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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231465/time-specific-effects-of-spindle-positioning-on-embryonic-progenitor-pool-composition-and-adult-neural-stem-cell-seeding
#1
Sven Falk, Stéphane Bugeon, Jovica Ninkovic, Gregor-Alexander Pilz, Maria Pia Postiglione, Harold Cremer, Jürgen A Knoblich, Magdalena Götz
The developmental mechanisms regulating the number of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are largely unknown. Here we show that the cleavage plane orientation in murine embryonic radial glia cells (RGCs) regulates the number of aNSCs in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE). Randomizing spindle orientation in RGCs by overexpression of Insc or a dominant-negative form of Lgn (dnLgn) reduces the frequency of self-renewing asymmetric divisions while favoring symmetric divisions generating two SNPs. Importantly, these changes during embryonic development result in reduced seeding of aNSCs...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#2
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230848/computational-approaches-to-fmri-analysis
#3
Jonathan D Cohen, Nathaniel Daw, Barbara Engelhardt, Uri Hasson, Kai Li, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman, Jonathan Pillow, Peter J Ramadge, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Theodore L Willke
Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230629/point-of-injury-tourniquet-application-during-operation-protective-edge-what-de-we-learn
#4
Amir Shlaifer, Avraham Yitzhak, Erez N Baruch, Avi Shina, Alexandra Satanovsky, Amiram Shovali, Ofer Almog, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE). METHODS: A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#5
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229085/folate-receptor-alpha-is-more-than-just-a-folate-transporter
#6
Vineet Mohanty, M Rizwan Siddiqui, Tadanori Tomita, Chandra Shekhar Mayanil
Until recently folate receptor alpha (FRα) has only been considered as a folate transporter. However, a novel role of FRα as a transcription factor was reported by our lab. More recently our lab showed a novel pleiotropic role of FRα: (a) direct transcriptional activation of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 genes; and (b) repression of biogenesis of miRNAs that target these genes or their effector molecules. These observations beg a question: "Can a simple molecule such as folate be used to manipulate the production and/or differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs), which may hold promise for future therapies?" Conditions such as spinal cord injury, motor neuron diseases, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis may benefit from increasing stem cell pool and promoting specific pathways of differentiation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229035/imaging-and-outcomes-for-a-new-entity-low-grade-sinonasal-sarcoma-with-neural-and-myogenic-features
#7
Richard B Cannon, Richard H Wiggins, Benjamin L Witt, Yusuf Dundar, Tawni M Johnston, Jason P Hunt
Objectives Low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features (LGSSNMF) is a new, rare tumor. Our goal is to describe the imaging characteristics and surgical outcomes of this unique skull base malignancy. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Academic medical center. Participants There were three patients who met inclusion criteria with a confirmed LGSSNMF. Main Outcome Measures Imaging and histopathological characteristics, treatments, survival and recurrence outcomes, complications, morbidity, and mortality...
January 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#8
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228074/lenticulostriate-artery-and-lenticulostriate-artery-neural-complex-new-concept-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Rong Hu, Hua Feng
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the poorest prognosis of all stroke subtypes with a high mortality and morbidity. Although considerable progress has been made, no intervention is currently available to alter the outcome of patients with ICH, suggesting a new concept directing ICH study is urgently needed. METHODS: Most ICH occurs in the deep area of the brain, the basal ganglion, whose blood supply is mainly from lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs)...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227965/multiscale-brain-machine-interface-decoders
#10
Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi, Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi, Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have vastly used a single scale of neural activity, e.g., spikes or electrocorticography (ECoG), as their control signal. New technology allows for simultaneous recording of multiple scales of neural activity, from spikes to local field potentials (LFP) and ECoG. These advances introduce the new challenge of modeling and decoding multiple scales of neural activity jointly. Such multi-scale decoding is challenging for two reasons. First, spikes are discrete-valued and ECoG/LFP are continuous-valued, resulting in fundamental differences in statistical characteristics...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227963/predicting-seizures-from-local-field-potentials-recorded-via-intracortical-microelectrode-arrays
#11
Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo, Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg
The need for new therapeutic interventions to treat pharmacologically resistant focal epileptic seizures has led recently to the development of closed-loop systems for seizure control. Once a seizure is predicted/detected by the system, electrical stimulation is delivered to prevent seizure initiation or spread. So far, seizure prediction/detection has been limited to tracking non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals. Here, we examine seizure prediction based on local field potentials (LFPs) from a small neocortical patch recorded via a 10×10 microelectrode array implanted in a patient with focal seizures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227813/a-110-nw-in-channel-sigma-delta-converter-for-large-scale-neural-recording-implants
#12
M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin, M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin, M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin
Advancement in wireless and microsystems technology have ushered in new devices that can directly interface with the central nervous system for stimulating and/or monitoring neural circuitry. In this paper, we present an ultra low-power sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for utilization into large-scale multi-channel neural recording implants. This proposed design, which provides a resolution of 9 bits using a one-bit oversampled ADC, presents several desirable features that allow for an in-channel ADC scheme, where one sigma-delta converter is provided for each channel, enabling development of scalable systems that can interface with different types of high-density neural microprobes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227497/a-wireless-system-with-stimulation-and-recording-capabilities-for-interfacing-peripheral-nerves-in-rodents
#13
P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, N Brun, A Guex, P Schonle, Q Huang, Q Wang, S P Lacour, F Michoud
Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in implantable bioelectronic neurosystems. Yet most neural implants are used in acute and tethered experimental conditions. Here, we present a preliminary prototype of a multichannel system for simultaneous peripheral nerve stimulation and neural recording. The system comprises miniaturized electronics with a total volume of less then 1.4cm(3) including a 3.7V battery which is expected to last for 94 days of standby operation or 18 hours of continuous recording and stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227393/an-integrated-neuroprotective-intervention-for-brain-ischemia-validated-by-ecog-fpam
#14
Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Yu-Hang Liu, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor, Su Jing Chan, Lun De Liao
Brain ischemia is a neurological deficit caused by a reduction in the blood supply to tissue, and one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Currently, the most well-known therapeutic agent for ischemia recovery is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), but it is viable for only a small portion (approximately 3.6%) of ischemic patients and may cause side effects such as tissue damage. Thus, introducing a new therapeutic concept for ischemia, we proposed an integrated intervention combining global and focal stimulations in this article...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227326/detection-of-binaural-interaction-in-free-field-evoked-auditory-brainstem-responses-by-time-scale-representations
#15
Erik Schebsdat, Horst Hessel, Harald Seidler, Daniel J Strauss, Erik Schebsdat, Horst Hessel, Harald Seidler, Daniel J Strauss, Horst Hessel, Erik Schebsdat, Harald Seidler, Daniel J Strauss
The so called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) has been shown to be an objective measure for binaural interaction (BI). This component is the arithmetical difference between the sum of the monaurally evoked ABRs and the binaurally evoked ABR. Unfortunately, these neural responses are known to be very fragile and as a result the calculated BIC. An additional issue is, that the findings of this measurement are predominantly needed in people with hearing loss who may use hearing devices like hearing aids (HA) or cochlear implants (CI), thus they are not able to use headphones (like in conventional ABR measurements) during the detection of possible BI...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227230/a-biologically-inspired-image-classifier-adaptive-feature-detection
#16
Jeffrey C Ames, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Jeffrey C Ames, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Jeffrey C Ames, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Today's artificial neural networks use computational models and algorithms inspired by the knowledge of the brain in the '90s. Powerful as they are, artificial networks are impressive but their domain specificity and reliance on vast numbers of labeled examples are obvious limitations. About a decade ago, spiking neural networks (SNNs) emerged as a new formalism that takes advantage of the spike timing and are particularly versatile when depicting spatio-temporal representations. The challenge now is to design rules for SNNs that can help them interact with their environment just like humans do...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227163/maximum-correntropy-based-attention-gated-reinforcement-learning-designed-for-brain-machine-interface
#17
Hongbao Li, Fang Wang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose C Principe, Hongbao Li, Fang Wang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Yiwen Wang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose C Principe, Yiwen Wang, Jose C Principe, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Hongbao Li, Fang Wang
Reinforcement learning is an effective algorithm for brain machine interfaces (BMIs) which interprets the mapping between neural activities with plasticity and the kinematics. Exploring large state-action space is difficulty when the complicated BMIs needs to assign credits over both time and space. For BMIs attention gated reinforcement learning (AGREL) has been developed to classify multi-actions for spatial credit assignment task with better efficiency. However, the outliers existing in the neural signals still make interpret the neural-action mapping difficult...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227033/advanced-analytics-for-outcome-prediction-in-intensive-care-units
#18
Ali Jalali, Dieter Bender, Mohamed Rehman, Vinay Nadkanri, C Nataraj, Ali Jalali, Dieter Bender, Mohamed Rehman, Vinay Nadkanri, C Nataraj, Mohamed Rehman, Ali Jalali, Vinay Nadkanri, Dieter Bender, C Nataraj
In this paper we present a new expert knowledge based clinical decision support system for prediction of intensive care units outcome based on the physiological measurements collected during the first 48 hours of the patient's admission to the ICU. The developed CDSS algorithm is composed of several stages. First, we categorize the collected data based on the physiological organ that they represent. We then extract clinically relevant features from each data category and then rank these features based on their mutual information with the outcome...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226976/thorax-disease-diagnosis-using-deep-convolutional-neural-network
#19
Jie Chen, Xianbiao Qi, Osmo Tervonen, Olli Silven, Guoying Zhao, Matti Pietikainen, Jie Chen, Xianbiao Qi, Osmo Tervonen, Olli Silven, Guoying Zhao, Matti Pietikainen, Osmo Tervonen, Xianbiao Qi, Jie Chen, Matti Pietikainen, Olli Silven, Guoying Zhao
Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) is an important issue, which can significantly improve the efficiency of doctors. In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based method for thorax disease diagnosis. We firstly align the images by matching the interest points between the images, and then enlarge the dataset by using Gaussian scale space theory. After that we use the enlarged dataset to train a deep CNN model and apply the obtained model for the diagnosis of new test data. Our experimental results show our method achieves very promising results...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226859/effects-of-prefrontal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-reaction-time
#20
Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Pedro C Miranda, Ines S Verissimo, Tiago T Santos, Isabel M Barradas, Hugo A Ferreira
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has proven to be a useful tool in the scientific research community, particularly for clinical investigation purposes. Neuroimaging studies indicate that there is a connection between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and working memory (WM), as well as between the primary motor cortex and reaction time (RT). Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of anodal stimulation of the PFC, with respect to WM and RT. We tested 20 healthy subjects randomized into two groups - half received active stimulation and the other half sham stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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