keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

new neural

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#1
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138704/caudal-regression-and-encephalocele-rare-manifestations-of-expanded-goldenhar-complex
#2
Gabriella D'Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Salvatore Aversa, Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Mariaconcetta Cutrupi, Carmelo Salpietro, Eloisa Gitto
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term "expanded Goldenhar complex" has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138679/modulatory-mechanism-of-polyphenols-and-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-lps-challenged-pregnancy-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Gang Liu, Ghulam Murtaza, Najma Rahu, Muhammad Saleem, Yulong Yin
Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137924/nasal-and-otic-placode-specific-regulation-of-sox2-involves-both-activation-by-sox-sall4-synergism-and-multiple-repression-mechanisms
#4
Satoko Sugahara, Tooru Fujimoto, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
Transcription factor gene Sox2 is expressed throughout sensory development, but the enhancers that regulate the gene vary depending on the developmental stages and tissues. To gain new insights into the gene regulatory network in sensory placode specification, regulation of the nasal-otic bispecific NOP1 enhancer of Sox2 was investigated in chicken embryos. Deletion and mutational analyses using electroporation showed that transcriptional repression mechanisms in combination with activation mechanisms determine placodal specificity...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#5
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137640/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-neural-cells-via-porphyra-yezoensis-polysaccharide-based-high-efficient-gene-co-delivery
#6
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Yan Wang, Jie Zhou, Wenqian Xu, Pan Du, Qiang Wang, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
BACKGROUND: The cell source for transplantation therapy is always a prerequisite question to be solved in clinical applications. Neural cells are considered non-regenerable, which highly restrict their application in the treatment for nerve injury. Therefore, neural trans-differentiation based on gene transfection provides a new solution to this issue. Compared to viral strategy, non-viral gene delivery systems are considered as a more promising way to achieve this aim. This study centers on a novel application of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide as a non-viral gene carrier for the neural trans-differentiation of mouse fibroblasts...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#7
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135596/general-anesthetics-to-treat-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-relevance-and-underlying-mechanisms
#8
Laszlo Vutskits
Major depressive disorder is a frequent and devastating psychological condition with tremendous public health impact. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involve abnormal neurotransmission and a relatedly impaired synaptic plasticity. Since general anesthetics are potent modulators of neuronal activity and, thereby, can exert long-term context-dependent impact on neural networks, an intriguing hypothesis is that these drugs could enhance impaired neural plasticity associated with certain psychiatric diseases...
November 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134703/origin-and-dynamics-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-perinatal-white-matter-injury
#9
REVIEW
Erik van Tilborg, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurik van Hal, Nienke Wagenaar, Linda S de Vries, Manon J Benders, David H Rowitch, Cora H Nijboer
Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology underlying perinatal WMI, it is essential to fully understand the cellular mechanisms contributing to healthy/normal white matter development. OLs are responsible for myelination of axons. During brain development, OLs are generally derived from neuroepithelial zones, where neural stem cells committed to the OL lineage differentiate into OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#10
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133440/coarse-graining-as-a-downward-causation-mechanism
#11
REVIEW
Jessica C Flack
Downward causation is the controversial idea that 'higher' levels of organization can causally influence behaviour at 'lower' levels of organization. Here I propose that we can gain traction on downward causation by being operational and examining how adaptive systems identify regularities in evolutionary or learning time and use these regularities to guide behaviour. I suggest that in many adaptive systems components collectively compute their macroscopic worlds through coarse-graining. I further suggest we move from simple feedback to downward causation when components tune behaviour in response to estimates of collectively computed macroscopic properties...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#12
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#13
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#14
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132374/yeast-interfering-rna-larvicides-targeting-neural-genes-induce-high-rates-of-anopheles-larval-mortality
#15
Keshava Mysore, Limb K Hapairai, Longhua Sun, Elizabeth I Harper, Yingying Chen, Kathleen K Eggleson, Jacob S Realey, Nicholas D Scheel, David W Severson, Na Wei, Molly Duman-Scheel
BACKGROUND: Although larviciding can reduce the number of outdoor biting malaria vector mosquitoes, which may help to prevent residual malaria transmission, the current larvicide repertoire is faced with great challenges to sustainability. The identification of new effective, economical, and biorational larvicides could facilitate maintenance and expansion of the practice of larviciding in integrated malaria vector mosquito control programmes. Interfering RNA molecules represent a novel class of larvicides with untapped potential for sustainable mosquito control...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132133/endomorphins-promising-endogenous-opioid-peptides-for-the-development-of-novel-analgesics
#16
Zheng-Hui Gu, Bo Wang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Yang Bai, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Hui Li, Yun-Qing Li
Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information...
November 13, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131617/coupling-matched-molecular-pairs-with-machine-learning-for-virtual-compound-optimization
#17
Simone Fulle, Samo Turk, Benjamin Merget, Friedrich Rippmann
Matched molecular pair (MMP) analyses are widely used in compound optimization projects to gain insights into structure-activity relationships (SAR). The analysis is traditionally done via statistical methods but can also be employed together with machine learning (ML) approaches to extrapolate to novel compounds. The here introduced MMP/ML method combines a fragment-based MMP implementation with different machine learning methods to obtain automated SAR decomposition and prediction. To test the prediction capabilities and model transferability, two different compound optimization scenarios were designed: (1) 'new fragments' that occurs when exploring new fragments for a defined compound series, and (2) 'new static core and transformations' that resembles for instance the identification of a new compound series...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#18
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130688/from-classification-to-regression-multitasking-qsar-modeling-using-a-novel-modular-neural-network-simultaneous-prediction-of-anticonvulsant-activity-and-neurotoxicity-of-succinimides
#19
Davor Antanasijević, Jelena Antanasijević, Nemanja Trišović, Gordana Ušćumlić, Viktor Pocajt
Succinimides, which contain a pharmacophore responsible for anticonvulsant activity, are frequently used antiepileptic drugs and the synthesis of their new derivatives with improved efficacy and tolerability presents an important task. Nowadays, multitarget/tasking methodologies focused on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR/mtk-QSAR) have an important role in the rational design of drugs since they enable simultaneous prediction of several standard measures of biological activities at diverse experimental conditions and against different biological targets...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130544/identification-of-gene-expression-signatures-across-different-types-of-neural-stem-cells-with-the-monte-carlo-feature-selection-method
#20
Lei Chen, JiaRui Li, Yu-Hang Zhang, KaiYan Feng, ShaoPeng Wang, YunHua Zhang, Tao Huang, Xiangyin Kong, Yu-Dong Cai
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are a group of multi-potent, self-renewing progenitor cells that contribute to the generation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes. Three subtypes of NSCs can be isolated based on the stages of the NSC lineage, including quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs), activated neural stem cells (aNSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although it is widely accepted that these three groups of NSCs play different roles in the development of the nervous system, their molecular signatures are poorly understood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
keyword
keyword
40117
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"