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Ping Liu, Xiaohang Che, Lisha Yu, Xiaofeng Yang, Nina An, Wu Song, Chunfu Wu, Jingyu Yang
Several lines of evidence suggest that uridine, as a neuromodulator, plays an important role in drug addiction. We previously found that uridine circumvents morphine-induced behavioral sensitization by decreasing the extracellular dopamine levels in the dorsal striatum. In the present study, the effects of uridine on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and the possible roles of glutamate and GABA in the stress-induced reinstatement of CPP were investigated. First, the effects of uridine (1, 10 and 100mg/kg, i...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Qinghua Liao, Anna Pabis, Birgit Strodel, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin
Modeling metalloproteins often requires classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to capture their relevant motions, which in turn necessitates reliable descriptions of the metal centers involved. One of the most successful approaches to date is provided by the "cationic dummy model", where the positive charge of the metal ion is transferred towards dummy particles that are bonded to the central metal ion in a pre-defined coordination geometry. While this approach allows for ligand exchange, and captures the correct electrostatics as demonstrated for different divalent metal ions, current dummy models neglect ion-induced dipole interactions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ziasmin Shahanoor, Razia Sultana, Madelyn R Baker, Russell D Romeo
Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors...
October 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Kelsey J Roberts, Aaron M Kershner, Philip A Beachy
Stromal restraint of cancer growth and progression-emerging as a widespread phenomenon in epithelial cancers such as bladder, pancreas, colon, and prostate-appears rooted in stromal cell niche activity. During normal tissue repair, stromal niche signals, often Hedgehog-induced, promote epithelial stem cell differentiation as well as self-renewal, thus specifying a regenerating epithelial pattern. In the case of cancerous tissue, stromal cell-derived differentiation signals in particular may provide a brake on malignant growth...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Cell
Bradley M Kruckeberg, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Mark E Cinque, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Jonathan A Godin, Taylor J Ridley, Alex W Brady, Elizabeth A Arendt, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the medial patellar stabilizers has been reported; however, a quantitative analysis of the anatomic and radiographic attachments of all 4 ligaments relative to anatomic and osseous landmarks, as well as to one another, has yet to be performed. PURPOSE: To perform a qualitative and quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL), medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL) attachment sites, with attention to their relationship to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Florian T Heer, David J Posson, Wojciech Wojtas-Niziurski, Crina M Nimigean, Simon Bernèche
Potassium channels are opened by ligands and/or membrane potential. In voltage-gated K(+) channels and the prokaryotic KcsA channel, conduction is believed to result from opening of an intracellular constriction that prevents ion entry into the pore. On the other hand, numerous ligand-gated K(+) channels lack such gate, suggesting that they may be activated by a change within the selectivity filter, a narrow region at the extracellular side of the pore. Using molecular dynamics simulations and electrophysiology measurements, we show that ligand-induced conformational changes in the KcsA channel removes steric restraints at the selectivity filter, thus resulting in structural fluctuations, reduced K(+) affinity, and increased ion permeation...
October 10, 2017: ELife
Vera Klenerova, Richard Kvetnansky, Sixtus Hynie
The activation of the HPA axis is the endocrine measure of stress responsiveness that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH exerts its effects via CRHR1 and CRH-R2 receptors coupled to the cAMP signaling system and this process involves transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB).This study investigated the role of CRH and the possible involvement of CREB in gene regulation of CRH receptor, under basal conditions and after stress application in the pituitary. We used wild type (wt +/+) controls and CRH knock-out (CRH-KO -/-) male mice...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
A Poizat, F Bonnet-Beaugrand, A Rault, C Fourichon, N Bareille
Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Parimal Kar, Michael Feig
Hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) simulations of proteins offer a computationally efficient compromise where atomistic details are only applied to biologically relevant regions while benefitting from the speedup of treating the remaining parts of a given system at the CG level. The recently developed CG model, PRIMO, allows a direct coupling with an atomistic force field with no additional modifications or coupling terms and the ability to carry out dynamic simulations without any restraints on secondary or tertiary structures...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Sophie J Wignall, Nicole A Thomas, Michael E R Nicholls
Although there is a growing consensus that women with anorexia nervosa have a distorted body schema, the origins of this disturbance remain uncertain. The present investigation examined the effects of body size, eating pathology, and sex upon the body schema of an at-risk, undergraduate population. In Study 1, 98 participants mentally simulated their passage through apertures. When aperture width was manipulated, narrow and broad women over- and under-estimated their spatial requirements for passage, respectively...
October 6, 2017: Body Image
Evangel Kummari, Shirley Guo-Ross, Jeffrey B Eells
The transcription factor Nurr1 is essential for dopamine neuron differentiation and is important in maintaining dopamine synthesis and neurotransmission in the adult. Reduced Nurr1 function, due to the Nurr1-null heterozygous genotype (+/-), impacts dopamine neuron function in a region specific manner resulting in a decrease in dopamine synthesis in the dorsal and ventral striatum and a decrease in tissue dopamine levels in the ventral striatum. Additionally, maintenance of tissue dopamine levels in the dorsal striatum and survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with aging (>15 months) or after various toxicant treatments are impaired...
June 2017: Neurochem Neuropharmacol
Ioannis Evangelidis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal traffic accidents affect thousands of people in the US alone every year. Alcohol consumption has been identified as a strong predictor of traffic fatalities. This result is hardly surprising as drivers who decide to consume alcohol and then drive are more likely to exhibit poor driving performance. In this paper, I argue that alcohol consumption can lead to traffic fatalities by increasing restraint omission. METHODS: I analyzed individual-level data about victims (n=488,829) of fatal traffic accidents that occurred in the US between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2015 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System of the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration...
September 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Amin Sabzevari, SeyedMehdi Ghamsari, Hussein Shad
This study was conducted to establish normal reference range for the Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal donkeys for use in clinical practice. Sixteen adult Ethiopian domestic donkeys were used in this study. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. STT values were evaluated in both eyes of all donkeys using a commercial STT strip. IOP was measured in both eyes with a Tono-Pen Vet (Reichert. USA) without using regional nerve blocks...
October 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
Katherine N Balantekin, Jacqueline F Hayes, Daniel H Sheinbein, Rachel P Kolko, Richard I Stein, Brian E Saelens, Kelly Theim Hurst, R Robinson Welch, Michael G Perri, Kenneth B Schechtman, Leonard H Epstein, Denise E Wilfley
OBJECTIVE: Children with overweight or obesity have elevated eating disorder (ED) pathology, which may increase their risk for clinical EDs. The current study identified patterns of ED pathology in children with overweight or obesity entering family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT) and examined whether children with distinct patterns differed in their ED pathology and BMI z score (zBMI) change across FBT. METHODS: Before participating in a 16-session FBT, children (N = 241) completed surveys or interviews assessing ED pathology (emotional eating, shape/weight/eating concerns, restraint, and loss of control [LOC])...
October 6, 2017: Obesity
N M Stenzel, K Kenn, G Steinkamp
The quality of life can be severely impaired in patients with COPD. In addition to physical restraints, they often suffer from psychological comorbidities (e. g. anxiety, depression). Psychological comorbidities are often associated with dysfunctional beliefs about the illness and its treatment. Such dysfunctional beliefs, in turn, are likely to negatively affect patients' quality of life as well as their communication with physicians and their illness behavior in general. It is therefore important for physicians to adapt their communication to account for patients' dysfunctional beliefs...
October 5, 2017: Pneumologie
Caroline Clifford
INTRODUCTION: Caring for people with dementia and responsive behaviours can challenge nurses and little is known of their experiences. AIM: To explore nurses views of supporting people with dementia and responsive behaviours in long-stay facilities. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study utilising in-depth audio recorded interviews of 9 nurses, recruited from private and public care facilities. Qualitative content analyses conducted involving iterative comparisons of transcripts, summaries and memos; where coding, key quotes and tables were developed to determine themes...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Joseph T Wade, David C Grainger
Most RNA polymerases can initiate transcription from diverse DNA template sequences with relatively few outright sequence restraints. Recent reports have demonstrated that failure to subdue the promiscuity of RNA polymerase in vivo can severely impede cell function. This phenomenon appears common to all cell types with undesirable effects ranging from growth inhibition in prokaryotes to cancer in higher organisms. Here we discuss similarities and differences in strategies employed by cells to minimise spurious transcription across life's domains...
October 5, 2017: Transcription
Carole H Kim, Saba Syed
Although altered consciousness and other neurologic manifestations are frequently seen in hypertensive encephalopathy, behavioral and psychotic symptoms are rarely seen. We describe a patient with no previous psychiatric history who was admitted for hypertensive crisis. A few days after admission, his blood pressure remained uncontrolled and he started to exhibit episodes of confusion, agitation, and psychosis. During one particular episode, he overcame multiple staff members and physical restraints to bite off two of his fingers without any signs of pain...
June 11, 2017: Curēus
Lim Heo, Michael Feig
Protein structure refinement remains a challenging yet important problem as it has the potential to bring already accurate template-based models to near-native resolution. Refinement based on molecular dynamics simulations has been a highly promising approach and the performance of MD-based refinement in the Feig group during CASP12 is described here. During CASP12, sampling was extended well into the microsecond scale, an improved force field was applied, and new protocol variations were tested. Progress over previous rounds of CASP was found to be limited which is analyzed in terms of the quality of the initial models and dependency on the amount of sampling and refinement protocol variations...
October 4, 2017: Proteins
Bobo Dang, Haifan Wu, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, Marco Mravic, Yibing Wu, Thomas Lemmin, Alexander Ford, Daniel-Adriano Silva, David Baker, William F DeGrado
The folding of natural proteins typically relies on hydrophobic packing, metal binding, or disulfide bond formation in the protein core. Alternatively, a 3D structure can be defined by incorporating a multivalent cross-linking agent, and this approach has been successfully developed for the selection of bicyclic peptides from large random-sequence libraries. By contrast, there is no general method for the de novo computational design of multicross-linked proteins with predictable and well-defined folds, including ones not found in nature...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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