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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676777/do-not-resuscitate-orders-in-older-adults-during-hospitalization-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#1
Karishma Patel, Liron Sinvani, Vidhi Patel, Andrzej Kozikowski, Christopher Smilios, Meredith Akerman, Kinga Kiszko, Sutapa Maiti, Negin Hajizadeh, Gisele Wolf-Klein, Renee Pekmezaris
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of the presence and timing of a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order on short-term clinical outcomes, including mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with propensity score matching to enable direct comparison of DNR and no-DNR groups. SETTING: Large, academic tertiary-care center. PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized medical patients aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674951/integrating-genetic-and-gene-co-expression-analysis-identifies-gene-networks-involved-in-alcohol-and-stress-responses
#2
Jie Luo, Pei Xu, Peijian Cao, Hongjian Wan, Xiaonan Lv, Shengchun Xu, Gangjun Wang, Melloni N Cook, Byron C Jones, Lu Lu, Xusheng Wang
Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671372/seating-position-and-patterns-of-severely-injured-body-parts-among-child-passengers-in-motor-vehicle-crashes-japan-as-a-distinct-case
#4
Hiroki Takahashi, Takashi Fujita, Shinji Nakahara, Tetsuya Sakamoto
This study describes injury patterns and outcomes related to the seating position of child passengers involved in motor vehicle crashes in Japan. Using data obtained from a national trauma registry database, we compared the occurrence of injuries by body parts, length of hospital stay and in-hospital deaths between front-seating and rear-seating among children. We analysed 166 children aged 0-5 years and 205 children aged 6-12 years. No significant differences were observed between front- and rear-seating for injured body parts, length of hospital stay or in-hospital deaths in the 0-5-year-old victims...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668880/restraint-induced-crh-elevation-triggers-apoptosis-of-ovarian-cells-and-impairs-oocyte-competence-via-activation-of-the-fas-fasl-system
#5
Chuan-Yong Li, Zhi-Bin Li, Qiao-Qiao Kong, Xiao Han, Bin Xiao, Xiao Li, Zhong-Le Chang, Jing-He Tan
Mechanisms by which psychological stress damages oocytes are largely undetermined. Although a previous study showed that the stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) elevation impaired oocyte competence by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells, how CRH causes apoptosis in ovarian cells and oocytes is unknown. In this study, we have examined the hypothesis that restraint stress (RS)-induced CRH elevation triggers apoptosis of ovarian cells and impairs oocyte competence through activating the Fas/FasL system...
April 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663552/sex-differences-in-the-drivers-of-reproductive-skew-in-a-cooperative-breeder
#6
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Tom P Flower, Amanda R Ridley
Many cooperatively breeding societies are characterized by high reproductive skew, such that some socially dominant individuals breed, while socially subordinate individuals provide help. Inbreeding avoidance serves as a source of reproductive skew in many high-skew societies, but few empirical studies have examined sources of skew operating alongside inbreeding avoidance, or compared individual attempts to reproduce (reproductive competition) with individual reproductive success. Here we use long-term genetic and observational data to examine factors affecting reproductive skew in the high-skew cooperatively breeding southern pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor)...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662526/factors-predicting-length-of-stay-in-an-adolescent-psychiatric-unit-south-bronx-ny-a-short-report
#7
Muhammad Zeshan, Ahmed Waqas, Sadiq Naveed, Hamzah Ghulam, Pankaj Manocha
Objective: Mental health disorders account for around 1.8 million inpatient community hospital stays in the U.S.A. Our study aims to highlight the factors impacting the length of stay at a community hospital in the U.S.A. Methods: We reviewed 300 randomly selected charts to examine the factors impacting the length of stay in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric unit in 2011 and 2015. All data were analyzed in SPSS v. 20 with multiple regression analysis. Results: Longer length of stay among adolescents was associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, co-occurring medical comorbidities, not living with biological parents, history of mental illness, legal problems, substance use in the family, seclusion, restraints during current admission, and schizophrenia...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660440/the-long-term-effect-of-maternal-dietary-protein-restriction-on-5-ht-1a-receptor-function-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress-in-adulthood
#8
Wenrui Ye, Michael Duffy Pitlock, Martin A Javors, Brent Thompson, James D Lechleiter, Julie G Hensler
Maternal nutrition impacts fetal development, and may play a role in determining resilience to stress and vulnerability to stress-precipitated psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of a reduction in maternal dietary protein during pregnancy on the brain neurochemistry and behavior of offspring. We focused specifically on the serotonin system, the 5-HT1A receptor and the responsivity of offspring as adults to stress. Dams were fed either a low protein diet (10% protein by weight) or isocaloric control diet (20% protein by weight)...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657133/development-of-a-prototype-system-for-archiving-integrative-hybrid-structure-models-of-biological-macromolecules
#9
Brinda Vallat, Benjamin Webb, John D Westbrook, Andrej Sali, Helen M Berman
Essential processes in biology are carried out by large macromolecular assemblies, whose structures are often difficult to determine by traditional methods. Increasingly, researchers combine measured data and computed information from several complementary methods to obtain "hybrid" or "integrative" structural models of macromolecules and their assemblies. These integrative/hybrid (I/H) models are not archived in the PDB because of the absence of standard data representations and processing mechanisms...
April 9, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656914/results-of-an-rct-in-two-pediatric-emergency-departments-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-an-m-health-educational-app-on-car-seat-use
#10
Andrea C Gielen, David M Bishai, Elise Omaki, Wendy C Shields, Eileen M McDonald, Nicholas C Rizzutti, James Case, Molly W Stevens, Mary E Aitken
INTRODUCTION: The growing interest in incorporating prevention into emergency health care make it timely to examine the use of computer technology to efficiently deliver effective education in this setting. STUDY DESIGN: This RCT compared results from an intervention group (n=367) that received child passenger safety information, to an attention-matched control (n=375). A baseline survey and two follow-up surveys at 3 and 6 months were conducted. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from June 2014 to September 2016 from a sample of parents with children aged 4-7 years recruited from a pediatric emergency department in an East Coast urban area and one in a Midwest semi-rural area...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655685/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-reduces-fatigue-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-restraint-stressed-mice
#11
Sun Haeng Park, Seol Jang, Eunjung Son, Si Woo Lee, Sun Dong Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue patients experience various neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue behaviors, chronic pain, and depression. They also display immune system dysregulation. Polygonum aviculare L. extract (PAE) is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory diseases by reportedly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of PAE would attenuate fatigue symptoms in a mouse model of restraint stress...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653375/feeling-fat-in-eating-disorders-testing-the-unique-relationships-between-feeling-fat-and-measures-of-disordered-eating-in-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa
#12
Jake Linardon, Andrea Phillipou, David Castle, Richard Newton, Philippa Harrison, Leonardo L Cistullo, Scott Griffiths, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan
Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms...
April 10, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652253/structural-analysis-of-glycoproteins-building-n-linked-glycans-with-coot
#13
Paul Emsley, Max Crispin
Coot is a graphics application that is used to build or manipulate macromolecular models; its particular forte is manipulation of the model at the residue level. The model-building tools of Coot have been combined and extended to assist or automate the building of N-linked glycans. The model is built by the addition of monosaccharides, placed by variation of internal coordinates. The subsequent model is refined by real-space refinement, which is stabilized with modified and additional restraints. It is hoped that these enhanced building tools will help to reduce building errors of N-linked glycans and improve our knowledge of the structures of glycoproteins...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651626/current-topics-in-the-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Christopher D Shank, Beverly C Walters, Mark N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651618/effect-of-renal-sympathetic-denervation-on-ventricular-and-neural-remodeling
#15
L Wang, G Wei, L Song, C Li, F Zhang, Y Yang, C Lu
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the therapeutic effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) on post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodeling and sympathetic neural remodeling in dogs. The possible mechanisms and optimal time for treatment are discussed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 30 dogs to five groups: RDN 1 week before MI (RDN1w + MI; n = 6), RDN 1 week after MI (MI1w + RDN; n = 6), RDN 2 weeks after MI (MI2w + RDN; n = 6), control (N; n = 6), and MI (n = 6)...
April 12, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648494/placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2-recruitment-indicates-impact-of-prenatal-adversity-upon-postnatal-development-in-mice
#16
Moshe Gross, Hava Romi, Yelena Gilimovich, Elyashiv Drori, Albert Pinhasov
Prenatal stress may increase concentrations of maternal glucocorticoids, which restrict fetal growth, with variable impact upon postnatal development. Among key regulators of stress hormone effects are the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11βHSD2), the enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoid. This study utilized mice selectively bred for social dominance (Dom) or submissiveness (Sub), respectively exhibiting resilience or sensitivity to stress, to test whether stress-induced alterations in placental GR and 11βHSD2 protein expression may mediate divergent effects of prenatal adversity upon postnatal development...
April 12, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627359/3d-structure-determination-of-amyloid-fibrils-using-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#17
REVIEW
Antoine Loquet, Nadia El Mammeri, Jan Stanek, Mélanie Berbon, Benjamin Bardiaux, Guido Pintacuda, Birgit Habenstein
The amyloid fold is structurally characterized by a typical cross-β architecture, which is under debate to represent an energy-favourable folding state that many globular or natively unfolded proteins can adopt. Being initially solely associated with amyloid fibrils observed in the propagation of several neurodegenerative disorders, the discovery of non-pathological (or "functional") amyloids in many native biological processes has recently further intensified the general interest invested in those cross-β supramolecular assemblies...
April 5, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627125/hydrophobicity-driven-unfolding-of-trp-cage-encapsulated-between-graphene-sheets
#18
Zhikun Cai, Yang Zhang
Understanding the interaction between proteins and graphene not only helps elucidate the behaviors of proteins in confined geometries, but is also imperative to the development of a plethora of graphene-based biotechnologies, such as the graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. To discuss the overall geometrical-thermal effects on proteins, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated Trp-cage miniprotein sandwiched between two graphene sheets and in the bulk environment at the temperatures below and above its unfolding temperature...
March 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626654/geniposide-improves-repeated-restraint-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-mice-by-ameliorating-neuronal-apoptosis-via-regulating-glp-1r-akt-signaling-pathway
#19
Yinghua Zhao, Hongyan Li, Fang Fang, Tingting Qin, Wei Xiao, Zhenzhong Wang, Shiping Ma
Geniposide (GP), a bioactive iridoid glycoside isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, as well as an agonist of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), has been reported to exhibit antidepressant-like effects in several rodent models. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we mainly investigated the antidepressant-like effects of GP and explored the possible mechanisms associated with GLP-1R signaling by using the repeated restraint stress (RRS)-induced depression model of mice...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626564/dorsal-ca1-interneurons-contribute-to-acute-stress-induced-spatial-memory-deficits
#20
Jing-Ying Yu, Ping Fang, Chi Wang, Xing-Xing Wang, Kun Li, Qian Gong, Ben-Yan Luo, Xiao-Dong Wang
Exposure to severely stressful experiences disrupts the activity of neuronal circuits and impairs declarative memory. GABAergic interneurons coordinate neuronal network activity, but their involvement in stress-evoked memory loss remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide evidence that interneurons in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus partially modulate acute stress-induced memory deficits. In adult male mice, both acute forced swim stress and restraint stress impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and increased the density of c-fos-positive interneurons in the dorsal CA1...
April 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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