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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#1
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
December 8, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#2
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932971/evaluation-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-signals-effect-of-surrogates-and-evaluation-approach
#3
Bakul Gohel, Sanghyun Lim, Min-Young Kim, Kyung-Min An, Ji-Eun Kim, Hyukchan Kwon, Kiwoong Kim
Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) plays an important role in neural communication and computation. Interestingly, recent studies have indicated the presence of ubiquitous PAC phenomenon even during the resting state. Despite the importance of PAC phenomenon, estimation of significant physiological PAC is challenging because of the lack of appropriate surrogate measures to control false positives caused by non-physiological PAC. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated PAC phenomenon during resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal and considered various surrogate measures and computational approaches widely used in the literature in addition to proposing new ones...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932965/the-neural-correlates-of-humor-creativity
#4
Ori Amir, Irving Biederman
Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product's quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur "improv" comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932944/role-of-homocysteine-in-the-ischemic-stroke-and-development-of-ischemic-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Ján Lehotský, Barbara Tothová, Maria Kovalská, Dušan Dobrota, Anna Beňová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Kaplán
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a toxic, sulfur-containing intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a consequence of impaired Hcy metabolism or defects in crucial co-factors that participate in its recycling, is assumed as an independent human stroke risk factor. Neural cells are sensitive to prolonged hHcy treatment, because Hcy cannot be metabolized either by the transsulfuration pathway or by the folate/vitamin B12 independent remethylation pathway. Its detrimental effect after ischemia-induced damage includes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and posttranslational modifications of proteins via homocysteinylation and thiolation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930910/the-neurobiology-of-zika-virus
#6
REVIEW
Hongda Li, Laura Saucedo-Cuevas, Sujan Shresta, Joseph G Gleeson
Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#7
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928951/analysis-of-adverse-events-related-to-720-cases-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#8
Suqing Qu, Weipeng Liu, Hui Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yinxiang Yang, Fang Liu, Kan Du, Sheng He, Zuo Luan
: The aim of this study is to explore the safety issue from 720 cases of neural progenitor cell transplantation through a retrospective analysis of adverse events based on clinic manifestations and examinations. Results showed that 166/720 cases had postoperative crying and irritability, 69/720 vomiting and 84/720 fever. None of them had CNS infection, but 4 cases presented intracranial hemorrhage. One month after cell therapy, 568/720 cases received EEG test, which showed improvement in 153 patients, abnormal changes in 74 and no changes in 341 cases; two patients developed new-onset convulsions and 3 recurrent convulsions;6 cases had intracranial hemorrhage , but no other CNS sequelae left from the primary diseases...
December 7, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926574/neural-activity-memory-and-dementias-serotonergic-markers
#9
Alfredo Meneses
Dysfunctional memory seems to be a key component of diverse dementias and other neuropsychiatric disorders; unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for this, probably because of the absence of neural biomarkers accompanying it. Diverse neurotransmission systems have been implicated in memory, including serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are multiple serotonergic pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species and neural markers providing new insights into memory functions and dysfunctions...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926491/early-pathogenic-event-of-alzheimer-s-disease-documented-in-ipscs-from-patients-with-psen1-mutations
#10
Juan Yang, Hanzhi Zhao, Yu Ma, Guilai Shi, Jian Song, Yu Tang, Song Li, Ting Li, Nan Liu, Fan Tang, Junjie Gu, Lingling Zhang, Zhuohua Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, Ying Jin, Weidong Le
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia characterized by progressive neuronal loss. However, the molecular mechanisms for the neuronal loss is still debated. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of familial AD patients carrying PSEN1 mutations to study the early pathogenic event of AD. We found that premature neuronal differentiation with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis occured in AD-iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (AD-NPCs) once neuronal differentiation was initiated, together with higher levels of Aβ42 and phosphorylated tau...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925650/a-pupil-size-response-model-to-assess-fear-learning
#11
Christoph W Korn, Matthias Staib, Athina Tzovara, Giuseppe Castegnetti, Dominik R Bach
During fear conditioning, pupil size responses dissociate between conditioned stimuli that are contingently paired (CS+) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus, and those that are unpaired (CS-). Current approaches to assess fear learning from pupil responses rely on ad hoc specifications. Here, we sought to develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) in which pupil responses are characterized by response functions within the framework of a linear time-invariant system. This PsPM can be written as a general linear model, which is inverted to yield amplitude estimates of the eliciting process in the central nervous system...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925603/consensus-control-of-nonlinear-multiagent-systems-with-time-varying-state-constraints
#12
Wenchao Meng, Qinmin Yang, Jennie Si, Youxian Sun
In this paper, we present a novel adaptive consensus algorithm for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems with time-varying asymmetric state constraints. As such, our contribution is a step forward beyond the usual consensus stabilization result to show that the states of the agents remain within a user defined, time-varying bound. To prove our new results, the original multiagent system is transformed into a new one. Stabilization and consensus of transformed states are sufficient to ensure the consensus of the original networked agents without violating of the predefined asymmetric time-varying state constraints...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924782/resistive-switching-of-pt-tio-x-pt-devices-fabricated-on-flexible-parylene-c-substrates
#13
Ali Khiat, Simone Cortese, Alexander Serb, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Pt/TiO x /Pt resistive switching (RS) devices are considered to be amongst the most promising candidates in memristor family and the technology transfer to flexible substrates could open the way to new opportunities for flexible memory implementations. Hence, an important goal is to achieve a fully flexible RS memory technology. Nonetheless, several fabrication challenges are present and must be solved prior to achieving reliable device fabrication and good electronic performances. Here, we propose a fabrication method for the successful transfer of Pt/TiO x /Pt stack onto flexible Parylene-C substrates...
January 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924017/a-genome-integrated-massively-parallel-reporter-assay-reveals-dna-sequence-determinants-of-cis-regulatory-activity-in-neural-cells
#14
Brett B Maricque, Joseph D Dougherty, Barak A Cohen
Recent large-scale genomics efforts to characterize the cis-regulatory sequences that orchestrate genome-wide expression patterns have produced impressive catalogues of putative regulatory elements. Most of these sequences have not been functionally tested, and our limited understanding of the non-coding genome prevents us from predicting which sequences are bona fide cis-regulatory elements. Recently, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs) have been deployed to measure the activity of putative cis-regulatory sequences in several biological contexts, each with specific advantages and distinct limitations...
October 23, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924000/folate-deficiency-facilitates-recruitment-of-upstream-binding-factor-to-hot-spots-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-of-rrna-genes-and-promotes-its-transcription
#15
Qiu Xie, Caihua Li, Xiaozhen Song, Lihua Wu, Qian Jiang, Zhiyong Qiu, Haiyan Cao, Kaihui Yu, Chunlei Wan, Jianting Li, Feng Yang, Zebing Huang, Bo Niu, Zhengwen Jiang, Ting Zhang
The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923476/establishment-of-quantitative-retention-activity-model-by-optimized-microemulsion-liquid-chromatography
#16
Liyuan Xu, Haoshi Gao, Liangxing Li, Yinnong Li, Liuyun Wang, Chongkai Gao, Ning Li
The effective permeability coefficient is of theoretical and practical importance in evaluation of the bioavailability of drug candidates. However, most methods currently used to measure this coefficient are expensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we addressed these problems by proposing a new measurement method which is based on the microemulsion liquid chromatography. First, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assays model was used to determine the effective permeability of drug so that quantitative retention-activity relationships could be established, which were used to optimize the microemulsion liquid chromatography...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923474/recapitulation-of-emotional-source-context-during-memory-retrieval
#17
Holly J Bowen, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Recapitulation involves the reactivation of cognitive and neural encoding processes at retrieval. In the current study, we investigated the effects of emotional valence on recapitulation processes. Participants encoded neutral words presented on a background face or scene that was negative, positive or neutral. During retrieval, studied and novel neutral words were presented alone (i.e., without the scene or face) and participants were asked to make a remember, know or new judgment. Both the encoding and retrieval tasks were completed in the fMRI scanner...
November 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923168/improved-exponential-convergence-result-for-generalized-neural-networks-including-interval-time-varying-delayed-signals
#18
G Rajchakit, R Saravanakumar, Choon Ki Ahn, Hamid Reza Karimi
This article examines the exponential stability analysis problem of generalized neural networks (GNNs) including interval time-varying delayed states. A new improved exponential stability criterion is presented by establishing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) and employing new analysis theory. The improved reciprocally convex combination (RCC) and weighted integral inequality (WII) techniques are utilized to obtain new sufficient conditions to ascertain the exponential stability result of such delayed GNNs...
November 9, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#19
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
December 6, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920741/inducing-proactive-control-shifts-in-the-ax-cpt
#20
Corentin Gonthier, Brooke N Macnamara, Michael Chow, Andrew R A Conway, Todd S Braver
The Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account (Braver, 2012) proposes two distinct mechanisms of cognitive control, proactive and reactive. This account has been supported by a large number of studies using the AX-CPT paradigm that have demonstrated not only between-group differences, but also within-subjects variability in the use of the two control mechanisms. Yet there has been little investigation of task manipulations that can experimentally modulate the use of proactive control in healthy young adults; such manipulations could be useful to better understand the workings of cognitive control mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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