keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

new neural

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#1
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
January 19, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352391/functional-recovery-by-application-of-human-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-on-cerebral-infarction-mice-model
#2
Tomoki Kakudo, Naotaka Kishimoto, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Yoshihiro Momota
Elderly people whose daily activities have declined due to a cerebrovascular disorder may suffer from dysphagia and may find oral hygiene difficult. Therefore, it is important to establish an effective therapy for the underlying cerebrovascular disorder. Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT) were obtained from mature adipocytes isolated from human buccal adipose pads in a ceiling culture. DFAT expressed the neural markers Nestin and SOX2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells had properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells...
January 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#3
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352026/addictive-behaviour-in-experimental-animals-prospects-for-translation
#4
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt, Chiara Giuliano, David Belin
Since the introduction of intravenous drug self-administration methodology over 50 years ago, experimental investigation of addictive behaviour has delivered an enormous body of data on the neural, psychological and molecular mechanisms of drug reward and reinforcement and the neuroadaptations to chronic use. Whether or not these behavioural and molecular studies are viewed as modelling the underpinnings of addiction in humans, the discussion presented here highlights two areas-the impact of drug-associated conditioned stimuli-or drug cues-on drug seeking and relapse, and compulsive cocaine seeking...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351671/a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-evaluating-electroencephalograms-on-laying-hens
#5
Krista N Eberle, Michael P Martin, Sanjay Shah, Ramon D Malheiros, Kimberly A Livingston, Kenneth E Anderson
The use of electroencephalograms (EEG) to study the avian brain relative to behavior was conducted as early as the 1960's. EEG readings, combined with visual cues, provide the ability to elucidate and correlate behaviors to neurological and physiological changes in a chicken. The use of EEG recordings in animal models require access to the brain to implant electrodes. Having the ability to observe EEG activity on sensible birds without surgical implantation could broaden the research in this area and give further insight related to the hen's state of awareness...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351656/evaluation-of-a-new-neutron-energy-spectrum-unfolding-code-based-on-an-adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-system-anfis
#6
Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini, Iman Esmaili Paeen Afrakoti
The purpose of the present study was to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a poly-energetic neutron source using an algorithm developed based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). ANFIS is a kind of artificial neural network based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. The ANFIS algorithm uses the advantages of both fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to improve the effectiveness of algorithms in various applications such as modeling, control and classification. The neutron pulse height distributions used as input data in the training procedure for the ANFIS algorithm were obtained from the simulations performed by MCNPX-ESUT computational code (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351559/characterisation-of-ictal-and-interictal-states-of-epilepsy-a-system-dynamic-approach-of-principal-dynamic-modes-analysis
#7
Zabit Hameed, Saqib Saleem, Jawad Mirza, Muhammad Salman Mustafa, Qamar-Ul-Islam
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterised by the recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizures. The present study attempts to derive new diagnostic indices which may delineate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. To achieve this, the nonlinear modeling approach of global principal dynamic modes (PDMs) is adopted to examine the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal lobes with the occipital brain segment using an ensemble of paediatric EEGs having the presence of epileptic seizure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350571/intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-corresponds-to-a-dorsal-ventral-gradient-in-medial-pfc-reactivity-to-interpersonal-provocation
#8
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration is often preceded by perceived interpersonal provocations such as slights, insults, and rejections. Yet the neural mechanisms that link provocation to IPV remain unclear. In the context of interactions with strangers, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) has been repeatedly shown to respond to provocation, with more dorsal activation associated with more aggressive reactions and more ventral activation associated with less aggressive reactions. We used functional brain imaging to test whether this dorsal-ventral MPFC reactivity gradient would also correlate with greater aggression towards an unexamined target: intimate partners...
January 19, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350187/multifractal-dynamics-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Frigyes Samuel Racz, Peter Mukli, Zoltan Nagy, Andras Eke
Brain function is organized as a network of functional connections between different neuronal populations with connection strengths dynamically changing in time and space. Studies investigating functional connectivity (FC) usually follow a static approach when describing FC by considering the connectivity strengths constant, however a dynamic approach seems more reasonable, as this way the spatio-temporal dynamics of the underlying system can also be captured. Objective: The scale-free, i.e. fractal nature of neural dynamics is an inherent property of the nervous system...
January 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350183/integrated-biocircuits-engineering-functional-multicellular-circuits-and-devices
#10
Jordan Prox, Tory Smith, Chad Holl, Nick Chehade, Liang Guo
Novel in vitro platforms are currently revolutionizing the study and reconstruction of cellular circuitry to bypass the pertaining obstacles of data retrieval in vivo. While earlier approaches have provided great insights into culturing circuits in planar dissociated cell culture systems, the lack of full control over network activity and formation limits our understanding of their functionality. Thus, integrating various controllable parameters are required in creating a suitable microenvironment including cell patterning, highly-specified electrical and chemical stimuli, and rational circuit formation via logic functions...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348422/individuals-with-depressive-tendencies-experience-difficulty-in-forgetting-negative-material-two-mechanisms-revealed-by-erp-data-in-the-directed-forgetting-paradigm
#11
Hui Xie, Donghong Jiang, Dandan Zhang
Although previous studies have shown that individuals with depressive tendencies have deficits in forgetting negative material, the detailed underlying neural mechanisms have not been elucidated. This study examined the intentional forgetting of negative and neutral material in individuals with depressive tendencies in two phases. In the study phase, the participants performed a directed forgetting task, where a total of 320 words were presented to them, each followed by an instructive cue to forget or remember the previously presented word...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348191/multi-modal-encoding-of-novelty-reward-and-learning-in-the-primate-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#12
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of non-human primates (NHPs; N=2 males; Macaca mulatta) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. Yet, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347805/spectral-signatures-of-activity-dependent-neural-feedback-in-the-corticothalamic-system
#13
N Roy, P Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson
The modulation of neural quantities by presynaptic and postsynaptic activities via local feedback processes is investigated by incorporating nonlinear phenomena such as relative refractory period, synaptic enhancement, synaptic depression, and habituation. This is done by introducing susceptibilities, which quantify the response in either firing threshold or synaptic strength to unit change in either presynaptic or postsynaptic activity. Effects on the power spectra are then analyzed for a realistic corticothalamic model to determine the spectral signatures of various nonlinear processes and to what extent these are distinct...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347270/detection-of-nonstationary-transition-to-synchronized-states-of-a-neural-network-using-recurrence-analyses
#14
R C Budzinski, B R R Boaretto, T L Prado, S R Lopes
We study the stability of asymptotic states displayed by a complex neural network. We focus on the loss of stability of a stationary state of networks using recurrence quantifiers as tools to diagnose local and global stabilities as well as the multistability of a coupled neural network. Numerical simulations of a neural network composed of 1024 neurons in a small-world connection scheme are performed using the model of Braun et al. [Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 08, 881 (1998)IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127498000681], which is a modified model from the Hodgkin-Huxley model [J...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346889/morphological-inversion-of-complex-diffusion
#15
V A T Nguyen, D C Vural
Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here, we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than algorithms based on distance (closeness) and Jordan centrality. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346107/brain-mr-image-restoration-using-an-automatic-trilateral-filter-with-gpu-based-acceleration
#16
Herng-Hua Chang, Cheng-Yuan Li, Audrey Haihong Gallogly
OBJECTIVE: Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. METHODS: Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345632/brain-machine-interfaces-for-controlling-lower-limb-powered-robotic-systems
#17
Yongtian He, David Eguren, José M Azorín, Robert Grossman, Trieu Phat Luu, Jose Luis Pepe Contreras-Vidal
Lower-limb, powered robotics systems such as exoskeletons and orthoses have emerged as novel robotic interventions to assist or rehabilitate people with walking disabilities. These devices are generally controlled by certain physical maneuvers, for example pressing buttons or shifting body weight. Although effective, these control schemes are not what humans naturally use. The usability and clinical relevance of these robotics systems could be further enhanced by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). A number of preliminary studies have been published on this topic, but a systematic understanding of the experimental design, tasks, and performance of BMI-exoskeleton systems for restoration of gait is lacking...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343847/neural-substrates-of-purely-endogenous-self-regulatory-control-of-attention
#18
Suk Won Han, Hyunji Shin, Dahee Jeong, Shinyoung Jung, Eunhee Bae, Joo Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Man Baek, Kyoheon Kim
Stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward a novel, salient stimulus is a highly adaptive behavior. In an opposing vein, it is also crucial to endogenously redirect attention to other stimuli of behavioral significance if the attended stimulus was evaluated to be unimportant. This stimulus-driven orienting and subsequent reorienting of attention are known to be mediated by similar neural substrates. However, this might be because reorienting was triggered by a sensory transition exogenously capturing attention, such as an abrupt onset of a new stimulus...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#19
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343650/decoder-calibration-with-ultra-small-current-sample-set-for-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#20
Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Luyao Chen, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang, Wei Li, Jiping He
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. APPROACH: Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
keyword
keyword
40117
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"