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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783122/bix-01294-promotes-the-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-adipocytes-and-neural-cells-in-arbas-cashmere-goats
#1
Qing Wang, Xiao Wang, Defang Lai, Jin Deng, Zhuang Hou, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
Chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in regulating gene transcription. BIX-01294 is a specific inhibitor of histone methyltransferase G9a, which is responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) that can also regulate DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BIX-01294 on the potential of goat adipose derived stem cells (gADSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes and neural cells. To accomplish this, BIX-01294 was used to treat gADSCs for 24 h, and the global level of DNA methylation as well as the expression of genes related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and pluripotency were detected...
May 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#2
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#3
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782491/community-based-benchmarking-improves-spike-rate-inference-from-two-photon-calcium-imaging-data
#4
Philipp Berens, Jeremy Freeman, Thomas Deneux, Nicolay Chenkov, Thomas McColgan, Artur Speiser, Jakob H Macke, Srinivas C Turaga, Patrick Mineault, Peter Rupprecht, Stephan Gerhard, Rainer W Friedrich, Johannes Friedrich, Liam Paninski, Marius Pachitariu, Kenneth D Harris, Ben Bolte, Timothy A Machado, Dario Ringach, Jasmine Stone, Luke E Rogerson, Nicolas J Sofroniew, Jacob Reimer, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Thomas Euler, Miroslav Román Rosón, Lucas Theis, Andreas S Tolias, Matthias Bethge
In recent years, two-photon calcium imaging has become a standard tool to probe the function of neural circuits and to study computations in neuronal populations. However, the acquired signal is only an indirect measurement of neural activity due to the comparatively slow dynamics of fluorescent calcium indicators. Different algorithms for estimating spike rates from noisy calcium measurements have been proposed in the past, but it is an open question how far performance can be improved. Here, we report the results of the spikefinder challenge, launched to catalyze the development of new spike rate inference algorithms through crowd-sourcing...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782484/implications-for-human-odor-sensing-revealed-from-the-statistics-of-odorant-receptor-interactions
#5
Ji Hyun Bak, Seogjoo J Jang, Changbong Hyeon
Binding of odorants to olfactory receptors (ORs) elicits downstream chemical and neural signals, which are further processed to odor perception in the brain. Recently, Mainland and colleagues have measured more than 500 pairs of odorant-OR interaction by a high-throughput screening assay method, opening a new avenue to understanding the principles of human odor coding. Here, using a recently developed minimal model for OR activation kinetics, we characterize the statistics of OR activation by odorants in terms of three empirical parameters: the half-maximum effective concentration EC50, the efficacy, and the basal activity...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781215/strap-deficiency-impairs-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lineage-commitment-through-cyp26a1-mediated-retinoic-acid-homeostasis
#6
Lin Jin, Chenbei Chang, Kevin M Pawlik, Arunima Datta, Larry M Johnson, Trung Vu, Joseph L Napoli, Pran K Datta
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and vertebrate development. RA biosynthesis and metabolism are controlled by a series of enzymes, but the molecular regulators of these enzymes remain largely obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the WD-domain protein STRAP (serine threonine kinase receptor-associated protein) in the pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. We generated Strap knockout (KO) mouse ESCs and subjected them to spontaneous differentiation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780963/the-cochlear-implant-and-possibilities-for-narrowing-the-remaining-gaps-between-prosthetic-and-normal-hearing
#7
Blake S Wilson
Background: The cochlear implant has become the standard of care for severe or worse losses in hearing and indeed has produced the first substantial restoration of a lost or absent human sense using a medical intervention. However, the devices are not perfect and many efforts to narrow the remaining gaps between prosthetic and normal hearing are underway. Objective: To assess the present status of cochlear implants and to describe possibilities for improving them...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780321/toll-like-receptor-2-signaling-and-current-approaches-for-therapeutic-modulation-in-synucleinopathies
#8
REVIEW
Ian F Caplan, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss
The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) is implicated as both beneficial and detrimental to health. Integral to this process are microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS. Microglia express a wide variety of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, that detect changes in the neural environment. The activation of microglia and the subsequent proinflammatory response has become increasingly relevant to synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780198/sva-shape-variation-analyzer
#9
Priscille de Dumast, Clement Mirabel, Beatriz Paniagua, Marilia Yatabe, Antonio Ruellas, Nina Tubau, Martin Styner, Lucia Cevidanes, Juan C Prieto
Temporo-mandibular osteo arthritis (TMJ OA) is characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone remodeling. The causes of this pathology remain unclear. Current research efforts are concentrated in finding new biomarkers that will help us understand disease progression and ultimately improve the treatment of the disease. In this work, we present Shape Variation Analyzer (SVA), the goal is to develop a noninvasive technique to provide information about shape changes in TMJ OA. SVA uses neural networks to classify morphological variations of 3D models of the mandibular condyle...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780197/trafic-fiber-tract-classification-using-deep-learning
#10
Prince D Ngattai Lam, Gaetan Belhomme, Jessica Ferrall, Billie Patterson, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
We present TRAFIC, a fully automated tool for the labeling and classification of brain fiber tracts. TRAFIC classifies new fibers using a neural network trained using shape features computed from previously traced and manually corrected fiber tracts. It is independent from a DTI Atlas as it is applied to already traced fibers. This work is motivated by medical applications where the process of extracting fibers from a DTI atlas, or classifying fibers manually is time consuming and requires knowledge about brain anatomy...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779744/exploring-collective-experience-in-watching-dance-through-intersubject-correlation-and-functional-connectivity-of-fmri-brain-activity
#11
Frank E Pollick, Staci Vicary, Katie Noble, Naree Kim, Seonhee Jang, Catherine J Stevens
How the brain contends with naturalistic viewing conditions when it must cope with concurrent streams of diverse sensory inputs and internally generated thoughts is still largely an open question. In this study, we used fMRI to record brain activity while a group of 18 participants watched an edited dance duet accompanied by a soundtrack. After scanning, participants performed a short behavioral task to identify neural correlates of dance segments that could later be recalled. Intersubject correlation (ISC) analysis was used to identify the brain regions correlated among observers, and the results of this ISC map were used to define a set of regions for subsequent analysis of functional connectivity...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778801/injury-and-stress-responses-of-adult-neural-crest-derived-cells
#12
REVIEW
Vadims Parfejevs, Ana T Antunes, Lukas Sommer
Multipotent neural crest cells can self-renew and give rise to a plethora of neural and non-neural cell types in the vertebrate embryo. Intriguingly, cells reminiscent of such neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) have also been isolated from various postnatal and adult neural crest (NC)-derived structures. However, it has been debated whether NCSC-like cells in the adult correspond to 'in vitro artefacts' emerging upon isolation or fulfil a physiological role in vivo. Here, we discuss recent findings indicating that in different adult NC derivatives, injury or stress responses induce a NCSC-like state, presumably by reprogramming of differentiated cells such as Schwann cells...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778278/new-evidence-of-a-rhythmic-priming-effect-that-enhances-grammaticality-judgments-in-children
#13
Alexander Chern, Barbara Tillmann, Chloe Vaughan, Reyna L Gordon
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777650/modeling-dengue-vector-population-using-remotely-sensed-data-and-machine-learning
#14
Juan M Scavuzzo, Francisco Trucco, Manuel Espinosa, Carolina B Tauro, Marcelo Abril, Carlos M Scavuzzo, Alejandro C Frery
Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases. In particular, Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus) is the main vector for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses in Latin America and it represents a global threat. Public health policies that aim at combating this vector require dependable and timely information, which is usually expensive to obtain with field campaigns. For this reason, several efforts have been done to use remote sensing due to its reduced cost. The present work includes the temporal modeling of the oviposition activity (measured weekly on 50 ovitraps in a north Argentinean city) of Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus), based on time series of data extracted from operational earth observation satellite images...
May 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777288/time-shifting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-daily-rhythms-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#15
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777043/new-advances-in-amblyopia-therapy-i-binocular-therapies-and-pharmacologic-augmentation
#16
Courtney L Kraus, Susan M Culican
Amblyopia therapy options have traditionally been limited to penalisation of the non-amblyopic eye with either patching or pharmaceutical penalisation. Solid evidence, mostly from the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, has validated both number of hours a day of patching and days per week of atropine use. The use of glasses alone has also been established as a good first-line therapy for both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. Unfortunately, visual acuity equalisation or even improvement is not always attainable with these methods...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#17
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775838/deconstructing-skill-learning-and-its-physiological-mechanisms
#18
Danny Spampinato, Pablo Celnik
Acquiring complex motor skills involves learning a number of distinct motor components. Two fundamental elements that constitute a skill are the internal representation (i.e., the calibration of a sensorimotor map) and the sequence of movements needed to execute the task. Learning each of these likely rely on different neural substrates such as the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1), and physiological mechanisms. However, the specific neurophysiological processes underlying the acquisition of these components remains poorly understood...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775596/digital-museum-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-with-dense-anatomy-and-physiology
#19
J Alexander Bae, Shang Mu, Jinseop S Kim, Nicholas L Turner, Ignacio Tartavull, Nico Kemnitz, Chris S Jordan, Alex D Norton, William M Silversmith, Rachel Prentki, Marissa Sorek, Celia David, Devon L Jones, Doug Bland, Amy L R Sterling, Jungman Park, Kevin L Briggman, H Sebastian Seung
When 3D electron microscopy and calcium imaging are used to investigate the structure and function of neural circuits, the resulting datasets pose new challenges of visualization and interpretation. Here, we present a new kind of digital resource that encompasses almost 400 ganglion cells from a single patch of mouse retina. An online "museum" provides a 3D interactive view of each cell's anatomy, as well as graphs of its visual responses. The resource reveals two aspects of the retina's inner plexiform layer: an arbor segregation principle governing structure along the light axis and a density conservation principle governing structure in the tangential plane...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775595/the-neuropeptide-tac2-controls-a-distributed-brain-state-induced-by-chronic-social-isolation-stress
#20
Moriel Zelikowsky, May Hui, Tomomi Karigo, Andrea Choe, Bin Yang, Mario R Blanco, Keith Beadle, Viviana Gradinaru, Benjamin E Deverman, David J Anderson
Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses...
May 17, 2018: Cell
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