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Hiroyuki Kawai, Nozomi Asaoka, Takahito Miyake, Kazuki Nagayasu, Takayuki Nakagawa, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Neurotropin (NTP) is a Japanese analgesic agent for treating neuropathic pain; however, its method of action remains unclear. This study examined the effects of NTP on the activity of small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. After 3 days of treatment, NTP decreased current injection-induced firing activity of cultured DRG neurons by raising the current threshold for action potential generation. Additionally, NTP increased the sustained component of voltage-gated potassium (Kv ) channel currents without affecting other K+ currents...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Yuqiu Zheng, Wenli Fang, Shengnuo Fan, Wang Liao, Ying Xiong, Shaowei Liao, Yi Li, Songhua Xiao, Jun Liu
Neurotropin (NTP) is a widely used drug in China and Japan mainly for the treatment of chronic pain and peripheral inflammation. Nevertheless, the effects of NTP on neuroinflammation have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of NTP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its underlying mechanisms. BV-2 cells were pretreated with NTP for 12 h before exposure to LPS. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were detected by RT-PCR and EILSA at mRNA and protein levels, respectively...
April 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hozo Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Junichi Sayanagi, Toru Iwahashi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Kiyoshi Okada, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Neurotropin® (NTP), a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT) activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
O M Ogundele, C C Lee
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is linked to social behavioral deficits and other negative symptoms associated with hippocampal synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic mechanism of schizophrenia is characterized by loss of hippocampal N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) activity (NMDAR hypofunction) and dendritic spines. Previous studies show that genetic deletion of hippocampal synaptic regulatory calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) cause synaptic and behavioral defects associated with schizophrenia in mice...
March 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Teruaki Nasu, Shiori Murase, Yoshiko Takeda-Uchimura, Kazue Mizumura
An extract of rabbit skin inflamed by inoculation with the vaccinia virus, neurotropin [by intravenous, oral, and intramuscular (i.m.) administration], has been used in China and Japan for the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the analgesic mechanism of i.m. neurotropin. Rats were exposed to repeated cold stress, and muscular mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by measuring the withdrawal threshold of the gastrocnemius muscle using Randall-Selitto apparatus. I.m. but not subcutaneous, neurotropin dose dependently reduced the repeated cold stress-induced muscular mechanical hyperalgesia for 3 h, but it had no effect in normal rats...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mengye Zhu, Fuqing Zhou, Lingchao Li, Qin Yin, Mizhen Qiu, Yong Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) complicated by epidural anesthesia, though rare, can result in neuropathic pain. However, the treatment for this kind of life-altering injury remains a challenge. A 7-year-old girl was referred with dyskinesia and severe pain in her right lower extremity due to an accidental SCI following lumbar puncture. After treatment with analgesics such as gabapentin, mecobalamin, and dexamethasone/methylprednisolone for 1 week, the myodynamia had improved, but progressive pain persisted. After treatment with neurotropin, a gradual decrease in visual analog scale score from 7 to 0 was observed...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Wen-Li Fang, De-Qiang Zhao, Fei Wang, Mei Li, Sheng-Nuo Fan, Wang Liao, Yu-Qiu Zheng, Shao-Wei Liao, Song-Hua Xiao, Ping Luan, Jun Liu
AIMS: The main purpose was to verify the potent capacity of Neurotropin® against neuronal damage in hippocampus and to explore its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: HT22 cells were treated with 40 μmol/L Aβ25-35 in the presence of various concentrations of Neurotropin® or in its absence. The cell viability was assessed with a CCK-8 assay, and flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Aβ plaques were examined by Bielschowsky silver staining, and the activities of antioxidants were detected in hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice after Neurotropin® treatment...
May 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Hiroki Fujisawa, Takumi Numazawa, Minoru Kawamura, Mitsuru Naiki
AIMS: Neurotropin® (NTP), an analgesic for chronic pain, has antihyperalgesic effects in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART)-stressed rats. Previous studies have shown that SART stress induces hyperalgesia, as well as post-translational modification of proteins (including substrates for calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease) in the mesencephalon of rats. To better understand the mechanism of action of NTP, we investigated whether SART stress activates calpain in the mesencephalon of rats and whether NTP inhibits this activation...
February 15, 2017: Life Sciences
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Shunsuke Nishimoto, Kiyoshi Okada, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Michio Okamoto, Hiroki Fujisawa, Tomoyuki Okada, Mitsuru Naiki, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems is a refractory disorder and the management of such chronic pain has become a major issue. Neurotropin is a drug widely used in Japan and China to treat chronic pain. Although Neurotropin has been demonstrated to suppress chronic pain through the descending pain inhibitory system, the mechanism of analgesic action in the peripheral nervous system remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the local effects of Neurotropin on peripheral nerve damage in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model...
July 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Miguel D'haeseleer, Ron Kooijman, Jacques De Keyser
In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis...
September 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Chiaki Murayama, Shimpei Watanabe, Motokazu Nakamura, Hisayoshi Norimoto
Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH), a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly...
August 14, 2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hisashi Okai, Ryohei Okazaki, Minoru Kawamura, Megumu Yoshimura
AIMS: Although the clinical use of Neurotropin® as an analgesic for chronic pain has been firmly established, its analgesic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigate the direct effects of Neurotropin using an electrophysiological method. MAIN METHODS: Blind patch-clamp recordings were made from rat locus coeruleus (LC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons in brainstem slices of normal rats. The effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Neurotropin on nociceptive transmission were recorded from spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in fifth lumbar spinal nerve-ligated (L5-SNL) rats using an in vivo patch-clamp method...
September 1, 2015: Life Sciences
Harvey J Armbrecht, Akbar M Siddiqui, Michael Green, Susan A Farr, Vijaya B Kumar, William A Banks, Ping Patrick, Gul N Shah, John E Morley
The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits an age-related decrease in memory accompanied by an increase in hippocampal amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). We have shown that administration of an antisense oligonucleotide against the Aβ region of AβPP (AβPP antisense) reverses the memory deficits. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of peripheral (IV) administration of AβPP antisense on hippocampal gene expression. The AβPP antisense reversed the memory deficits and altered expression of 944 hippocampal genes...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bi Zhang, Yoon Seok Roh, Shuang Liang, Cheng Liu, Mitsuru Naiki, Koichi Masuda, Ekihiro Seki
Inflammatory response and cell death in hepatocytes are hallmarks of chronic liver disease, and, therefore, can be effective therapeutic targets. Neurotropin® (NTP) is a drug widely used in Japan and China to treat chronic pain. Although NTP has been demonstrated to suppress chronic pain through the descending pain inhibitory system, the action mechanism of NTP remains elusive. We hypothesize that NTP functions to suppress inflammatory pathways, thereby attenuating disease progression. In the present study, we investigated whether NTP suppresses inflammatory signaling and cell death pathways induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in hepatocytes...
2014: PloS One
Yu Fukuda, Takao Fukui, Chika Hikichi, Tomomasa Ishikawa, Kenichiro Murate, Takeshi Adachi, Hideki Imai, Koki Fukuhara, Akihiro Ueda, Allen P Kaplan, Tatsuro Mutoh
Activation of the high-affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor Trk occurs through multiple processes consisted of translocation and clustering within the plasma membrane lipid rafts, dimerization and autophosphorylation. Here we found that a nonprotein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus (Neurotropin(®)) enhanced efficiency of NGF signaling. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells overexpressing Trk (PCtrk cells), Neurotropin augmented insufficient neurite outgrowth observed at suboptimal concentration of NGF (2ng/mL) in a manner depending on Trk kinase activity...
January 30, 2015: Brain Research
Toshizo Ishikawa, Seiko Yasuda, Seiji Minoda, Takae Ibuki, Kayoko Fukuhara, Yasutake Iwanaga, Toru Ariyoshi, Hironori Sasaki
Neurotropin (NTP)(®), a non-protein extract isolated from the inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus, is used clinically for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Moreover, NTP may activate the descending pain inhibitory system. Depression-like behavior is often complicated by chronic pain. However, little is known about NTP-mediated prevention of mood disorders in chronic pain and its molecular mechanisms. We aimed to investigate the effects of NTP on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated signaling and gene expression in chronic pain...
March 2015: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Abbie L A Binch, Ashley A Cole, Lee M Breakwell, Anthony L R Michael, Neil Chiverton, Alison K Cross, Christine L Le Maitre
INTRODUCTION: The degenerate intervertebral disc (IVD) becomes innervated by sensory nerve fibres, and vascularised by blood vessels. This study aimed to identify neurotrophins, neuropeptides and angiogenic factors within native IVD tissue and to further investigate whether pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of expression levels within nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, nerve and endothelial cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed on 53 human IVDs from 52 individuals to investigate native gene expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors, neuropeptides and angiogenic factors...
2014: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Sarita Bajaj, Raj Pratap Singh, N C Dwivedi, Kamaljeet Singh, Arvind Gupta, Manoj Mathur
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has important actions on glucose metabolism. These include improved insulin exocytosis, direct stimulation of insulin receptor, improved uptake of glucose by peripheral tissues, improving insulin resistance. It has got various pleiotropic effects like suppression of cell mediated immunity, regulation of cell proliferation, stimulation of neurotropic factors such as nerve growth factor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotropin, suppression of RAAS, reduction of albuminuria, immunomodulatory effects, and anti-inflammatory effects...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Joseph P Steiner, Avindra Nath
As people are living longer, the prevalance of neurodegenerative diseases continues to rise resulting in huge socio-economic consequences. Despite major advancements in studying the pathophysiology of these diseases and a large number of clinical trials currently there is no effective treatment for these illnesses. All neuroprotective strategies have either failed or have shown only a minimal effect. There has been a major shift in recent years exploring the potential of neuroregenerative approaches. While the concept of using neurotropins for therapeutic purposes has been in existence for many years, new modes of delivery and expression of this family of molecules makes this approach now feasilble...
March 2014: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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