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neural anoxia

Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Estrogens like estradiol (E2 ) via their receptors are pluripotent steroid hormones that exert a profound influence on the developing and adult brain in many vertebrates. In songbirds and mammals, acute brain injury resulting from mechanical damage, anoxia and ischemia rapidly upregulates aromatase and E2 synthesis. Interestingly, this E2 provision occurs due to the induction of aromatase expression in reactive astrocytes in areas surrounding brain injury. The resultant increase in E2 is neuroprotective with established influences on apoptosis, gliosis, cytogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation...
April 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Justin J Evans, Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
During anoxia, proper energy maintenance is essential in order to maintain neural operation. Starvation activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved indicator of cellular energy status, in a cascade which modulates ATP production and consumption. We investigated the role of energetic status on anoxia tolerance in Drosophila and discovered that starvation or AMPK activation increases the speed of locomotor recovery from an anoxic coma. Using temporal and spatial genetic targeting we found that AMPK in the fat body contributes to starvation-induced fast locomotor recovery, whereas, under fed conditions, disrupting AMPK in oenocytes prolongs recovery...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Adriana Lo Castro, Michela Murdocca, Sabina Pucci, Anna Zaratti, Chiara Greggi, Federica Sangiuolo, Virginia Tancredi, Claudio Frank, Giovanna D'Arcangelo
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPCD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endo-lysosomal compartment of cells. In the central nervous system, hypoxic insults could result in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) induction, leading to a pathological hippocampal response, namely, ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP). These events may correlate with the progressive neural loss observed in NPCD...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski-Lafarge, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Ana Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches that are aimed at improving regeneration of injured neural tissue by an injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm," which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizure types; however, some sex-specific seizure disorders are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, substantial data indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs between the sexes. Men generally exhibit greater seizure susceptibility than women, whereas many women with epilepsy experience a cyclical occurrence of seizures that tends to center around the menstrual period, which has been termed catamenial epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Nicolas Ruffieux, Meike Ramon, Junpeng Lao, Françoise Colombo, Lisa Stacchi, François-Xavier Borruat, Ettore Accolla, Jean-Marie Annoni, Roberto Caldara
From birth, the human visual system shows a remarkable sensitivity for perceiving biological motion. This visual ability relies on a distributed network of brain regions and can be preserved even after damage of high-level ventral visual areas. However, it remains unknown whether this critical biological skill can withstand the loss of vision following bilateral striate damage. To address this question, we tested the categorization of human and animal biological motion in BC, a rare case of cortical blindness after anoxia-induced bilateral striate damage...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
J Alberto Ortega, Carissa L Sirois, Fani Memi, Nicole Glidden, Nada Zecevic
The oxygen (O2) concentration is a vital parameter for controlling the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells. A prenatal reduction of O2 levels (hypoxia) often leads to cognitive and behavioral defects, attributable to altered neural development. In this study, we analyzed the effects of O2 levels on human cortical progenitors, the radial glia cells (RGCs), during active neurogenesis, corresponding to the second trimester of gestation. Small changes in O2 levels profoundly affected RGC survival, proliferation, and differentiation...
July 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Christopher M Wilson, Jinae N Roa, Georgina K Cox, Martin Tresguerres, Anthony P Farrell
Although neural modulation of heart rate is well established among chordate animals, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) lacks any cardiac innervation, yet it can increase its heart rate from the steady, depressed heart rate seen in prolonged anoxia to almost double its normal normoxic heart rate, an almost fourfold overall change during the 1-h recovery from anoxia. The present study sought mechanistic explanations for these regulatory changes in heart rate. We provide evidence for a bicarbonate-activated, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)-dependent mechanism to control heart rate, a mechanism never previously implicated in chordate cardiac control...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Amrutha Swaminathan, Hélène Delage, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Laurence Belgarbi-Dutron, Raphaelle Cassel, Nicole Martinez, Brigitte Cosquer, Sujata Kumari, Fabien Mongelard, Béatrice Lannes, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Anne-Laurence Boutillier, Philippe Bouvet, Tapas K Kundu
Although the elaborate combination of histone and non-histone protein complexes defines chromatin organization and hence regulates numerous nuclear processes, the role of chromatin organizing proteins remains unexplored at the organismal level. The highly abundant, multifunctional, chromatin-associated protein and transcriptional coactivator positive coactivator 4 (PC4/Sub1) is absolutely critical for life, because its absence leads to embryonic lethality. Here, we report results obtained with conditional PC4 knock-out (PC4(f/f) Nestin-Cre) mice where PC4 is knocked out specifically in the brain...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hongtao Lei, Jing Li, Zhi Zhao, Li Liu
Ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (Enc1), a member of the KELCH family, is widely expressed in the nervous system and plays an important role in nervous system development. However, the function of Enc1 in neural survival following apoptosis induced by hypoxia and hypoglycemia remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Enc1 in the cell survival of neurons subjected to apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and the potential underlying mechanism. The in vitro cell model of neuron OGD was established by anoxia/hypoglycemic injury...
May 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ke-Wu Zeng, Li-Xi Liao, Ming-Bo Zhao, Fang-Jiao Song, Qian Yu, Yong Jiang, Peng-Fei Tu
Protosappanin B (PTB) is a bioactive dibenzoxocin derivative isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of PTB on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-injured PC12 cells. Results showed that PTB significantly increased cell viability, inhibited cell apoptosis and up-regulated the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (a marker of neural outgrowth). Moreover, our study revealed that PTB effectively maintained mitochondrial homeostasis by up-regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria and inactivation of mitochondrial caspase-9/3 apoptosis pathway...
March 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Richard W Smith, Phil Cash, David W Hogg, Leslie T Buck
During anoxia, overall protein synthesis is almost undetectable in the brain of the western painted turtle. The aim of this investigation was to address the question of whether there are alterations to specific proteins by comparing the normoxic and anoxic brain proteomes. Reductions in creatine kinase, hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase reflected the reduced production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during anoxia while the reduction in transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase reflected the conservation of ATP or possibly a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+)...
May 2015: Proteomics
S J Geiseler, S Ludvigsen, L P Folkow
Eider duck (Somateria mollissima) cerebellar neurons are highly tolerant toward hypoxia in vitro, which in part is due to a hypoxia-induced depression of their spontaneous activity. We have studied whether this response involves ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which are known to be involved in the hypoxic/ischemic defense of mammalian neural and muscular tissues, by causing hyperpolarization and reduced ATP demand. Extracellular recordings in the Purkinje layer of isolated normoxic eider duck cerebellar slices showed that their spontaneous neuronal activity decreased significantly compared to in control slices when the KATP channel opener diazoxide (600 μM) was added (F1,70=92...
January 22, 2015: Neuroscience
John J Flibotte, Angela M Jablonski, Robert G Kalb
Hypoxic brain injury remains a major source of neurodevelopmental impairment for both term and preterm infants. The perinatal period is a time of rapid transition in oxygen environments and developmental resetting of oxygen sensing. The relationship between neural oxygen sensing ability and hypoxic injury has not been studied. The oxygen sensing circuitry in the model organism C. elegans is well understood. We leveraged this information to investigate the effects of impairments in oxygen sensing on survival after anoxia...
2014: PloS One
Da Zhang, Jin She, Zhengbo Zhang, Mengsun Yu
BACKGROUND: Investigating the responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypoxia may provide some knowledge about the mechanism of neural control and rhythmic adjustment. The integrated cardiac and respiratory system display complicated dynamics that are affected by intrinsic feedback mechanisms controlling their interaction. To probe how the cardiac and respiratory system adjust their rhythms in different simulated altitudes, we studied heart rate variability (HRV) in frequency domain, the complexity of heartbeat series and cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS) between heartbeat intervals and respiratory cycles...
June 11, 2014: Biomedical Engineering Online
Nicholas Hou, Gary A B Armstrong, Munmun Chakraborty-Chatterjee, Marla B Sokolowski, R Meldrum Robertson
The sensitivity of insect nervous systems to anoxia can be modulated genetically and pharmacologically, but the cellular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We examined the effect of a heat shock pretreatment (HS) on the sensitivity of the locust (Locusta migratoria) nervous system to anoxia induced by water immersion. Prior HS made locusts more resistant to anoxia by increasing the time taken to enter a coma and by reducing the time taken to recover the ability to stand. Anoxic comas were accompanied by surges of extracellular potassium ions in the neuropile of the metathoracic ganglion, and HS reduced the time taken for clearance of excess extracellular potassium ions...
August 15, 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tomas G A Money, Michael K J Sproule, Amr F Hamour, R Meldrum Robertson
Nervous systems are energetically expensive to operate and maintain. Both synaptic and action potential signalling require a significant investment to maintain ion homeostasis. We have investigated the tuning of neural performance following a brief period of anoxia in a well-characterized visual pathway in the locust, the LGMD/DCMD looming motion-sensitive circuit. We hypothesised that the energetic cost of signalling can be dynamically modified by cellular mechanisms in response to metabolic stress. We examined whether recovery from anoxia resulted in a decrease in excitability of the electrophysiological properties in the DCMD neuron...
2014: PloS One
Haydar Ali Erken, Gülten Erken, Rıdvan Colak, Osman Genç
It is known that hypoxia has a negative effect on nervous system functions, but exercise and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) have positive effect. In this study, it was investigated whether exercise and/or DHA can prevent the effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity (NCV). 35 adult Wistar albino male rats were divided into five groups (n=7): control (C), hypoxia (H), hypoxia and exercise (HE), hypoxia and DHA (HD), and hypoxia and exercise and DHA (HED) groups. During the 28-day hypoxia exposure, the HE and HED groups of rats were exercised (0% incline, 30 m/min speed, 20 min/day, 5 days a week)...
December 2013: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Ana-Julia Rivera-Angulo, Fernando Peña-Ortega
Breathing is a vital function generated and controlled by a brainstem neural network, which is able to adjust its function to fit different metabolic demands. For instance, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) can respond to low oxygen availability (hypoxia) by an initial increase in rhythm frequency followed by a decrease in respiratory efforts that leads to gasping generation. Gasping is essential for autoresuscitation, which has motivated studies of the cellular mechanisms involved in these processes. Hypoxia has different effects on enzymes that participate in the Krebs cycle...
March 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Mohammadreza Nasiriavanaki, Jun Xia, Hanlin Wan, Adam Quentin Bauer, Joseph P Culver, Lihong V Wang
The increasing use of mouse models for human brain disease studies presents an emerging need for a new functional imaging modality. Using optical excitation and acoustic detection, we developed a functional connectivity photoacoustic tomography system, which allows noninvasive imaging of resting-state functional connectivity in the mouse brain, with a large field of view and a high spatial resolution. Bilateral correlations were observed in eight functional regions, including the olfactory bulb, limbic, parietal, somatosensory, retrosplenial, visual, motor, and temporal regions, as well as in several subregions...
January 7, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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