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Erin L Abner, Pamela B Teaster, Marta S Mendiondo, Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Jennifer L Marcum, Tim N Crawford, Tenzin Wangmo
The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of investigations of sexual abuse concerning vulnerable adults residing in facility settings that were associated with case substantiation. Data on 410 reports of sexual abuse were collected prospectively from Adult Protective Services (APS) and state licensure agency staff in New Hampshire, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin over a six-month period. Specifically, we examined differences between reports that were substantiated and those that were not by comparing characteristics of alleged victims, alleged perpetrators, and aspects of investigation using logistic regression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Andrew Ahrendt, Eric Sprankle, Alex Kuka, Keagan McPherson
The current study assesses ageism and heterosexism relating to older adult sexual activity within long-term care facilities. To assess caregiver reactions, 153 residential care facility staff members read one of three vignettes. Each vignette described a scenario in which a staff member walks in on two residents (male/female, male/male, or female/female) engaging in sexual activity. Although no main effects were discovered for vignette type, exploratory analyses revealed that the facility where participants were employed was significantly related to their ratings of approval...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Philip R A Baker, Daniel P Francis, Noran N Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
BACKGROUND: Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Margaret MacAndrew, Elaine Fielding, Ann Kolanowski, Maria O'Reilly, Elizabeth Beattie
OBJECTIVES: Wandering-related boundary transgression (BT) in long term care (LTC) frequently manifests as intrusion into another resident's bedroom and is associated with adverse outcomes (loss of privacy, resident-to-resident altercations, and becoming lost). This observational study is the first to empirically describe the characteristics of wandering-related BT in LTC residents with severe dementia. METHOD: Using real-time observation, seven independently ambulant residents with severe dementia and a positive history of wandering and BT were observed for a minimum of twelve 30 minute periods randomized over two non-consecutive days (n=92 observation periods)...
July 25, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Mark S Lachs, Jeanne A Teresi, Mildred Ramirez, Kimberly van Haitsma, Stephanie Silver, Joseph P Eimicke, Gabriel Boratgis, Gail Sukha, Jian Kong, Alexandra M Besas, Maria Reyes Luna, Karl A Pillemer
BACKGROUND: Resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in nursing homes can cause physical and psychological injury and death, yet its prevalence remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of physical, verbal, and sexual R-REM in nursing home residents and subgroups. DESIGN: 1-month observational prevalence study. SETTING: 5 urban and 5 suburban New York state nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: 2011 residents in 10 facilities randomly selected on the basis of size and location; 83% of facilities and 84% of eligible residents participated...
August 16, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
O Colin Stine, Shana Burrowes, Sophia David, J Kristie Johnson, Mary-Claire Roghmann
OBJECTIVE To define how often methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spread from resident to resident in long-term care facilities using whole-genome sequencing DESIGN Prospective cohort study SETTING A long-term care facility PARTICIPANTS Elderly residents in a long-term care facility METHODS Cultures for MRSA were obtained weekly from multiple body sites from residents with known MRSA colonization over 12-week study periods. Simultaneously, cultures to detect MRSA acquisition were obtained weekly from 2 body sites in residents without known MRSA colonization...
June 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Claire Rondeau, Guillaume Chevet, Dominique S Blanc, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Marie Decalonne, Sandra Dos Santos, Roland Quentin, Nathalie van der Mee-Marquet
OBJECTIVE: In 2015, we conducted at 44 healthcare facilities (HCFs) and 21 nursing homes (NHs) a 3-month bloodstream infection (BSI) survey, and a 1-day prevalence study to determine the rate of carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 891 patients and 470 residents. We investigated the molecular characteristics of the BSI-associated and colonizing MRSA isolates, and assessed cross-transmission using double-locus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nico Holmberg, Kari Laasonen
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), while inactive by themselves, are often used as a platform in the search of new catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by introducing metal nanoparticles or other dopants. Here, we examine the HER activity of pristine open-ended CNTs considering both the effects of chirality and hydrogen coverage using electronic structure calculations. The results indicate that the formation of different 5-ring structures at the end of the CNT introduces surface sites that are highly active toward HER, whereas the activity of traditional 6-ring sites is not greatly altered by tube termination...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
David Sotello, Marcella Rivas, Audra Fuller, Tashfeen Mahmood, Menfil Orellana-Barrios, Kenneth Nugent
Coccidioidomycosis is a well-known infection in the southwestern United States, and its occurrence is becoming more frequent in endemic areas. This disease can have a significant economic and medical impact; therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial. In conjunction with patient symptoms, residence in or travel to an endemic area is essential for diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually made with serology, culture, or biopsy and confirmed with DNA probe technology. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation and is seen in almost 95% of all cases...
January 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Richard Frazee, Laura Harmon, Harry T Papaconstantinou
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act mandates "meaningful use" of an electronic health record (EHR) to receive current financial incentives and to avoid future financial penalties. Surgeons' ongoing adoption of an EHR nationally will be influenced by the early experiences of institutions that have made the transition from paper to electronic records. We conducted a survey to query surgeons at our institution regarding their perception of the EHR 3 months after institutional implementation. A total of 59 surveys were obtained from 24 senior staff and 35 residents...
January 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Zohreh Azarkar, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Azade Ebrahimzadeh, Saeeid Olumi
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common infection worldwide. In the eastern part of Iran, fluctuations in tuberculosis prevalence are seen due to the migration of people from Afghanistan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time of bacteriologic sputum conversion after treatment and affecting factors in those whose smear does not become negative. This study was carried out on 85 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with the mean age of 65.6±16.7 years. There were 38 male patients (44.7%), 47 urban residents (55...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mohamed E M Saeed, Jingming Cao, Babikir Fadul, Onat Kadioglu, Hassan E Khalid, Zahir Yassin, Siddig M Mustafa, Elfatih Saeed, Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: While cancer epidemiology is well-investigated in developed countries, the cancer burden in Africa is less well documented. We provide cancer statistics of 33,201 patients from all Sudan diagnosed at the Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum (RICK). This hospital covers approximately 80% of patients with cancer in Sudan and is, therefore, considered representative for the situation in this country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 2009-2013 were collected at RICK...
January 2016: Anticancer Research
Brya G Matthews, Elena Torreggiani, Emilie Roeder, Igor Matic, Danka Grcevic, Ivo Kalajzic
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological process where bone forms in connective tissues such as skeletal muscle. Previous studies have suggested that muscle-resident non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors are the likely source of osteoblasts and chondrocytes in HO. However, the previously identified markers of muscle-resident osteoprogenitors label up to half the osteoblasts within heterotopic lesions, suggesting other cell populations are involved. We have identified alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a marker of osteoprogenitor cells in bone and periodontium, and of osteo-chondro progenitors in the periosteum during fracture healing...
March 2016: Bone
Jing Wen, Christopher Holden Chen, Ariel Stock, Jessica Doerner, Maria Gulinello, Chaim Putterman
Fn14, the sole known signaling receptor for the TNF family member TWEAK, is inducibly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) in endothelial cells, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. There is increasing recognition of the importance of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in autoimmune neurologic conditions, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and neuropsychiatric lupus. Previously, we had found that Fn14 knockout lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice display significantly attenuated neuropsychiatric manifestations...
May 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Adina Quint, Michal Sagi, Shai Carmi, Hagit Daum, Michal Macarov, Ziva Ben Neriah, Vardiela Meiner, Orly Elpeleg, Israela Lerer
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is usually detected late in pregnancies in embryos with large echogenic kidneys accompanied by oligohydramnios. Hundreds of private pathogenic variants have been identified in the large PKHD1 gene in various populations. Yet, because of the large size of the gene, segregation analysis of microsatellite polymorphic markers residing in the PKDH1 locus has commonly been utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Keeping in mind the limitations of this strategy, we utilized it for testing 7 families with affected fetuses or newborns, of which in 5 at least one parent was Ashkenazi, and identified that the same haplotype was shared by the majority of the Ashkenazi parents (7/9)...
February 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Charles J Mason, Alissa S Hanshew, Kenneth F Raffa
Bark beetles are associated with a diversity of symbiotic microbiota that can mediate interactions with their host plants. Dendroctonus valens LeConte is a widely distributed bark beetle in North and Central America, and initiates solitary attacks on several species of Pinus in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the bacterial community associated with D. valens feeding galleries using next-generation sequencing, and the possible contributions of both tree-resident and insect-associated bacteria to these consortia...
April 2016: Environmental Entomology
Liv S Ødbehr, Solveig Hauge, Lars J Danbolt, Kari Kvigne
AIMS: To synthesize research that investigated how residents and caregivers view spiritual care, come to understand the spiritual needs of people with dementia, and how caregivers provide care congruent with peoples' needs. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Meta-synthesis using Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography. A synthesis of eight qualitative, empirical, primary studies that explored spiritual care in the context of dementia care was performed. FINDINGS: Spiritual care for persons with dementia was described in the forms of (i) performing religious rituals that provides a sense of comfort and(ii) coming to know the person, which provides opportunities to understand a person's meaning and purpose, and (iii) attending to basic needs provides an opportunity to appreciate others' vulnerability and humanness...
December 30, 2015: Dementia
Hongyan Li, Tingguo Kang, Bin Qi, Liang Kong, Yanan Jiao, Yang Cao, Jianghua Zhang, Jingxian Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, with progressive memory loss, cognitive deterioration, and behavioral disorders. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is widely used in China to treat various kinds of nervous system disorders. The study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of ginseng protein (GP) on Alzheimer's disease and its correlation with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to understand the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of ginseng...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kanaan Mansoor, Saba Shahnawaz, Ali Ahmad, Muhammad Mustafa Arif, Muhammad Hamza
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of paediatric fractures is crucial for developing preventive strategies, but when it comes to developing countries, the urban scenario has rarely been studied in the context of childhood trauma. This study aims to identify the epidemiology of paediatric injuries occurring in the largest and most populated city of Pakistan, Karachi, so that a comparison to data from the developed world can be made, and appropriate precautionary measures can be devised. METHODS: The data from 1,514 paediatric orthopaedic patients treated at the Accident and Emergency department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, during the time frame ranging from January 2012 to January 2013 was studied...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
O P Kurnosova, I M Odoevskaya, K S Krasavchenko
Our first experience in genotyping Giardia from Moscow residents, has shown that 4 and 2 of seven samples belong to G. duodenalis genotype A and genotype B, respectively; one sample was negative during amplification with two types of primers. Genotyping was Carried out using the specific primers TPIA and TPIB to the gene encoding for the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase from the parasite. Thus, further such investigations using a larger number of samples will be able to complement the epidemiology of Lamblia infection in Moscow residents...
July 2015: Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni
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