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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221794/glp-1-action-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#1
Diana L Williams, Nicole A Lilly, Ian J Edwards, Pallas Yao, James E Richards, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) injected into the brain reduces food intake. Similarly, activation of preproglucagon (PPG) cells in the hindbrain which synthesize GLP-1, reduces food intake. However, it is far from clear whether this happens because of satiety, nausea, reduced reward, or even stress. Here we explore the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), an area involved in feeding control as well as stress responses, in GLP-1 responses. Using cre-expressing mice we visualized projections of NTS PPG neurons and GLP-1R-expressing BNST cells with AAV-driven Channelrhodopsin-YFP expression...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218635/long-range-paramagnetic-nmr-data-can-provide-a-closer-look-on-metal-coordination-in-metalloproteins
#2
Linda Cerofolini, Tommaso Staderini, Stefano Giuntini, Enrico Ravera, Marco Fragai, Giacomo Parigi, Roberta Pierattelli, Claudio Luchinat
Paramagnetic NMR data can be profitably incorporated in structural refinement protocols of metalloproteins or metal-substituted proteins, mostly as distance or angle restraints. However, they could in principle provide much more information, because the magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic metal ion is largely determined by its coordination sphere. This information can in turn be used to evaluate changes occurring in the coordination sphere of the metal when ligands (e.g.: inhibitors) are bound to the protein...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218562/hybrid-applications-of-solution-scattering-to-aid-structural-biology
#3
Alexander V Grishaev
Biomolecular applications of solution X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) started in late 1960s - early 1970s but were relatively limited in their ability to provide a detailed structural picture and lagged behind what became the two primary methods of experimental structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, improvements in both data analysis and instrumentation led to an explosive growth in the number of studies that used small-angle scattering (SAS) for investigation of macromolecular structure, often in combination with other biophysical techniques...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#4
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215298/echinacea-purpurea-protects-against-restraint-stress-induced-immunosuppression-in-balb-c-mice
#5
Seonyoung Park, Mak-Soon Lee, Sunyoon Jung, Seohyun Lee, Oran Kwon, Matthias Heinrich Kreuter, Tania Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Yangha Kim
Echinacea purpurea has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and the common cold. The restraint stress has been reported to suppress a broad spectrum of immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of the pressed juice of E. purpurea (L.) Moench (EFLA®894; Echinacea) against restraint stress-induced immunosuppression in BALB/c mice. Echinacea significantly normalized the restraint stress-induced reduction in splenocyte proliferation and splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity (P < ...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214322/road-traffic-accidents-in-children-the-what-how-and-why
#6
Yue Yen Lee, Eric Fang, Yanyi Weng, Sashikumar Ganapathy
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014...
December 7, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#7
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206840/age-related-changes-in-somatic-condition-and-reproduction-in-the-eurasian-beaver-resource-history-influences-onset-of-reproductive-senescence
#8
Ruairidh D Campbell, Frank Rosell, Chris Newman, David W Macdonald
Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205504/exploring-the-effects-of-sparse-restraints-on-protein-structure-prediction
#9
Varun Mandalaparthy, Venkata Ramana Sanaboyana, Hitesh Rafalia, Shachi Gosavi
One of the main barriers to accurate computational protein structure prediction is searching the vast space of protein conformations. Distance restraints or inter-residue contacts have been used to reduce this search space, easing the discovery of the correct folded state. It has been suggested that about one contact for every twelve residues may be sufficient to predict structure at fold level accuracy. Here, we use coarse-grained structure-based models in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations to examine this empirical prediction...
December 3, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203011/automated-recognition-of-rear-seat-occupants-head-position-using-kinect%C3%A2-3d-point-cloud
#10
Helen Loeb, Jinyong Kim, Kristy Arbogast, Jonny Kuo, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne Cross, Judith Charlton
INTRODUCTION: Child occupant safety in motor-vehicle crashes is evaluated using Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) seated in optimal positions. However, child occupants often assume suboptimal positions during real-world driving trips. Head impact to the seat back has been identified as one important injury causation scenario for seat belt restrained, head-injured children (Bohman et al., 2011). There is therefore a need to understand the interaction of children with the Child Restraint System to optimize protection...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199981/solving-the-scalability-issue-in-quantum-based-refinement-q-r-1
#11
Min Zheng, Nigel W Moriarty, Yanting Xu, Jeffrey R Reimers, Pavel V Afonine, Mark P Waller
Accurately refining biomacromolecules using a quantum-chemical method is challenging because the cost of a quantum-chemical calculation scales approximately as nm, where n is the number of atoms and m (≥3) is based on the quantum method of choice. This fundamental problem means that quantum-chemical calculations become intractable when the size of the system requires more computational resources than are available. In the development of the software package called Q|R, this issue is referred to as Q|R#1. A divide-and-conquer approach has been developed that fragments the atomic model into small manageable pieces in order to solve Q|R#1...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199383/combined-corticosterone-treatment-and-chronic-restraint-stress-lead-to-depression-associated-with-early-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#12
Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, Francis Bray Yassi, Doriane Amanda Nguepi Bahane, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Many models, such as chronic mild stress, chronic stress or chronic corticosterone injections are used to induce depression associated with cognitive deficits. However, the induction period in these different models is still long and face constraints when it is short such as in the chronic mild stress done in a minimum period of 21 days. This study aimed to characterize a model of depression with early onset cognitive deficit. 14 days combined chronic injection of corticosterone followed by 2 h restraint stress using a restrainer was used to induce depression with early cognitive deficit onset...
December 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198562/disease-burden-and-costs-from-excess-alcohol-consumption-obesity-and-viral-hepatitis-fourth-report-of-the-lancet-standing-commission-on-liver-disease-in-the-uk
#13
REVIEW
Roger Williams, Graeme Alexander, Iain Armstrong, Alastair Baker, Neeraj Bhala, Ginny Camps-Walsh, Matthew E Cramp, Simon de Lusignan, Natalie Day, Anil Dhawan, John Dillon, Colin Drummond, Jessica Dyson, Graham Foster, Ian Gilmore, Mark Hudson, Deirdre Kelly, Andrew Langford, Neil McDougall, Petra Meier, Kieran Moriarty, Philip Newsome, John O'Grady, Rachel Pryke, Liz Rolfe, Peter Rice, Harry Rutter, Nick Sheron, Alison Taylor, Jeremy Thompson, Douglas Thorburn, Julia Verne, John Wass, Andrew Yeoman
This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost...
November 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197553/evidence-for-condition-mediated-trade-offs-between-the-hpa-and-hpg-axes-in-the-wild-zebra-finch
#14
Ondi L Crino, Sophia M Jensen, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith
Opportunistic breeding is a strategy used to maximize reproductive success in unpredictable environments. Birds that breed opportunistically are thought to maintain partial activation of the reproductive axis in order to rapidly initiate breeding when environmental conditions become suitable. The physiological mechanisms that modulate reproduction in seasonally breeding birds have been well explored. In contrast, the physiological mechanisms that allow opportunistic breeding birds to maintain a continued state of reproductive readiness has not been well established...
November 29, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197398/pharmacologic-activation-of-cholinergic-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-mitigates-depressive-like-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-stress
#15
Dan Zhao, Xulin Xu, Linna Pan, Wei Zhu, Xiaopei Fu, Lianjun Guo, Qing Lu, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that chronic stress-induced depression is associated with exaggerated inflammatory response in the brain. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) regulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, but the role of cholinergic signaling and α7nAChR in chronic stress has not yet been examined. METHODS: In this study, we used a well-documented model of depression in which mice were exposed to 6 h of restraint stress for 21 consecutive days...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190703/developing-an-eye-tracking-algorithm-as-a-potential-tool-for-early-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#16
Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas, Avid Roman-Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Franklin Barrientos, James Ting, Daniela Hidalgo, Kelly Jensen, Mirko Zimic
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189927/solvent-saturation-transfer-to-proteins-sstp-for-structural-and-functional-characterization-of-proteins
#17
Pushpa Mishra, C Ashley Barnes, Madeleine Strickland, Nico Tjandra
Protein structure determination using NMR is dependent on experimentally acquired distance restraints. Often, however, an insufficient number of these restraints are available for determining a protein's correct fold, much less its detailed three-dimensional structure. In consideration of this problem, we propose a simple means to acquire supplemental structural restraints from protein surface accessibilities using solvent saturation transfer to proteins (SSTP), based on the principles of paramagnetic chemical-exchange saturation transfer...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187266/guidance-for-compassionate-restraint-of-small-children-to-prevent-injuries-with-epinephrine-autoinjectors
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Without securing a child properly, injuries can happen with the use of pediatric epinephrine autoinjectors(EAI), and lacerations and embedded needles have been reported. Health care providers should ensure that instruction isprovided to parents on how to hold a child during an injection with an EAI. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the compassionate restraint of small children during an allergic emergency to ensure the safe useof an EAI. METHODS: A patient was used to illustrate a compassionate restraint technique during a mock injection with an EAI...
November 29, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185794/the-effect-of-correct-cross-chest-clip-use-on-injury-outcomes-in-young-children-during-motor-vehicle-crashes
#19
Evangeline Woodford, Julie Brown, Lynne E Bilston
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes have high mortality and morbidity for young children. While many specialised child restraint systems improve injury outcomes, no large-scale studies have investigated the cross-chest clip's role during a crash, despite concerns in some jurisdictions about the potential for neck contact injuries from the clips. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cross-chest clip use and injury outcomes in children between 0-4 years of age. METHODS: Child passengers between 0-4 years of age were selected from the Crashworthiness Data System of the US National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) datasets (2003-2014)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184335/johann-bernhard-aloys-von-gudden-and-the-mad-king-of-bavaria
#20
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Bernhard von Gudden was a psychiatrist in Prussia and he was summoned in March 1886 to examine King Ludwig II for his apparently insane activities like, profligate spending and erratic behaviour. A team of four estimable psychiatrists pronounced that he was not capable ruling. Consequently, he was dethroned and kept in a castle under supervision of von Gudden. Gudden championed the idea of 'no restraint' and advocated free movement of insane persons and one evening in June, he accompanied the King during an evening stroll to a lake...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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