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Andrea J Santamaría, Juan P Solano, Francisco D Benavides, James D Guest
Cell transplant-mediated tissue repair of the damaged spinal cord is being tested in several clinical trials. The current candidates are neural stem cells, stromal cells, and autologous Schwann cells (aSC). Due to their peripheral origin and limited penetration of astrocytic regions, aSC are transplanted intralesionally as compared to neural stem cells that are transplanted into intact spinal cord. Injections into either location can cause iatrogenic injury, and thus technical precision is important in the therapeutic risk-benefit equation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
James P Roach, Aleksandra Pidde, Eitan Katz, Jiaxing Wu, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J Aton, Michal R Zochowski
Network oscillations across and within brain areas are critical for learning and performance of memory tasks. While a large amount of work has focused on the generation of neural oscillations, their effect on neuronal populations' spiking activity and information encoding is less known. Here, we use computational modeling to demonstrate that a shift in resonance responses can interact with oscillating input to ensure that networks of neurons properly encode new information represented in external inputs to the weights of recurrent synaptic connections...
March 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Kevin F Chau, Neil Dani, Monica L Calicchio, Gwenaelle S Géléoc, Hart G W Lidov, Sanda Alexandrescu, Maria K Lehtinen
Choroid plexus tumors and ciliary body medulloepithelioma are predominantly pediatric neoplasms. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors has been hindered by their rarity and lack of models that faithfully recapitulate the disease. Here, we find that endogenous c-Myc is down-regulated in the forebrain neuroepithelium, whose neural plate border domains give rise to anterior choroid plexus and ciliary body. To uncover the consequences of persistent MYC (c-Myc) expression, c-Myc expression was forced in multipotent neural precursors (Nestin-Cre:MYC), which produced a fully penetrant model of choroid plexus carcinoma and ciliary body medulloepithelioma...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Shuchao Pang, Mehmet A Orgun, Zhezhou Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The traditional biomedical image retrieval methods as well as content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods originally designed for non-biomedical images either only consider using pixel and low-level features to describe an image or use deep features to describe images but still leave a lot of room for improving both accuracy and efficiency. In this work, we propose a new approach, which exploits deep learning technology to extract the high-level and compact features from biomedical images...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Daniel J Dennis, Sisu Han, Carol Schuurmans
The formation of functional neural circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) requires that appropriate numbers of the correct types of neuronal and glial cells are generated in their proper places and times during development. In the embryonic CNS, multipotent progenitor cells first acquire regional identities, and then undergo precisely choreographed temporal identity transitions (i.e. time-dependent changes in their identity) that determine how many neuronal and glial cells of each type they will generate...
March 12, 2018: Brain Research
Bin Li, Yaqing Liu, Changjin Wan, Zhiyuan Liu, Ming Wang, Dianpeng Qi, Jiancan Yu, Pingqiang Cai, Meng Xiao, Yi Zeng, Xiaodong Chen
Memristive synapses based on resistive switching are promising electronic devices that emulate the synaptic plasticity in neural systems. Short-term plasticity (STP), reflecting a temporal strengthening of the synaptic connection, allows artificial synapses to perform critical computational functions, such as fast response and information filtering. To mediate this fundamental property in memristive electronic devices, the regulation of the dynamic resistive change is necessary for an artificial synapse. Here, it is demonstrated that the orientation of mesopores in the dielectric silica layer can be used to modulate the STP of an artificial memristive synapse...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Erin L Beatty, Alexandra Muller-Gass, Dorothy Wojtarowicz, Marie-Eve Jobidon, Ingrid Smith, Quan Lam, Oshin Vartanian
Humans rely on topographical memory to encode information about spatial aspects of environments. However, even though people adopt different strategies when learning new maps, little is known about the impact of those strategies on topographical memory, and their neural correlates. To examine that issue, we presented participants with 40 unfamiliar maps, each of which displayed one major route and three landmarks. Half were instructed to memorize the maps by focusing on the route, whereas the other half memorized the maps by focusing on the landmarks...
March 14, 2018: Neuroreport
Zachary Niday, Anastasios V Tzingounis
Exome and targeted sequencing have revolutionized clinical diagnosis. This has been particularly striking in epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, for which new genes or new variants of preexisting candidate genes are being continuously identified at increasing rates every year. A surprising finding of these efforts is the recognition that gain of function potassium channel variants are actually associated with certain types of epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Stefan Elmer, Lutz Jäncke
Numerous studies have documented the behavioral advantages conferred on professional musicians and children undergoing music training in processing speech sounds varying in the spectral and temporal dimensions. These beneficial effects have previously often been associated with local functional and structural changes in the auditory cortex (AC). However, this perspective is oversimplified, in that it does not take into account the intrinsic organization of the human brain, namely, neural networks and oscillatory dynamics...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Shigeki Fujiwara, Cristian Cañestro
Reporter analyses of Hox1 and Brachyury (Bra) genes have revealed examples of redundant enhancers that provide regulatory robustness. Retinoic acid (RA) activates through an RA-response element the transcription of Hox1 in the nerve cord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We also found a weak RA-independent neural enhancer within the second intron of Hox1. The Hox1 gene in the larvacean Oikopleura dioica is also expressed in the nerve cord. The O. dioica genome, however, does not contain the RA receptor-encoding gene, and the expression of Hox1 has become independent of RA...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Timothée Proix, Viktor K Jirsa, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Wilson Truccolo
Recent studies have shown that seizures can spread and terminate across brain areas via a rich diversity of spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, while the location of the seizure onset area is usually invariant across seizures in an individual patient, the source of traveling (2-3 Hz) spike-and-wave discharges during seizures can either move with the slower propagating ictal wavefront or remain stationary at the seizure onset area. Furthermore, although many focal seizures terminate synchronously across brain areas, some evolve into distinct ictal clusters and terminate asynchronously...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yu-Chen Lu, Yu-Jun Wang, Bin Lu, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng, Jing-Gen Liu
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that initiates scratching behavior. Itch-scratch reaction is a complex phenomenon whose occurrence implicates supraspinal structures required for regulation of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and motivational aspects. However, the central mechanisms underlying the processing of itch and the interplay of the supraspinal regions and spinal cord in regulating itch-scratch processes are poorly understood. Here, we have identified that the neural projections from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) constitute a critical circuit element for regulating itch-related behaviors in the brain of male C57BL/6J mice...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Maurizio Giordano, Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: System toxicology aims at understanding the mechanisms used by biological systems to respond to toxicants. Such understanding can be leveraged to assess the risk of chemicals, drugs, and consumer products in living organisms. In system toxicology, machine learning techniques and methodologies are applied to develop prediction models for classification of toxicant exposure of biological systems. Gene expression data (RNA/DNA microarray) are often used to develop such prediction models...
March 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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