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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738393/estrogen-and-environmental-enrichment-differentially-affect-neurogenesis-dendritic-spine-immunolabeling-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-reproductively-senescent-female-rats
#1
Tina Sager, Michael Kashon, Kristine Krajnak
<br>Background: Studies examining the ability of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to enhance memory in women, and in animal models, have not produced consistent results. However, studies examining the effects of activity and exposure to novel environments consistently find enhancement of memory. METHODS: An animal model of reproductive aging was used to determine if estradiol (E2) replacement, activity, and/or exposure to an enriched environment could act synergistically to improve memory, and neural correlates of memory...
July 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738219/finding-features-figuratively
#2
Sarah H Solomon, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Object concepts refer to unique clusters of properties that can be selectively activated or inhibited depending on what information is currently relevant. This conceptual "stretching" enables limitless new meanings to be generated, and figurative language provides a useful framework in which to study this conceptual flexibility. Here we probe the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension of novel metaphors as a means of understanding the conceptual flexibility inherent to language processing more generally...
July 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#3
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737503/directional-connectivity-in-the-eeg-is-able-to-discriminate-wakefulness-from-nrem-sleep
#4
Giulia Lioi, Steven L Bell, David C Smith, David M Simpson
A reliable measure of consciousness is of great interest for various clinical applications including sleep studies and the assessment of depth of anaesthesia. A number of measures of consciousness based on the EEG have been proposed in the literature and tested in studies of dreamless sleep, general anaesthesia and disorders of consciousness. However, reliability has remained a persistent challenge. Despite considerable theoretical and experimental effort, the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness remain unclear, but connectivity between brain regions is thought to be disrupted, impairing information flow...
July 24, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736165/intra-lineage-fate-decisions-involve-activation-of-notch-receptors-basal-to-the-midbody-in-drosophila-sensory-organ-precursor-cells
#5
Mateusz Trylinski, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Notch receptors regulate cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and throughout adult life. In many cell lineages, binary fate decisions are mediated by directional Notch signaling between the two sister cells produced by cell division. How Notch signaling is restricted to sister cells after division to regulate intra-lineage decision is poorly understood. More generally, where ligand-dependent activation of Notch occurs at the cell surface is not known, as methods to detect receptor activation in vivo are lacking...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736034/salvianolic-acid-b-promotes-microglial-m2-polarization-and-rescues-neurogenesis-in-stress-exposed-mice
#6
Jinqiang Zhang, Xiaofang Xie, Mingming Tang, Jing Zhang, Boyang Zhang, Qiuying Zhao, Yue Han, Wan Yan, Cheng Peng, Zili You
Although accumulating evidence suggests that activated microglia are associated with deficits in neurogenesis and contribute to the physiopathology of major depressive disorder, the role of microglia in treating depression remains poorly understood. Our previous study showed that salvianolic acid (SalB) has the regulation of neuroinflammatory responses and antidepressant-like effects. Here, we hypothesized that SalB's therapeutic effects occur because it modulates microglial phenotypes that are associated with neurogenesis...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735971/-lacking-warmth-alexithymia-trait-is-related-to-warm-specific-thermal-somatosensory-processing
#7
Khatereh Borhani, Elisabetta Làdavas, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Patrick Haggard
Alexithymia is a personality trait involving deficits in emotional processing. The personality construct has been extensively validated, but the underlying neural and physiological systems remain controversial. One theory suggests that low-level somatosensory mechanisms act as somatic markers of emotion, underpinning cognitive and affective impairments in alexithymia. In two separate samples (total N=100), we used an established Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) battery to probe multiple neurophysiological submodalities of somatosensation, and investigated their associations with the widely-used Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20)...
July 20, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735708/brain-and-social-networks-fundamental-building-blocks-of-human-experience
#8
REVIEW
Emily B Falk, Danielle S Bassett
How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains...
July 20, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735653/-re-wiring-a-brain-with-light-clinical-and-visual-processing-findings-after-application-of-specific-coloured-glasses-in-patients-with-symptoms-of-a-visual-processing-disorder-cvpd-challenge-of-a-possible-new-perspective
#9
Edgar Friederichs, Siegfried Wahl
The present investigation examined whether changes of electrophysiological late event related potential pattern could be used to reflect clinical changes from therapeutic intervention with coloured glasses in a group of patients with symptoms of central visual processing disorder. Subjects consisted of 13 patients with average age 16years (range 6-51years) with attention problems and learning disability, respectively. These patients were provided with specified coloured glasses which were required to be used during day time...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735174/tetherless-near-infrared-control-of-brain-activity-in-behaving-animals-using-fully-implantable-upconversion-microdevices
#10
Ying Wang, Xudong Lin, Xi Chen, Xian Chen, Zhen Xu, Wenchong Zhang, Qinghai Liao, Xin Duan, Xin Wang, Ming Liu, Feng Wang, Jufang He, Peng Shi
Many nanomaterials can be used as sensors or transducers in biomedical research and they form the essential components of transformative novel biotechnologies. In this study, we present an all-optical method for tetherless remote control of neural activity using fully implantable micro-devices based on upconversion technology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were used as transducers to convert near-infrared (NIR) energy to visible light in order to stimulate neurons expressing different opsin proteins. In our setup, UCNPs were packaged in a glass micro-optrode to form an implantable device with superb long-term biocompatibility...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733975/deep-convolutional-neural-network-and-3d-deformable-approach-for-tissue-segmentation-in-musculoskeletal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Fang Liu, Zhaoye Zhou, Hyungseok Jang, Alexey Samsonov, Gengyan Zhao, Richard Kijowski
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. METHODS: A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#12
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733362/loss-of-cln5-causes-altered-neurogenesis-in-a-childhood-neurodegenerative-disorder
#13
E Savchenko, Y Singh, H Konttinen, K Lejavova, L Mediavilla Santos, A Grubman, V Kärkkäinen, V Keksa-Goldsteine, N Naumenko, P Tavi, A R White, T M Malm, J Koistinaho, K M Kanninen
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) generate new neurons in the brain throughout the lifetime in an intricate process called neurogenesis. Neurogenic alterations are a common feature of several adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are the most common group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases that mainly affect children. Pathological features of the NCLs include accumulation of lysosomal storage material, neuroinflammation, and neuronal degeneration, yet the exact cause of this group of diseases remains poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733358/pattern-analyses-reveal-separate-experience-based-fear-memories-in-the-human-right-amygdala
#14
Senne Braem, Jan De Houwer, Jelle Demanet, Kenneth S L Yuen, Raffael Kalisch, Marcel Brass
Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#15
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#16
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732232/periodicity-and-stability-for-variable-time-impulsive-neural-networks
#17
Hongfei Li, Chuandong Li, Tingwen Huang
The paper considers a general neural networks model with variable-time impulses. It is shown that each solution of the system intersects with every discontinuous surface exactly once via several new well-proposed assumptions. Moreover, based on the comparison principle, this paper shows that neural networks with variable-time impulse can be reduced to the corresponding neural network with fixed-time impulses under well-selected conditions. Meanwhile, the fixed-time impulsive systems can be regarded as the comparison system of the variable-time impulsive neural networks...
June 29, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730182/tracking-deceased-related-thinking-with-neural-pattern-decoding-of-a-cortical-basal-ganglia-circuit
#18
Noam Schneck, Stefan Haufe, Tao Tu, George A Bonanno, Kevin Ochsner, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Deceased-related thinking is central to grieving and potentially critical to processing of the loss. Self-report measurements might fail to capture important elements of deceased-related thinking and processing. Here, we used a machine learning approach applied to fMRI - known as neural decoding - to develop a measure of ongoing deceased-related processing. METHODS: 23 subjects grieving the loss of a first-degree relative, spouse or partner within 14 months underwent two fMRI tasks...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729914/effects-of-mtor-on-neurological-deficits-after-transient-global-ischemia
#19
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR and its downstream products to brain injuries and neurological deficiencies after cardiac arrest (CA) induced-transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats. Our results showed that expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 4 (4E-BP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) pathways were amplified in CA rats compared to their controls...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729850/drug-resistant-epilepsy-multiple-hypotheses-few-answers
#20
REVIEW
Fei Tang, Anika M S Hartz, Björn Bauer
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects over 70 million people worldwide. Despite the recent introduction of new antiseizure drugs (ASDs), about one-third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy. Early identification of patients who will become refractory to ASDs could help direct such patients to appropriate non-pharmacological treatment, but the complexity in the temporal patterns of epilepsy could make such identification difficult. The target hypothesis and transporter hypothesis are the most cited theories trying to explain refractory epilepsy, but neither theory alone fully explains the neurobiological basis of pharmacoresistance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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