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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527813/enhancer-evolution-and-the-origins-of-morphological-novelty
#1
REVIEW
Mark Rebeiz, Miltos Tsiantis
A central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic origin of morphological novelties-i.e. anatomical structures unique to a taxonomic group. Elaboration of morphology during development depends on networks of regulatory genes that activate patterned gene expression through transcriptional enhancer regions. We summarize recent case studies and genome-wide investigations that have uncovered diverse mechanisms though which new enhancers arise. We also discuss how these enhancer-originating mechanisms have clarified the history of genetic networks underlying diversification of genital structures in flies, limbs and neural crest in chordates, and plant leaves...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#2
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527787/neural-correlates-of-believing
#3
Xiaochun Han, Ting Zhang, Shiyu Wang, Shihui Han
Beliefs provide a fundamental cognitive basis for human behavior. But how the brain believes remains a mystery. We investigated the neural underpinnings of believing by scanning healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging when they made yes/no responses to the questions whether they believe or think that a trait adjective describes themselves or a celebrity. We found that, relative to thinking, believing was characterized with better memory of self-related adjectives. Moreover, believing (vs...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527062/the-prokineticin-system-an-interface-between-neural-inflammation-and-pain
#4
Silvia Franchi, Paola Sacerdote, Alberto Panerai
Prokineticins (PK) 1 and 2 belong to a new family of chemokines capable to interact with two different G coupled receptors: Prokineticin receptor (PKR)1 and 2. Both prokineticins and their receptors are widely distributed in different tissues and regulate several biological functions. In particular, a role of the PK system in inflammation and nociception has been established. PKRs are expressed in regions of the nervous system associated with pain and in primary sensitive neurons they colocalize with transient potential receptor vanilloid-TRPV1 providing an anatomical interaction in nociceptor sensitization...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525839/discovery-of-efficient-stimulators-for-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-based-on-scaffolds-in-dragon-s-blood
#5
Jian-Hua Liang, Liang Yang, Si Wu, Si-Si Liu, Mark Cushman, Jing Tian, Nuo-Min Li, Qing-Hu Yang, He-Ao Zhang, Yun-Jie Qiu, Lin Xiang, Cong-Xuan Ma, Xue-Meng Li, Hong Qing
Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#6
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523225/a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-of-eye-movements-and-visual-word-reading
#7
Wei Zhou, Hua Shu
INTRODUCTION: The pattern of eye movements during reading is substantially correlated with linguistic factors. While there have been a large number of studies on the neural mechanisms of eye movements and word reading separately, a limited number of studies have compared the activation patterns of these two processes and discussed the associations of their corresponding brain regions within the framework of naturalistic reading. METHODS: This study conducted a meta-analysis of the existing functional magnetic resonance imaging literature on prosaccades and visual word reading using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522852/kv3-4-is-modulated-by-hif-1%C3%AE-to-protect-sh-sy5y-cells-against-oxidative-stress-induced-neural-cell-death
#8
Min Seok Song, Pan Dong Ryu, So Yeong Lee
The Kv3.4 channel is characterized by fast inactivation and sensitivity to oxidation. However, the physiological role of Kv3.4 as an oxidation-sensitive channel has yet to be investigated. Here, we demonstrate that Kv3.4 plays a pivotal role in oxidative stress-related neural cell damage as an oxidation-sensitive channel and that HIF-1α down-regulates Kv3.4 function, providing neuroprotection. MPP(+) and CoCl2 are reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating reagents that induce oxidative stress. However, only CoCl2 decreases the expression and function of Kv3...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520235/high-dimensional-neural-network-potentials-for-complex-systems
#9
Jörg Behler
Modern simulation techniques have reached a level of maturity, which allows addressing a wide range of problems in chemistry and materials science. Unfortunately, the application of first principles methods with predictive power is still limited to rather small systems, and in spite of the rapid evolution of computer hardware no fundamental change of this situation can be expected. Consequently, to reach an atomic level understanding of complex systems, the development of more efficient but equally reliable atomistic potentials has received considerable attention in recent years...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515689/current-experimental-studies-of-gene-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jing-Ya Lin, Cheng-Long Xie, Su-Fang Zhang, Weien Yuan, Zhen-Guo Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514064/brain-inspired-photonic-neuromorphic-devices-using-photodynamic-amorphous-oxide-semiconductors-and-their-persistent-photoconductivity
#11
Minkyung Lee, Woobin Lee, Seungbeom Choi, Jeong-Wan Jo, Jaekyun Kim, Sung Kyu Park, Yong-Hoon Kim
The combination of a neuromorphic architecture and photonic computing may open up a new era for computational systems owing to the possibility of attaining high bandwidths and the low-computation-power requirements. Here, the demonstration of photonic neuromorphic devices based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) that mimic major synaptic functions, such as short-term memory/long-term memory, spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and neural facilitation, is reported. The synaptic functions are successfully emulated using the inherent persistent photoconductivity (PPC) characteristic of AOSs...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513252/a-novel-model-based-on-fcm-lm-algorithm-for-prediction-of-protein-folding-rate
#12
Longlong Liu, Mingjiao Ma, Jing Cui
The prediction of protein folding rates is of paramount importance in describing the protein folding mechanism, which has broad applications in fields such as enzyme engineering and protein engineering. Therefore, predicting protein folding rates using the first-order of protein sequence, secondary structure and amino acid properties has become a very active research topic in recent years. This paper presents a new fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) model based on deep learning neural networks which uses data obtained from biological experiments to predict the protein folding rate...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512996/zl006-promotes-migration-and-differentiation-of-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-male-rats-after-stroke
#13
Dong-Liang Wang, Xiao-Dan Qian, Yu-Hui Lin, Bin-Bin Tian, Hai-Ying Liang, Lei Chang, Hai-Yin Wu, Dong-Ya Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo
New strategies must be developed to resolve the problems of stroke treatment. In recent years, stem cell-based therapy after stroke has come into the public and academic lens. Previously we have shown that uncoupling neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) by ZL006, a small molecular compound, can ameliorate ischemic damage and promote neuronal differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in focal cerebral ischemic male rats. In this study, we transplanted exogenous NSCs into the ipsilateral hemisphere of male rats in combination with ZL006 treatment after ischemic stroke...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512409/immunoglobulin-d-multiple-myeloma-presenting-as-spontaneous-fracture
#14
Samer Al Hadidi, Khalil Katato, Ghassan Bachuwa
Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare type of multiple myeloma that usually presents as bone pain, fatigue, or weight loss. We report a case of immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma in a 53-year-old Caucasian male patient with previous medical history of anaplastic oligodendroglioma status post-surgical resection who was evaluated for back pain while mowing the lawn. His physical examination showed tenderness over the lower thoracic vertebrae with no sensory or motor impairment. Initial lab investigations showed normocytic anemia and hypercalcemia with low parathyroid hormone...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511122/robotic-assessment-of-neuromuscular-characteristics-using-musculoskeletal-models-a-pilot-study
#15
V R Jayaneththi, J Viloria, L G Wiedemann, C Jarrett, A J McDaid
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive neuromuscular characterization aims to provide greater insight into the effectiveness of existing and emerging rehabilitation therapies by quantifying neuromuscular characteristics relating to force production, muscle viscoelasticity and voluntary neural activation. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to evaluate neuromuscular characteristics, such as muscle fiber stiffness and viscosity, by combining robotic and HD-sEMG measurements with computational musculoskeletal modeling...
May 10, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511069/ischaemic-preconditioning-current-knowledge-and-potential-future-applications-after-30-years-of-experience
#16
REVIEW
Karolina Stokfisz, Anna Ledakowicz-Polak, Maciej Zagorski, Marzenna Zielinska
Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) phenomenon has been known for thirty years. During that time several studies showed that IPC provided by brief ischaemic and reperfusion episodes prior to longer ischaemia can bestow a protective effect to both preconditioned and also remote organs. IPC affecting remote organs is called remote ischaemic preconditioning. Initially, most IPC studies were focused on enhancing myocardial resistance to subsequent ischaemia and reperfusion injury. However, preconditioning was found to be a universal phenomenon and was observed in various organs and tissues including the heart, liver, brain, retina, kidney, skeletal muscles and intestine...
May 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510278/tfg-met-fusion-in-an-infantile-spindle-cell-sarcoma-with-neural-features
#17
Uta Flucke, Max M van Noesel, Marc Wijnen, Lei Zhang, Chun-Liang Chen, Yun-Shao Sung, Cristina R Antonescu
An increasing number of congenital and infantile sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been characterized to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Here we report an unusual spindle cell sarcoma presenting as a large and infiltrative pelvic soft tissue mass in a 4-month-old girl, which revealed a novel TFG-MET gene fusion by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing. The tumor resembled the morphology of an infantile fibrosarcoma with both fascicular and patternless growth, however, it expressed strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, while lacking SOX10 staining and retaining H3K27me3 expression...
May 16, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509903/gray-matter-anomalies-in-pedophiles-with-and-without-a-history-of-child-sexual-offending
#18
B Schiffer, T Amelung, A Pohl, C Kaergel, G Tenbergen, H Gerwinn, S Mohnke, C Massau, W Matthias, S Weiß, V Marr, K M Beier, M Walter, J Ponseti, T H C Krüger, K Schiltz, H Walter
Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder that is inter-related with but distinct from child sexual offending (CSO). Neural alterations reportedly contribute to both pedophilia and CSO, but until now, no study has distinguished the brain structural anomalies associated with pedophilia from those specifically associated with CSO in pedophilic men. Using high-resolution T1-weighted brain images and voxel-based morphometry, we analyzed the gray matter (GM) volume of the following 219 men recruited at four acquisition sites in Germany: 58 pedophiles with a history of CSO, 60 pedophiles without any history of CSO and 101 non-pedophilic, non-offending controls to control for the effects of age, education level, verbal IQ, sexual orientation and the acquisition site...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509579/findings-of-cognitive-impairment-at-high-altitude-relationships-to-acetazolamide-use-and-acute-mountain-sickness
#19
Lara Phillips, Buddha Basnyat, Yuchiao Chang, Erik R Swenson, N Stuart Harris
Phillips, Lara, Buddha Basnyat, Yuchiao Chang, Erik R. Swenson, and N. Stuart Harris. Findings of cognitive impairment at high altitude: relationships to acetazolamide use and acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-Objective: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is defined by patient-reported symptoms using the Lake Louise Score (LLS), which provides limited insight into any possible underlying central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some evidence suggests AMS might coexist with altered neural functioning...
May 16, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509081/interleukin-6-mediated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-derived-neural-differentiation
#20
Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Han Kyu Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Klaus Heese
In an aging society with an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions due to dementia, it becomes imperative to identify new molecular remedies for supporting adult neurogenesis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration, and neuron replacement is eventually possible due to its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R. Here, we report that activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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