traits were the most prominent...
March 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#15
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675999/subduing-the-green-eyed-monster-bridging-the-psychopharmacological-and-psychosocial-treatment-perspective-in-understanding-pathological-jealousy
#16
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#17
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611645/an-overwhelming-desire-to-be-blind-similarities-and-differences-between-body-integrity-identity-disorder-and-the-wish-for-blindness
#18
Katja Gutschke, Aglaja Stirn, Erich Kasten
BACKGROUND: The urge to be permanently blind is an extremely rare mental health disturbance. The underlying cause of this desire has not been determined yet, and it is uncertain whether the wish for blindness is a condition that can be included in the context of body integrity identity disorder, a condition where people feel an overwhelming need to be disabled, in many cases by amputation of a limb or through paralysis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a greater degree of visual stress in daily activities than people in a healthy visual control group...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476484/organization-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-system-anatomical-and-functional-mapping-of-monosynaptic-inputs-using-rabies-virus
#19
REVIEW
Sachie K Ogawa, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine and serotonin play critical roles in flexible behaviors and are related to various psychiatric and motor disorders. This paper reviews the global organization of dopamine and serotonin systems through recent findings using a modified rabies virus. We first introduce methods for comprehensive mapping of monosynaptic inputs. We then describe quantitative comparisons across the data regarding monosynaptic inputs to dopamine neurons versus serotonin neurons. There is surprising similarity between the input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the input to serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR), suggesting functional interactions between these systems...
May 2, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364550/individual-brain-structure-and-modelling-predict-seizure-propagation
#20
Timothée Proix, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Viktor K Jirsa
See Lytton (doi:10.1093/awx018) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neural network oscillations are a fundamental mechanism for cognition, perception and consciousness. Consequently, perturbations of network activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. When structural information from non-invasive brain imaging is merged with mathematical modelling, then generative brain network models constitute personalized in silico platforms for the exploration of causal mechanisms of brain function and clinical hypothesis testing...
March 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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